STAC3 incorporation into skeletal muscle triads occurs independent of the dihydropyridine receptor.
ABSTRACT: Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscles operates through a physical interaction between the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), acting as a voltage sensor, and the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), acting as a calcium release channel. Recently, the adaptor protein SH3 and cysteine-rich containing protein 3 (STAC3) has been identified as a myopathy disease gene and as an additional essential EC coupling component. STAC3 interacts with DHPR sequences including the critical EC coupling domain and has been proposed to function in linking the DHPR and RyR1. However, we and others demonstrated that incorporation of recombinant STAC3 into skeletal muscle triads critically depends only on the DHPR but not the RyR1. On the contrary, here, we provide evidence that endogenous STAC3 incorporates into triads in the absence of the DHPR in myotubes and muscle fibers of dysgenic mice. This finding demonstrates that STAC3 interacts with additional triad proteins and is consistent with its proposed role in directly or indirectly linking the DHPR with the RyR1.
Project description:Contraction of skeletal muscle is initiated by excitation-contraction (EC) coupling during which membrane voltage is transduced to intracellular Ca2+ release. EC coupling requires L-type voltage gated Ca2+ channels (the dihydropyridine receptor or DHPR) located at triads, which are junctions between the transverse (T) tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes, that sense membrane depolarization in the T tubule membrane. Reduced EC coupling is associated with ageing, and disruptions of EC coupling result in congenital myopathies for which there are few therapies. The precise localization of DHPRs to triads is critical for EC coupling, yet trafficking of the DHPR to triads is not well understood. Using dynamic imaging of zebrafish muscle fibers, we find that DHPR is transported along the longitudinal SR in a microtubule-independent mechanism. Furthermore, transport of DHPR in the SR membrane is differentially affected in null mutants of Stac3 or DHPR?, two essential components of EC coupling. These findings reveal previously unappreciated features of DHPR motility within the SR prior to assembly at triads.
Project description:The adaptor protein STAC3 is essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and a mutation in the STAC3 gene has been linked to a severe muscle disease, Native American myopathy (NAM). However the function of STAC3, its interaction partner, and the mode of interaction within the EC-coupling complex remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that STAC3 forms a stable interaction with the voltage-sensor of EC-coupling, CaV1.1, and that this interaction depends on a hitherto unidentified protein-protein binding pocket in the C1 domain of STAC3. While the NAM mutation does not affect the stability of the STAC3-CaV1.1 interaction, mutation of two crucial residues in the C1 binding pocket increases the turnover of STAC3 in skeletal muscle triads. Thus, the C1 domain of STAC3 is responsible for its stable incorporation into the CaV1.1 complex, whereas the SH3 domain containing the NAM mutation site may be involved in low-affinity functional interactions in EC-coupling.
Project description:In skeletal muscle, residues 720-764/5 within the CaV1.1 II-III loop form a critical domain that plays an essential role in transmitting the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling Ca2+ release signal to the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, the identities of proteins that interact with the loop and its critical domain and the mechanism by which the II-III loop regulates RyR1 gating remain unknown. Recent work has shown that EC coupling in skeletal muscle of fish and mice depends on the presence of Stac3, an adaptor protein that is highly expressed only in skeletal muscle. Here, by using colocalization as an indicator of molecular interactions, we show that Stac3, as well as Stac1 and Stac2 (predominantly neuronal Stac isoforms), interact with the II-III loop of CaV1.1. Further, we find that these Stac proteins promote the functional expression of CaV1.1 in tsA201 cells and support EC coupling in Stac3-null myotubes and that Stac3 is the most effective. Coexpression in tsA201 cells reveals that Stac3 interacts only with II-III loop constructs containing the majority of the CaV1.1 critical domain residues. By coexpressing Stac3 in dysgenic (CaV1.1-null) myotubes together with CaV1 constructs whose chimeric II-III loops had previously been tested for functionality, we reveal that the ability of Stac3 to interact with them parallels the ability of these constructs to mediate skeletal type EC coupling. Based on coexpression in tsA201 cells, the interaction of Stac3 with the II-III loop critical domain does not require the presence of the PKC C1 domain in Stac3, but it does require the first of the two SH3 domains. Collectively, our results indicate that activation of RyR1 Ca2+ release by CaV1.1 depends on Stac3 being bound to critical domain residues in the II-III loop.
Project description:In mature skeletal muscle, excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is thought to be mediated by direct physical interactions between the transverse tubular, voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Although previous attempts at demonstrating interactions between purified RyR and alpha1-DHPR have failed, the cross-linking analysis shown here indicates low-level complex formation between the SR RyR and the junctional alpha1-DHPR. After cross-linking of membranes highly enriched in triads with dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate, distinct complexes of more than 3000 kDa were detected. This agrees with numerous physiological and electron-microscopic findings, as well as co-immunoprecipitation experiments with triad receptors and receptor domain-binding studies. However, a distinct overlap of immunoreactivity between receptors was not observed in crude microsomal preparations, indicating that the triad complex is probably of low abundance. Disulphide-bonded, high-molecular-mass clusters of triadin, the junctional protein proposed to mediate interactions in triads, were confirmed to be linked to the RyR. Calsequestrin and the SR Ca2+-ATPase were not found in cross-linked complexes of the RyR and alpha1-DHPR. Thus, whereas recent studies indicate that the two receptors exhibit temporal differences in their developmental inductions and that receptor interactions are not essential for the formation and maintenance of triads, this study supports the signal transduction hypothesis of direct physical interactions between triad receptors in adult skeletal muscle.
Project description:Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle depends upon trafficking of CaV1.1, the principal subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) (L-type Ca(2+) channel), to plasma membrane regions at which the DHPRs interact with type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A distinctive feature of this trafficking is that CaV1.1 expresses poorly or not at all in mammalian cells that are not of muscle origin (e.g., tsA201 cells), in which all of the other nine CaV isoforms have been successfully expressed. Here, we tested whether plasma membrane trafficking of CaV1.1 in tsA201 cells is promoted by the adapter protein Stac3, because recent work has shown that genetic deletion of Stac3 in skeletal muscle causes the loss of EC coupling. Using fluorescently tagged constructs, we found that Stac3 and CaV1.1 traffic together to the tsA201 plasma membrane, whereas CaV1.1 is retained intracellularly when Stac3 is absent. Moreover, L-type Ca(2+) channel function in tsA201 cells coexpressing Stac3 and CaV1.1 is quantitatively similar to that in myotubes, despite the absence of RyR1. Although Stac3 is not required for surface expression of CaV1.2, the principle subunit of the cardiac/brain L-type Ca(2+) channel, Stac3 does bind to CaV1.2 and, as a result, greatly slows the rate of current inactivation, with Stac2 acting similarly. Overall, these results indicate that Stac3 is an essential chaperone of CaV1.1 in skeletal muscle and that in the brain, Stac2 and Stac3 may significantly modulate CaV1.2 function.
Project description:In skeletal muscle, coupling between the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) underlies excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. The III-IV loop of the DHPR alpha(1S) subunit binds to a segment of RyR1 in vitro, and mutations in the III-IV loop alter the voltage dependence of EC coupling, raising the possibility that this loop is directly involved in signal transmission from the DHPR to RyR1. To clarify the role of the alpha(1S) III-IV loop in EC coupling, we examined the functional properties of a chimera (GFP-alpha(1S)[III-IVa]) in which the III-IV loop of the divergent alpha(1A) isoform replaced that of alpha(1S). Dysgenic myotubes expressing GFP-alpha(1S)[III-IVa] yielded myoplasmic Ca(2+) transients that activated at approximately 10 mV more hyperpolarized potentials and that were approximately 65% smaller than those of GFP-alpha(1S). A similar reduction was observed in voltage-dependent charge movements for GFP-alpha(1S)[III-IVa], indicating that the chimeric channels trafficked less well to the membrane but that those that were in the membrane functioned as efficiently in EC coupling as GFP-alpha(1S). Relative to GFP-alpha(1S), L-type currents mediated by GFP-alpha(1S)[III-IVa] were approximately 40% smaller and activated at approximately 5 mV more hyperpolarized potentials. The altered gating of GFP-alpha(1S)[III-IVa] was accentuated by exposure to +/-Bay K 8644, which caused a much larger hyperpolarizing shift in activation compared with its effect on GFP-alpha(1S). Taken together, our observations indicate that the alpha(1S) III-IV loop is not directly involved in EC coupling but does influence DHPR gating transitions important both for EC coupling and activation of L-type conductance.
Project description:Molecular determinants essential for skeletal-type excitation-contraction (EC) coupling have been described in the cytosolic loops of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) alpha1S pore subunit and in the carboxyl terminus of the skeletal-specific DHPR beta1a-subunit. It is unknown whether EC coupling domains present in the beta-subunit influence those present in the pore subunit or if they act independent of each other. To address this question, we investigated the EC coupling signal that is generated when the endogenous DHPR pore subunit alpha1S is paired with the heterologous heart/brain DHPR beta2a-subunit. Studies were conducted in primary cultured myotubes from beta1 knockout (KO), ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) KO, ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) KO, and double RyR1/RyR3 KO mice under voltage clamp with simultaneous monitoring of confocal fluo-4 fluorescence. The beta2a-mediated Ca2+ current recovered in beta1 KO myotubes lacking the endogenous DHPR beta1a-subunit verified formation of the alpha1S/beta1a pair. In myotube genotypes which express no or low-density L-type Ca2+ currents, namely beta1 KO and RyR1 KO, beta2a overexpression recovered a wild-type density of nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ currents with a slow activation kinetics typical of skeletal myotubes. Concurrent with Ca2+ current recovery, there was a drastic reduction of voltage-dependent, skeletal-type EC coupling and emergence of Ca2+ transients triggered by the Ca2+ current. A comparison of beta2a overexpression in RyR3 KO, RyR1 KO, and double RyR1/RyR3 KO myotubes concluded that both RyR1 and RyR3 isoforms participated in Ca2+-dependent Ca2+ release triggered by the beta2a-subunit. In beta1 KO and RyR1 KO myotubes, the Ca2+-dependent EC coupling promoted by beta2a overexpression had the following characteristics: 1), L-type Ca2+ currents had a wild-type density; 2), Ca2+ transients activated much slower than controls overexpressing beta1a, and the rate of fluorescence increase was consistent with the activation kinetics of the Ca2+ current; 3), the voltage dependence of the Ca2+ transient was bell-shaped and the maximum was centered at approximately +30 mV, consistent with the voltage dependence of the Ca2+ current; and 4), Ca2+ currents and Ca2+ transients were fully blocked by nifedipine. The loss in voltage-dependent EC coupling promoted by beta2a was inferred by the drastic reduction in maximal Ca2+ fluorescence at large positive potentials (DeltaF/Fmax) in double dysgenic/beta1 KO myotubes overexpressing the pore mutant alpha1S (E1014K) and beta2a. The data indicate that beta2a, upon interaction with the skeletal pore subunit alpha1S, overrides critical EC coupling determinants present in alpha1S. We propose that the alpha1S/beta pair, and not the alpha1S-subunit alone, controls the EC coupling signal in skeletal muscle.
Project description:The skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and ryanodine receptor (RyR1) are known to engage a form of conformation coupling essential for muscle contraction in response to depolarization, referred to as excitation-contraction coupling. Here we use WT and Ca(V)1.1 null (dysgenic) myotubes to provide evidence for an unexplored RyR1-DHPR interaction that regulates the transition of the RyR1 between gating and leak states. Using double-barreled Ca(2+)-selective microelectrodes, we demonstrate that the lack of Ca(V)1.1 expression was associated with an increased myoplasmic resting [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](rest)), increased resting sarcolemmal Ca(2+) entry, and decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) loading. Pharmacological control of the RyR1 leak state, using bastadin 5, reverted the three parameters to WT levels. The fact that Ca(2+) sparks are not more frequent in dysgenic than in WT myotubes adds support to the hypothesis that the leak state is a conformation distinct from gating RyR1s. We conclude from these data that this orthograde DHPR-to-RyR1 signal inhibits the transition of gated RyR1s into the leak state. Further, it suggests that the DHPR-uncoupled RyR1 population in WT muscle has a higher propensity to be in the leak conformation. RyR1 leak functions are to keep [Ca(2+)](rest) and the SR Ca(2+) content in the physiological range and thus maintain normal intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.
Project description:During membrane depolarization associated with skeletal excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, dihydropyridine receptor [DHPR, a L-type Ca(2+) channel in the transverse (t)-tubule membrane] undergoes conformational changes that are transmitted to ryanodine receptor 1 [RyR1, an internal Ca(2+)-release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane] causing Ca(2+) release from the SR. Canonical-type transient receptor potential cation channel 3 (TRPC3), an extracellular Ca(2+)-entry channel in the t-tubule and plasma membrane, is required for full-gain of skeletal EC coupling. To examine additional role(s) for TRPC3 in skeletal muscle other than mediation of EC coupling, in the present study, we created a stable myoblast line with reduced TRPC3 expression and without alpha1((S))DHPR (MDG/TRPC3 KD myoblast) by knock-down of TRPC3 in alpha1((S))DHPR-null muscular dysgenic (MDG) myoblasts using retrovirus-delivered small interference RNAs in order to eliminate any DHPR-associated EC coupling-related events. Unlike wild-type or alpha1((S))DHPR-null MDG myoblasts, MDG/TRPC3 KD myoblasts exhibited dramatic changes in cellular morphology (e.g., unusual expansion of both cell volume and the plasma membrane, and multi-nuclei) and failed to differentiate into myotubes possibly due to increased Ca(2+) content in the SR. These results suggest that TRPC3 plays an important role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes.
Project description:The skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in the t-tubular membrane serves as the Ca(2+) channel and voltage sensor for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, triggering Ca(2+) release via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The two proteins appear to be physically linked, and both the ?(1S) and ?(1a) subunits of the DHPR are essential for EC coupling. Within ?(1S), cytoplasmic domains of importance include the I-II loop (to which ?(1a) binds), the II-III and III-IV loops, and the C terminus. However, the spatial relationship of these domains to one another has not been established. Here, we have taken the approach of measuring FRET between fluorescent proteins inserted into pairs of ?(1S) cytoplasmic domains. Expression of these constructs in dyspedic (RyR1 null) and dysgenic (?(1S) null) myotubes was used to test for function and targeting to plasma membrane/SR junctions and to test whether the presence of RyR1 caused altered FRET. We found that in the absence of RyR1, measureable FRET occurred between the N terminus and C terminus (residue 1636), and between the II-III loop (residue 626) and both the N and C termini; the I-II loop (residue 406) showed weak FRET with the II-III loop but not with the N terminus. Association with RyR1 caused II-III loop FRET to decrease with the C terminus and increase with the N terminus and caused I-II loop FRET to increase with both the II-III loop and N terminus. Overall, RyR1 appears to cause a substantial reorientation of the cytoplasmic ?(1S) domains consistent with their becoming more closely packed.