Stereoselective organocatalyzed glycosylations - thiouracil, thioureas and monothiophthalimide act as Bronsted acid catalysts at low loadings.
ABSTRACT: Thiouracil catalyzes stereoselective glycosylations with galactals in loadings as low as 0.1 mol%. It is proposed that in these glycosylations thiouracil, monothiophthalimide, and the previously reported catalyst, Schreiner's thiourea, do not operate via a double H-bonding mechanism but rather by Brønsted acid/base catalysis. In addition to the synthesis of 2-deoxyglycosides and glycoconjugates, we report the first organocatalytic synthesis of 1,1'-linked trehalose-type sugars.
Project description:The thio-additions of glycals were efficiently promoted by a stoichiometric amount of trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr) to produce S-2-deoxyglycosides under solvent-free conditions in good to excellent yields. In addition, with triphenylphosphine oxide as an additive, the TMSBr-mediated direct glycosylations of glycals with a large range of alcohols were highly ?-selective.
Project description:To identify cell type-specific RNA without cell sorting, mice expressing UPRT in a specific cell type were exposed to 4-thiouracil to label RNA only in the UPRT-expressing cells. Total RNA was extracted from tissues and treated with iodoacetamide followed by RNA-seq library preparation. The reads generated from 4-thiouracil-containing transcripts should contain T to C mismatches as a result of 4-thiouracil incorporations and thus can be identified as the transcripts generated in the UPRT-expressing cells.
Project description:In the European Union, the use of thyreostats for animal fattening purposes has been banned and monitoring plans have been established to detect potential abuse. However, this is not always straightforward as thyreostats such as thiouracil may also have a semi-endogenous origin. Therefore, this study aimed at defining urinary metabolites, which may aid in defining the origin of detected thiouracil. Hereto, a parallel-like randomized in vivo study was conducted in which calves (n = 8) and cows (n = 8) were subjected to either a control treatment, rapeseed-enriched diet to induce semi-endogenous formation, or thiouracil treatment. Urine samples (n = 330) were assessed through metabolic fingerprinting, employing liquid-chromatography and Q-ExactiveTM Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Urinary fingerprints comprised up to 40,000 features whereby multivariate discriminant analysis was able to point out significant metabolome differences between treatments (Q2(Y) ? 0.873). Using the validated models, a total of twelve metabolites (including thiouracil) were assigned marker potential. Combining these markers into age-dependent biomarker panels rendered a tool by which sample classification could be improved in comparison with thiouracil-based thresholds, and this during on-going thiouracil treatment (specificities ? 95.2% and sensitivities ? 85.7%), post-treatment (sensitivities ? 80% for ? 24 h after last administration), and simulated low-dose thiouracil treatment (exogenous thiouracil below 30 ng ?L-1). Moreover, the metabolic relevance of revealed markers was supported by the suggested identities, for which a structural link with thiouracil could be determined in most cases. The proposed biomarker panels may contribute to a more justified decision-making in monitoring thiouracil abuse.
Project description:The molecular structure of 2-thiouracil, 4-thiouracil and 2,4-dithiouracil was analyzed under the effect of the first and second hydration shell by using the B3LYP density functional (DFT) method, and the results were compared to those obtained for the uracil molecule. A slight difference in the water distribution appears in these molecules. On the hydration of these molecules several trends in bond lengths and atomic charges were established. The ring in uracil molecule appears easier to be deformed and adapted to different environments as compared to that when it is thio-substituted. Molecular docking calculations of 2-thiouracil against three different pathogens: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were carried out. Docking calculations of 2,4-dithiouracil ligand with various targeted proteins were also performed. Different DNA: RNA hybrid microhelixes with uridine, 2-thiouridine, 4-thiouridine and 2,4-dithiouridine nucleosides were optimized in a simple model with three nucleotide base pairs. Two main types of microhelixes were analyzed in detail depending on the intramolecular H-bond of the 2'-OH group. The weaker Watson-Crick (WC) base pair formed with thio-substituted uracil than with unsubstituted ones slightly deforms the helical and backbone parameters, especially with 2,4-dithiouridine. However, the thio-substitution significantly increases the dipole moment of the A-type microhelixes, as well as the rise and propeller twist parameters.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling is a powerful approach for studying mouse development, physiology and disease models. Here we describe a protocol for mouse thiouracil tagging (TU tagging), a transcriptome analysis technology that includes in vivo covalent labeling, purification and analysis of cell type-specific RNA. TU tagging enables the isolation of RNA from a given cell population of a complex tissue, avoiding transcriptional changes induced by cell isolation trauma, as well as the identification of actively transcribed RNAs and not preexisting transcripts. Therefore, in contrast to other cell-specific transcriptional profiling methods based on the purification of tagged ribosomes or nuclei, TU tagging provides a direct examination of transcriptional regulation. We describe how to (i) deliver 4-thiouracil to transgenic mice to thio-label cell lineage-specific transcripts, (ii) purify TU-tagged RNA and prepare libraries for Illumina sequencing and (iii) follow a straightforward bioinformatics workflow to identify cell type-enriched or differentially expressed genes. Tissue containing TU-tagged RNA can be obtained in 1 d, RNA-seq libraries can be generated within 2 d and, after sequencing, an initial bioinformatics analysis can be completed in 1 additional day.
Project description:We present the first study to measure the dissociative photochemistry of 2-thiouracil (2-TU), an important nucleobase analogue with applications in molecular biology and pharmacology. Laser photodissociation spectroscopy is applied to the deprotonated and protonated forms of 2-TU, which are produced in the gas-phase using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Our results show that the deprotonated form of 2-thiouracil ([2-TU-H]-) decays predominantly by electron ejection and hence concomitant production of the [2-TU-H]· free-radical species, following photoexcitation across the UVA-UVC region. Thiocyanate (SCN-) and a m/z 93 fragment ion are also observed as photodecay products of [2-TU-H]- but at very low intensities. Photoexcitation of protonated 2-thiouracil ([2-TU·H]+) across the same UVA-UVC spectral region produces the m/z 96 cationic fragment as the major photofragment. This ion corresponds to ejection of an HS· radical from the precursor ion and is determined to be a product of direct excited state decay. Fragment ions associated with decay of the hot ground state (i.e., the ions we would expect to observe if 2-thiouracil was behaving like UV-dissipating uracil) are observed as much more minor products. This behaviour is consistent with enhanced intersystem crossing to triplet excited states compared to internal conversion back to the ground state. These are the first experiments to probe the effect of protonation/deprotonation on thionucleobase photochemistry, and hence explore the effect of pH at a molecular level on their photophysical properties.
Project description:Accurate excited-state quantum chemical calculations on 2-thiouracil, employing large active spaces and up to quadruple-? quality basis sets in multistate complete active space perturbation theory calculations, are reported. The results suggest that the main relaxation path for 2-thiouracil after photoexcitation should be S2 ? S1 ? T2 ? T1, and that this relaxation occurs on a subpicosecond time scale. There are two deactivation pathways from the initially excited bright S2 state to S1, one of which is nearly barrierless and should promote ultrafast internal conversion. After relaxation to the S1 minimum, small singlet-triplet energy gaps and spin-orbit couplings of about 130 cm(-1) are expected to facilitate intersystem crossing to T2, from where very fast internal conversion to T1 occurs. An important finding is that 2-thiouracil shows strong pyramidalization at the carbon atom of the thiocarbonyl group in several excited states.
Project description:TMSOTf-promoted glycosylations of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucosyl trichloroacetimidates provide excellent alpha-anomeric selectivities when performed at a relatively high reaction temperature in the presence of PhSEt or thiophene. NMR and computation studies have shown that these glycosylations proceed through an equatorial anomeric sulfonium ion, which upon displacement by a sugar alcohol provides an axial glycoside. Computational studies have indicated that steric factors determine the selective formation of the beta-anomeric sulfonium ion.
Project description:The glycosylations of hydroxylysine during collagen biosynthesis in isolated chick-embryo tendon cells were studied by using pulse-chase labelling experiments with [14C]-lysine. The hydroxylation of lysine and the glycosylations of hydroxylysine continued after a 5 min pulse label for up to about 10 min during the chase period. These data differ from those obtained previously in isolated chick-embryo cartilage cells, in which, after a similar 5 min pulse label, these reactions continued during the chase period for up to about 20 min. The collagen synthesized by the isolated chick-embryo tendon cells differed markedly from the type I collagen of adult tissues in its degree of hydroxylation of lysine residues and glycosylations of hydroxylysine residues. When the isolated tendon cells were incubated in the presence of L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, the degree of glycosylations of hydroxylysine during the first 10 min of the chase period was identical with that in cells incubated without thcarboxylic acid for at least 60 min, whereas no additional glycosylations took place in the control cells after the 10 min time-point. As a consequence, the collagen synthesized in the presence of this compound contained more carbohydrate than did the collagen synthesized by the control cells. Additional experiments indicated that azetidine-2-carboxylic acid did not increase the collagen glycosyltransferase activities in the tendon cells or the rate of glycosylation reactions when added directly to the enzyme incubation mixture. Control experiments with colchicine indicated that the delay in the rate of collagen secretion, which was observed in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, did not in itself affect the degree of glycosylations of collagen. The results thus suggest that the increased glycosylations were due to inhibition of the collagen triple-helix formation, which is known to occur in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
Project description:Hyperthyroidism is the result of uncontrolled overproduction of the thyroid hormones. One of the mostly used antithyroid agents is 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU). The previously solved X-ray crystal structure of the PTU bound to mammalian lactoperoxidase (LPO) reveals that the LPO-PTU binding site is basically a hydrophobic channel. There are two hydrophobic side chains directed towards the oxygen atom in the C-4 position of the thiouracil ring. In the current study, the structural activity relationship (SAR) was performed on the thiouracil nucleus of PTU to target these hydrophobic side chains and gain more favorable interactions and, in return, more antithyroid activity. Most of the designed compounds show superiority over PTU in reducing the mean serum T4 levels of hyperthyroid rats by 3% to 60%. In addition, the effect of these compounds on the levels of serum T3 was found to be comparable to the effect of PTU treatment. The designed compounds in this study showed a promising activity profile in reducing levels of thyroid hormones and follow up experiments will be needed to confirm the use of the designed compounds as new potential antithyroid agents.