Genome-wide systematic characterization of bZIP transcription factors and their expression profiles during seed development and in response to salt stress in peanut.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Plant basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. However, systematic investigation and analyses of the bZIP gene family in peanut are lacking in spite of the availability of the peanut genome sequence. RESULTS:In this study, we identified 50 and 45 bZIP genes from Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Arachis bZIP genes were classified into nine groups, and these clusters were supported by several group-specific features, including exon/intron structure, intron phases, MEME motifs, and predicted binding site structure. We also identified possible variations in DNA-binding-site specificity and dimerization properties among different Arachis bZIPs by inspecting the amino acid residues at some key sites. Our analysis of the evolutionary history analysis indicated that segmental duplication, rather than tandem duplication, contributed greatly to the expansion of this gene family, and that most Arachis bZIPs underwent strong purifying selection. Through RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses, the co-expressed, differentially expressed and several well-studied homologous bZIPs were identified during seed development stages in peanut. We also used qRT-PCR to explore changes in bZIP gene expression in response to salt-treatment, and many candidate bZIPs in groups A, B, and S were proven to be associated with the salt-stress response. CONCLUSIONS:This study have conducted a genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of bZIP genes in Arachis genomes. Our results provide insights into the evolutionary history of the bZIP gene family in peanut and the funcntion of Arachis bZIP genes during seed development and in response to salt stress.
Project description:Starch makes up 70% of the wheat grain, and is an important source of calories for humans, however, the overconsumption of wheat starch may contribute to nutrition-associated health problems. The challenge is to develop resistant starch including high amylose wheat varieties with health benefits. Adapting advance genomic approaches in EMS-induced mutant lines differing in amylose content, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) regulatory factors that may play role in controlling amylose biosynthesis were identified in wheat. bZIP transcription factors are key regulators of starch biosynthesis genes in rice and maize, but their role in regulating these genes in wheat is poorly understood. A genome-wide survey identified 370 wheat bZIPs, clustered in 11 groups, showing variations in amino acids composition and predicted physicochemical properties. Three approaches namely, whole transcriptome sequencing, qRT-PCR, and correlation analysis in contrasting high and low amylose mutants and their parent line identified 24 candidate bZIP (positive and negative regulators), suggesting bZIPs role in high amylose biosynthesis. bZIPs positive role in high amylose biosynthesis is not known. In silico interactome studies of candidate wheat bZIP homologs in Arabidopsis and rice identified their putative functional role. The identified bZIPs are involved in stress-related pathways, flower and seed development, and starch biosynthesis. An in-depth analysis of molecular mechanism of novel candidate bZIPs may help in raising and improving high amylose wheat varieties.
Project description:Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salt, are major environmental stresses, affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Plant bZIP transcription factors (bZIPs) confer stress resistances in harsh environments and play important roles in each phase of plant growth processes. In this research, 15 soybean bZIP family members were identified from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of soybean, which were unevenly distributed across 12 soybean chromosomes. Promoter analysis showed that these 15 genes were rich in ABRE, MYB and MYC cis-acting elements which were reported to be involved in abiotic stress responses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that 15 GmbZIP genes could be induced by drought and salt stress. GmbZIP2 was significantly upregulated under stress conditions and thus was selected for further study. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the GmbZIP2 protein was located in the cell nucleus. qRT-PCR results show that GmbZIP2 can be induced by multiple stresses. The overexpression of GmbZIP2 in Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots could improve plant resistance to drought and salt stresses. The result of differential expression gene analysis shows that the overexpression of GmbZIP2 in soybean hairy roots could enhance the expression of the stress responsive genes GmMYB48, GmWD40, GmDHN15, GmGST1 and GmLEA. These results indicate that soybean bZIPs played pivotal roles in plant resistance to abiotic stresses.
Project description:Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume cultivated mostly in drought-prone areas where its productivity can be limited by water scarcity. The development of more drought-tolerant varieties is, therefore, a priority for peanut breeding programs worldwide. In contrast to cultivated peanut, wild relatives have a broader genetic diversity and constitute a rich source of resistance/tolerance alleles to biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study takes advantage of this diversity to identify drought-responsive genes by analyzing the expression profile of two wild species, Arachis duranensis and Arachis magna (AA and BB genomes, respectively), in response to progressive water deficit in soil. Data analysis from leaves and roots of A. duranensis (454 sequencing) and A. magna (suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)) stressed and control complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries revealed several differentially expressed genes in silico, and 44 of them were selected for further validation by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). This allowed the identification of drought-responsive candidate genes, such as Expansin, Nitrilase, NAC, and bZIP transcription factors, displaying significant levels of differential expression during stress imposition in both species. This is the first report on identification of differentially expressed genes under drought stress and recovery in wild Arachis species. The generated transcriptome data, besides being a valuable resource for gene discovery, will allow the characterization of new alleles and development of molecular markers associated with drought responses in peanut. These together constitute important tools for the peanut breeding program and also contribute to a better comprehension of gene modulation in response to water deficit and rehydration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In reported plants, the bZIP family is one of the largest transcription factor families. bZIP genes play roles in the light signal, seed maturation, flower development, cell elongation, seed accumulation protein, abiotic and biological stress and other biological processes. While, no detailed identification and genome-wide analysis of bZIP family genes in Fagopyum talaricum (tartary buckwheat) has previously been published. The recently reported genome sequence of tartary buckwheat provides theoretical basis for us to study and discuss the characteristics and expression of bZIP genes in tartary buckwheat based on the whole genome. RESULTS:In this study, 96 FtbZIP genes named from FtbZIP1 to FtbZIP96 were identified and divided into 11 subfamilies according to their genetic relationship with 70 bZIPs of A. thaliana. FtbZIP genes are not evenly distributed on the chromosomes, and we found tandem and segmental duplication events of FtbZIP genes on 8 tartary buckwheat chromosomes. According to the results of gene and motif composition, FtbZIP located in the same group contained analogous intron/exon organizations and motif composition. By qRT-PCR, we quantified the expression of FtbZIP members in stem, root, leaf, fruit, and flower and during fruit development. Exogenous ABA treatment increased the weight of tartary buckwheat fruit and changed the expressions of FtbZIP genes in group A. CONCLUSIONS:Through our study, we identified 96 FtbZIP genes in tartary buckwheat and synthetically further analyzed the structure composition, evolution analysis and expression pattern of FtbZIP proteins. The expression pattern indicates that FtbZIP is important in the course of plant growth and development of tartary buckwheat. Through comprehensively analyzing fruit weight and FtbZIP genes expression after ABA treatment and endogenous ABA content of tartary buckwheat fruit, ABA may regulate downstream gene expression by regulating the expression of FtPinG0003523300.01 and FtPinG0003196200.01, thus indirectly affecting the fruit development of tartary buckwheat. This will help us to further study the function of FtbZIP genes in the tartary buckwheat growth and improve the fruit of tartary buckwheat.
Project description:Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45-56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity.
Project description:Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are typically >?200?nt in length, are involved in numerous biological processes. Studies on lncRNAs in the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) largely remain unknown. RESULTS:A genome-wide scan of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) transcriptome identified 1442 lncRNAs, which were encoded by loci distributed over every chromosome. Long intergenic noncoding RNAs accounted for 85.58% of these lncRNAs. Additionally, 189 lncRNAs were differentially abundant in the root, leaf, or seed. Generally, lncRNAs showed lower expression levels, tighter tissue-specific expression, and less splicing than mRNAs. Approximately 44.17% of the lncRNAs with an exon/intron structure were alternatively spliced; this rate was slightly lower than the splicing rate of mRNA. Transcription at the start site event was the alternative splicing (AS) event with the highest frequency (28.05%) in peanut lncRNAs, whereas the occurrence rate (30.19%) of intron retention event was the highest in mRNAs. AS changed the target gene profiles of lncRNAs and increased the diversity and flexibility of lncRNAs, which may be important for lncRNAs to execute their functions. Additionally, a substantial number of the peanut AS isoforms generated from protein-encoding genes appeared to be noncoding because they were truncated transcripts; such isoforms can be legitimately regarded as a class of lncRNAs. The predicted target genes of the lncRNAs were involved in a wide range of biological processes. Furthermore, expression pattern of several selected lncRNAs and their target genes were examined under salt stress, results showed that all of them could respond to salt stress in different manners. CONCLUSIONS:This study provided a resource of candidate lncRNAs and expression patterns across tissues, and whether these lncRNAs are functional will be further investigated in our subsequent experiments.
Project description:Exposure of seeds to high salinity can cause reduced germination and poor seedling establishment. Improving the salt tolerance of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds during germination is an important breeding goal of the peanut industry. Bacterial communities in the spermosphere soils may be of special importance to seed germination under salt stress, whereas extant results in oilseed crop peanut are scarce. Here, bacterial communities colonizing peanut seeds with salt stress were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Peanut spermosphere was composed of four dominant genera: Bacillus, Massilia, Pseudarthrobacter, and Sphingomonas. Comparisons of bacterial community structure revealed that the beneficial bacteria (Bacillus), which can produce specific phosphatases to sequentially mineralize organic phosphorus into inorganic phosphorus, occurred in relatively higher abundance in salt-treated spermosphere soils. Further soil enzyme activity assays showed that phosphatase activity increased in salt-treated spermosphere soils, which may be associated with the shift of Bacillus. This study will form the foundation for future improvement of salt tolerance of peanuts at the seed germination stage via modification of the soil microbes.
Project description:Olive (Olea europaea.L) is an economically important oleaginous crop and its fruit cold-pressed oil is used for edible oil all over the world. The basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest transcription factors families among eukaryotic organisms; its members play vital roles in environmental signaling, stress response, plant growth, seed maturation, and fruit development. However, a comprehensive report on the bZIP gene family in olive is lacking. In this study, 103 OebZIP genes from the olive genome were identified and divided into 12 subfamilies according to their genetic relationship with 78 bZIPs of A. thaliana. Most OebZIP genes are clustered in the subgroup that has a similar gene structure and conserved motif distribution. According to the characteristics of the leucine zipper region, the dimerization characteristics of 103 OebZIP proteins were predicted. Gene duplication analyses revealed that 22 OebZIP genes were involved in the expansion of the bZIP family. To evaluate the expression patterns of OebZIP genes, RNA-seq data available in public databases were analyzed. The highly expressed OebZIP genes and several lipid synthesis genes (LPGs) in fruits of two varieties with different oil contents during the fast oil accumulation stage were examined via qRT-PCR. By comparing the dynamic changes of oil accumulation, OebZIP1, OebZIP7, OebZIP22, and OebZIP99 were shown to have a close relationship with fruit development and lipid synthesis. Additionally, some OebZIP had a significant positive correlation with various LPG genes. This study gives insights into the structural features, evolutionary patterns, and expression analysis, laying a foundation to further reveal the function of the 103 OebZIP genes in olive.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and constitute one of the largest and most diverse transcription factor families. The proteins are responsible for central developmental and physiological processes in plants, animals, and fungi, including the pathogenicity of fungal plant pathogens. However, there is limited understanding of bZIPs in oomycetes, which are fungus-like organisms in the kingdom Stramenopila. Oomycetes include many destructive plant pathogens, including the well-studied species Phytophthora sojae, which causes soybean stem and root rot. RESULTS: Candidate bZIPs encoded in the genomes of P. sojae and four other oomycetes, two diatoms, and two fungal species were predicted using bioinformatic methods. Comparative analysis revealed expanded numbers of bZIP candidates in oomycetes, especially the Phytophthora species, due to the expansion of several novel bZIP classes whose highly conserved asparagines in basic DNA-binding regions were substituted by other residues such as cysteine. The majority of these novel bZIP classes were mostly restricted to oomycetes. The large number of novel bZIPs appears to be the result of widespread gene duplications during oomycete evolution. The majority of P. sojae bZIP candidates, including both conventional and novel bZIP classes, were predicted to contain canonical protein secondary structures. Detection of gene transcripts using digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR suggested that most of the candidates were not pseudogenes. The major transcriptional shifts of bZIPs occurred during the zoosporangia/zoospore/cyst and host infection stages. Several infection-associated bZIP genes were identified that were positively regulated by H2O2 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of large classes of bZIP proteins in oomycetes with novel bZIP motif variants, that are conserved and developmentally regulated and thus presumably functional, extends our knowledge of this important family of eukaryotic transcription factors. It also lays the foundation for detailed studies of the roles of these proteins in development and infection in P. sojae and other oomycetes.