NK3R Mediates the EGF-Induced SL? Secretion and mRNA Expression in Grass Carp Pituitary.
ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent regulator of cell function in many cell types. In mammals, the EGF/EGFR system played an important role in both pituitary physiology and pathology. However, it is not clear about the pituitary action of EGF in lower vertebrates. In this study, using grass carp as a model, we found that EGF could stimulate NK3R mRNA and protein expression through pituitary ErbB1 and ErbB2 coupled to MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. In addition, EGF could also induce pituitary somatolactin ? (SL?) secretion and mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. The stimulatory actions of EGF on SL? mRNA expression were also mediated by PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways coupled to ErbB1 and ErbB2 activation. Our previous study has reported that neurokinin B (NKB) could also induce SL? secretion and mRNA expression in carp pituitary cells. In the present study, interestingly, we found that EGF could significantly enhance NKB-induced SL? mRNA expression. Further studies found that NK3R antagonist SB222200 could block EGF-induced SL? mRNA expression, indicating an NK3R requirement. Furthermore, cAMP/PKA inhibitors and PLC/PKC inhibitors could both abolish EGF- and EGF+NKB-induced SL? mRNA expression, which further supported that EGF-induced SL? mRNA expression is NK3R dependent.
Project description:In mammals, epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a vital role in both pituitary physiology and pathology. However, the functional role of EGF in the regulation of pituitary hormones has rarely reported in teleost. In our study, using primary cultured grass carp pituitary cells as an in vitro model, we examined the effects of EGF on pituitary hormone secretion and gene expression as well as the post-receptor signaling mechanisms involved. Firstly, we found that EGF significantly reduced luteinizing hormone (LH?) mRNA expression via ErbB1 coupled to ERK1/2 pathway, but had no effect on LH release in grass carp pituitary cells. Secondly, the results showed that EGF was effective in up-regulating mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH), somatolactin ? (SL?) and somatolactin ? (SL?) via ErbB1 and ErbB2 and subsequently coupled to MEK1/2/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, respectively. However, EGF was not effective in GH release in pituitary cells. Thirdly, we found that EGF strongly induced pituitary prolactin (PRL) release and mRNA expression, which was mediated by ErbB1 and subsequent stimulation of MEK1/2/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. Interestingly, subsequent study further found that neurokinin B (NKB) significantly suppressed EGF-induced PRL mRNA expression, which was mediated by neurokinin receptor (NK2R) and coupled to AC/cAMP/PKA signal pathway. These results suggested that EGF could differently regulate the pituitary hormones expression in grass carp pituitary cells.
Project description:In our previous study, NKB/NK3R system has been shown to act at the pituitary level to up-regulate SL? synthesis and secretion in grass carp. However, whether NK3R expression can serve as a regulatory target at the pituitary level and contribute to NKB interactions with other SL? regulators is still unclear. In current study, using grass carp pituitary cells as a model, we have a novel finding that co-treatment of SL?/SL? with carp TAC3 gene products, could induce a noticeable enhancement in SL? mRNA expression and these potentiating effects occurred with a parallel rise in NK3R transcript level after SL?/SL? treatment. Interestingly, the stimulatory effects of SL?/SL? on NK3R gene expression could be further potentiated by co-treatment with IGF-I/-II and simultaneous exposure of carp pituitary cells to SL?/SL? and IGF-I/-II in the presence of TAC3 gene products was found to markedly elevated SL? mRNA expression (20 fold increase) and this synergistic stimulation was mediated by cAMP/PKA-, PLC/PKC- and Ca2+ -dependent cascades functionally coupled with NK3R activation. These findings suggest that local release of SL? via functional interactions with IGF-I/-II and TAC3/NK3R system may constitute a potent stimulatory signal for SL? gene expression in the carp pituitary via up-regulation of NK3R expression.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a member of the EGF-like ligands family, which plays a vital role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and folliculogenesis through binding with EGF receptors, including ErbB1 (EGFR/HER1), ErbB2 (HER2), ErbB3 (HER3), and ErbB4 (HER4). In mammals, many functional roles of EGF have been reported in the ovaries and breasts. However, little is known about the functions of EGF in the pituitary, especially in teleost. In this study, using grass carp pituitary cells as the model, we try to examine the direct pituitary actions of EGF in teleost. Firstly, transcriptomic analysis showed that 599 different expressed genes (DEGs) between the control and EGF-treatment group were mainly involved in cell proliferation, cell migration, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Then, we further confirmed that EGF could significantly induce UTS1, EGR1, and MMP13 mRNA expression in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory actions of EGF on UTS1 and EGR1 mRNA expression were mediated by the MEK1/2/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways coupled with both ErbB1 and ErbB2 in grass carp pituitary cells. The receptor specificity and signal transductions for the corresponding responses on MMP13 mRNA expression were also similar, except that the ErbB2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were not involved. As we know, MMP13 could release EGF from HB-EGF. Interestingly, our data also showed that the MMPs inhibitor BB94 could suppress EGF-induced UTS1 and EGR1 mRNA expression. These results, taken together, suggest that the stimulatory actions of EGF on UTS1 and EGR1 mRNA expression could be enhanced by EGF-induced MMP13 expression in the pituitary.
Project description:Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment.
Project description:In mammals, the tachykinin 3 (TAC3)/tachykinin receptor 3 (TACR3) systems have been confirmed to play an important role in the regulation of puberty onset. Using grass carp pituitary cells as the model, our recent study found that the TAC3 gene products could significantly induce somatolactin ? (SL?) synthesis and secretion via TACR3 activation. In the present study, we seek to examine if pituitary TACR3 can serve as a regulatory target and contribute to TAC3 interactions with other SL? regulators. Firstly, grass carp TACR3 was cloned and tissue distribution showed that it could be highly detected in grass carp pituitary. Using HEK293 cells as the model, functional expression also revealed that grass carp TACR3 exhibited ligand binding selectivity and post-receptor signaling highly comparable to its mammalian counterpart. Using grass carp pituitary cells as the model, TACR3 mRNA expression could be stimulated by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II via the IGF-I receptor coupled to phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Interestingly, IGF-I/-II cotreatment could also significantly enhance TAC3-induced SL? mRNA expression and the potentiating effect was dependent on TACR3 expression and activation of adenylate cyclase (AC)/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA), phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)/protein kinase C (PKC), and Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) cascades. Besides, IGF-I-induced Akt phosphorylation but not MEK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and P38MAPK phosphorylation was notably enhanced by TACR3 activation. These results, as a whole, suggest that the potentiating effect of IGFs on TAC3 gene products-induced SL? mRNA expression was mediated by TACR3 upregulation and functional crosstalk of post-receptor signaling in the pituitary.
Project description:At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E(2)) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E(2)-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E(2). Low levels of E(2) significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E(2) levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E(2). Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse.
Project description:Neurokinin B (NKB) and its cognate receptor (NK3R) are emerging as important components of the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction. Unlike mammalian tac3, which encodes only one mature peptide (namely NKB), two mature peptides are predicted for each tac3 gene in fish and frogs. Therefore, it was designated as Neurokinin F (NKF). Hormone analogs with high and long-lasting biological activity are important tools for physiological and biological research; however, the availability of piscine-specific analogs is very limited. Therefore, we have developed specific NKB and NKF analogs based on the structure of the mammalian NKB analog-senktide. These analogs, specifically designed for longer half-lives by methylation of proteolysis sites, exhibited activity equal to those of the native NKB and NKF in short-term signal-transduction assays of tilapia NKB receptors. However, the analogs were found to be able to significantly increase the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and growth hormone (GH) in tilapia, as fast as 1 h after intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The impact of the analogs on LH and FSH secretion lasted longer compared to the effect of native peptides and salmon GnRH analog (sGnRHa). In addition, we harvested pituitaries 24 h post injection and measured LH, FSH and GH mRNA synthesis. Both analogs elevated mRNA levels of LH and GH, but only NKB analog increased FSH mRNA levels in the pituitary and all GnRH forms in the brain. NKB receptors were co-localized with all three types the GnRH neurons in tilapia brain in situ. We previously showed a direct effect of NKB at the pituitary level, and these new results suggest that the stronger impact of the NKB analog on GTH release is also due to an indirect effect through the activation of GnRH neurons. These results suggest that novel synthetic NKB analogs may serve as a tool for both research and agricultural purposes. Finally, the biological activity and regulatory role of NKB in tilapia brain and pituitary suggest that the NKB/NKBR system in fish is an important reproductive regulator in a similar way to the kisspeptin system in mammals.
Project description:Human genetics indicate that kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) signaling are necessary for generating pulsatile LH release and therefore for initiation of puberty and maintaining gonadal function. In the present study, male monkeys were employed to examine 1) whether activation of the NKB receptor (NK3R) is associated with GnRH release, and 2) hypothalamic localization of these peptides using immunofluorescence histochemistry. Agonadal juveniles, in which pituitary responsiveness to GnRH was heightened by GnRH priming, were employed to indirectly examine GnRH-releasing actions of NK3R and kisspeptin receptor agonists by tracking LH after their i.v. injection. Castrated adults were used for immunohistochemistry. Single i.v. injections of NKB or senktide (an NK3R agonist) elicited robust LH discharges that were abolished by GnRH receptor antagonism (acyline) confirming the ligands' hypothalamic action. Intermittent infusion of senktide (1-min pulse every hour for 4 h), in contrast to that of kisspeptin, failed to sustain pulsatile GnRH release. Repetitive senktide injections did not compromise the GnRH-releasing action of kisspeptin. NKB and kisspeptin were colocalized in perikarya of the arcuate nucleus and in axonal projections to the median eminence, confirming earlier findings in sheep. These results are consistent with the human genetics, and indicate that although brief activation of NK3R stimulates GnRH release, repetitive stimulation of this pathway, in contrast to that of kisspeptin receptor, fails to sustain pulsatile GnRH release. In addition, the data provide a platform for future elucidation of the interactions between NKB and kisspeptin that are required for generating pulsatile GnRH release in primates.
Project description:A significant proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are resistant to anti-ERBB1 [avian erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-b) oncogene homolog, receptor for EGF] monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). We evaluated both immune and nonimmune effects of cetuximab (anti-ERBB1 Mab), trastuzumab (anti-ERBB2 Mab), pertuzumab (anti-ERBB2 Mab), and lapatinib (dual ERBB1 and ERBB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in a large well-characterized panel of 64 CRC cell lines to find response predictive tumor characteristics. There was a significant correlation between the direct effects of cetuximab and lapatinib. Both agents were associated (P = 0.0004) with "triple' wild-type status in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA exon 20. Most cell lines were resistant to the direct effects of anti-ERBB2 Mabs, suggesting that the effects of lapatinib might mainly be through ERBB1. Microarray mRNA expression profiles of sensitive and resistant cell lines showed that although ERBB1 receptor or ligand levels did not associate with cetuximab sensitivity, high levels of ERBB2 (P = 0.036) and amphiregulin (P = 0.026) predicted sensitivity to lapatinib. However, higher ERBB1 expression predicted susceptibility to cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and occurred independently of KRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA mutations (P = 0.69). Lapatinib may be an effective alternative therapy to cetuximab in triple wild-type tumors. Microarray analysis provides suggestive biomarkers for resistance. ERBB1 levels, independent of mutation status, predict immune killing. Therefore, anti-ERBB1 antibodies may be considered in CRC tumors with higher ERBB1 expression and favorable Fc?R polymorphisms.
Project description:PURPOSE:The neurokinin B (NKB)/NK3 receptor (NK3R) and kisspeptin (KISS1)/kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), two systems essential for reproduction, are present in human granulosa cells (GCs) of healthy women and contribute to the control of fertility, at least partially, by acting on the gonads. However, little is known about the expression of these systems in GCs of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of NKB/NK3R and KISS1/KISS1R in mural granulosa (MGCs) and cumulus cells (CCs) of PCOS women. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was performed in 46 healthy women and 43 PCOS women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. MGCs and CCs were collected from pre-ovulatory follicles after transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval and the expression of the genes encoding NKB (TAC3), NK3R (TACR3), KISS1, and its receptor (KISS1R) was analyzed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS:TAC3, TACR3, and KISS1 mRNA levels were decreased in MGCs and CCs of PCOS women. TAC3 positively correlated with KISS1 in MGCs of healthy women and TACR3 was positively associated with KISS1R in CCs from healthy women. These associations were not observed in PCOS women. CONCLUSION:The NKB/NK3R and KISS1/KISS1R systems are dysregulated in MGCs and CCs of PCOS women. The lower expression of these systems in GCs could contribute to the abnormal follicle development and defective ovulation that characterize the pathogenesis of PCOS.