The Case-Based Collaborative Learning Peer Observation Worksheet and Compendium: An Evaluation Tool for Flipped Classroom Facilitators.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:In a flipped classroom, students learn basic concepts before class, allowing them time during class to apply newly gained knowledge to problem sets and cases. Harvard Medical School (HMS) has introduced a form of flipped classroom, called case-based collaborative learning (CBCL), during preclinical curricula. Finding few published resources, the HMS Academy's Peer Observation of Teaching Interest Group developed a guide for observations and feedback to CBCL facilitators. Methods:After conducting an extensive literature search, speaking to flipped classroom methodology experts, and observing 14 facilitators using CBCL methods, the interest group identified specific teaching behaviors that optimize student interaction and knowledge application. The group next engaged in several rounds of the modified Delphi method to develop the CBCL peer observation worksheet and compendium and then tested these materials' effectiveness in capturing CBCL teaching behaviors and providing feedback to CBCL faculty facilitators. Results:Seventy-three percent of faculty rated the worksheet and compendium as extremely helpful or helpful in identifying new teaching techniques. Moreover, 90% found the CBCL peer observation and debriefing to be extremely helpful or helpful, and 90% were extremely likely or likely to incorporate peer suggestions in future teaching sessions. Discussion:Medical schools have begun to embrace flipped classroom methods to eliminate passive, lecture-style instruction during the preclinical years of the MD curriculum. This tool identifies specific in-classroom approaches that engage students in active learning, guides peer observers in offering targeted feedback to faculty on teaching strategies, and presents consensus-based resources for use during CBCL faculty development and training.
Project description:Introduction:Prior studies have demonstrated poor guideline compliance by pediatricians, and there is no published curriculum on how to teach clinical guidelines. Furthermore, in a national survey of pediatric residency training programs conducted in 2015, only two had a formal curriculum for teaching clinical guidelines. This module provides a framework for teaching residents clinical guidelines through a modified flipped classroom approach. Associated materials include a guide for faculty facilitators, sample slides and worksheet, and pictures of the classroom setup. Methods:In this module, the guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are taught in three sessions and evaluated with a pre-/posttest assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and satisfaction. Each guideline is delivered in a 30-minute session, with five learners per group. Faculty training requires approximately 30 minutes of preparation. The intervention groups (n = 9 for OSAS, 10 each for AOM and ADHD) received three weekly, half-hour flipped classroom lessons. The control group (n = 19) had no formal guideline education. Results:Pre-/posttests showed a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes in the group of interns who received this educational intervention over the control group. The learners rated the sessions as highly effective. Discussion:This module provides an efficient and effective way of utilizing a modified flipped classroom approach to teach learners the correct use of clinical guidelines, a skill residents must master to provide evidence-based care. This curriculum has been successfully incorporated into our pediatric residency program.
Project description:Introduction:Clinical reasoning is a fundamental part of a physician's daily workflow. Yet it remains a challenging skill to develop formally, especially in preclerkship-level early learners. Traditionally, medical students learn clinical reasoning informally through experiential opportunities during their clerkship years. This occurs in contrast to the more structured, explicit learning of the basic sciences and physical diagnosis during the preclerkship years. To address this need, we present a flipped classroom case-based approach for developing clinical reasoning skills based on problem representation and the use of a structured illness script worksheet as a model. Methods:Students were given a short introduction via screencast to introduce clinical reasoning and related terminology such as problem representation and semantic qualifiers. They also received a case vignette and an illness script worksheet to prepare them for in-class discussion. Students used this worksheet to practice clinical reasoning in a small-group session that was held in our last organ system-based second-year course, prior to the start of the clerkships. Results:In comparison to the traditional facilitator-led small-group sessions, where students would sequentially answer a set of defined content-based questions to explore a clinical case, 80% of students preferred the new framework that incorporates problem representation and the illness script worksheets. Faculty facilitators found the structure of the illness script worksheet helpful in leading a clinical reasoning small-group session. Discussion:Based on the results of this pilot, we plan to systematically implement this clinical reasoning framework in our preclerkship curriculum.
Project description:This study sought to determine whether a flipped classroom that facilitated peer learning would improve undergraduate health sciences students' abilities to find, evaluate, and use appropriate evidence for research assignments.Students completed online modules in a learning management system, with librarians facilitating subsequent student-directed, in-person sessions. Mixed methods assessment was used to evaluate program outcomes.Students learned information literacy concepts but did not consistently apply them in research assignments. Faculty interviews revealed strengthened partnerships between librarians and teaching faculty.This pedagogy shows promise for implementing and evaluating a successful flipped information literacy program.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In acute care medicine, knowledge of the underlying (patho)-physiology is of paramount importance. This may be especially relevant in intensive care medicine, where individual competence and proficiency greatly depend on knowledge and understanding of critical care physiology. In settings with time constraints such as intensive care units (ICUs), time allotted to education is often limited. We evaluated whether introduction of a short, interactive, peer-led flipped classroom session is feasible and can provide ICU residents with a better understanding of critical care physiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using the flipped classroom concept, we developed a 15-minute peer-led interactive "physiology education" session to introduce a total of 44 residents to critical care physiology. Using a nine-item electronic survey with open questions and a five-point Likert scale, we analysed the overall concept with regard to feasibility, motivation, and subjective learning of critical care physiology. RESULTS:The overall rate of response to the survey was 70.5% (31/44). The residents reported that these sessions sparked their interest (p = 0.005, Chi square 10.52), and that discussion and interaction during these sessions had promoted their knowledge and understanding. Both novice and experienced residents reported that new knowledge was imparted (both p<0.0001, Chi-square 32.97 and 25.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In an environment with time constraints such as the ICU, a 15-minute, interactive, peer-led flipped classroom teaching session was considered feasible and generally appeared useful for teaching critical care physiology to ICU residents. Responses to questions on questionnaires indicated that teaching sessions sparked interest and increased motivation. This approach may theoretically induce a modification in professional behaviour and promote self-directed learning. We therefore support the use of peer-led flipped classroom training sessions in the ICU. Whether these sessions result in improved ICU care should be addressed in subsequent studies.
Project description:Flipped classroom (FCR) is an active learning pedagogical method in which the students prepare prior to class using different modalities, for example, reading materials and videos, and afterward spend the time in class discussing the content and reinforcing the concepts. We chose to replace one problem-based case on "Shock" with flipped-style teaching in the respiration circulation module of a private medical university. Our objective was to use the clinical presentation of "Shock" to open a window to interrelate basic science concepts of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. It aimed to merge the case-based discussion with small-group discussions in the form of FCR activity. The qualitative study gives an overview of comments of facilitators, observers, and leadership of the Department and University obtained during focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis of responses emphasized the importance of FCR as an effective teaching learning modality, which can be made more effective by careful selection of topic and provision of facilities to support technology-enhanced learning. The discussions with facilitators, observers, and leadership revealed its usefulness through student's engagement and increased participation to build learning of the key concepts. Student satisfaction in these activities can be enhanced by construction of knowledge acquired in non-face-to-face component with substantial pre-reading materials, videos, peer discussions, quizzes, and prompt feedback.
Project description:Introduction:Operative dentistry addresses the surgical management of caries, a significant portion of dental practice. Dental students, who typically develop their skill sets in this important discipline by creating idealized preparations in plastic teeth, are often confused by the wide variety of tooth anatomy and caries presentation they see when they subsequently treat patients. To address this significant clinical transition issue, we developed this resource on preparing the moderate carious lesion using a stepwise, structured technique. Methods:This resource consists of a flipped-classroom learning module and associated laboratory activity with an algorithm worksheet to practice critical thinking skills. Prior to the exercise, an interactive tutorial introduces the didactic background. The 4-hour class session starts with a short quiz and review, then learners use the worksheet to prepare and restore their tooth specimens. Results:Learner response has been very positive. Moreover, faculty note that learners' skills in treating patients in clinic are noticeably higher and require less faculty intervention than was previously the case. Discussion:Since new national curriculum standards for caries are currently being introduced, in addition to providing instruction to dental students, this resource presents an excellent opportunity to calibrate faculty members, who are a secondary learner group in this exercise, on a standard clinical protocol.
Project description:Recent reform of medical education highlights the growing concerns about the capability of the current educational model to equip medical school students with essential skills for future career development. In the field of ophthalmology, although many attempts have been made to address the problem of the decreasing teaching time and the increasing load of course content, a growing body of literature indicates the need to reform the current ophthalmology teaching strategies. Flipped classroom is a new pedagogical model in which students develop a basic understanding of the course materials before class, and use in-class time for learner-centered activities, such as group discussion and presentation. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in ophthalmology education. This study, for the first time, assesses the use of flipped classroom in ophthalmology, specifically glaucoma and ocular trauma clerkship teaching. A total number of 44 international medical school students from diverse background were enrolled in this study, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took the flipped glaucoma classroom and lecture-based ocular trauma classroom, while the other group took the flipped ocular trauma classroom and lecture-based glaucoma classroom. In the traditional lecture-based classroom, students attended the didactic lecture and did the homework after class. In the flipped classroom, students were asked to watch the prerecorded lectures before the class, and use the class time for homework discussion. Both the teachers and students were asked to complete feedback questionnaires after the classroom. We found that the two groups did not show differences in the final exam scores. However, the flipped classroom helped students to develop skills in problem solving, creative thinking and team working. Also, compared to the lecture-based classroom, both teachers and students were more satisfied with the flipped classroom. Interestingly, students had a more positive attitude towards the flipped ocular trauma classroom than the flipped glaucoma classroom regarding the teaching process, the course materials, and the value of the classroom. Therefore, the flipped classroom model in ophthalmology teaching showed promise as an effective approach to promote active learning.
Project description:Introduction:Although many medical schools are adding residency preparatory courses or boot camps to their curricula, there is little published guidance for faculty tasked with designing them. We developed a workshop and accompanying boot camp course design tool kit to assist faculty in creating a pediatric boot camp course following the initial steps of Kern's framework for curriculum development. Methods:Learners participated in a 2-hour workshop incorporating short didactics, guided independent reflection, and group discussions. Workshop facilitators guided faculty through the tool kit materials including a literature overview, a needs assessment worksheet, session prioritization and schedule planning worksheets, a module design worksheet, and implementation strategies. Results:Twenty-seven attendees at a national meeting of undergraduate pediatric educators participated in the workshop. Feedback was solicited via an anonymous electronic survey (41% completion rate), which indicated that attendees' self-assessed confidence significantly increased for each component of the tool kit. For the five tool kit components surveyed, average confidence increased 26% (range: 17.5%-37.1%) after completing the workshop. All respondents also indicated that the tool kit would be moderately helpful to very helpful as a stand-alone resource for independent faculty use, corresponding to a 3.57 out of 5 weighted average for this Likert-scale question. Discussion:We developed a pediatric boot camp course design workshop and tool kit to assist faculty in developing pediatric boot camps. Initial implementation was through a workshop, but the resource could be used individually and also adapted for use by other specialties.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Current residency didactic schedules that are built upon hour-long, lecture-based presentations are incongruous with adult learning theory and the needs of millennial generation residents. An alternative to the traditional lecture, the flipped classroom involves viewing a short video lecture at home, followed by an active discussion during class time. This module was developed for emergency medicine residents and rotating medical students without previous training on the subject.<h4>Methods</h4>The at-home portion of the module was designed to be delivered at home, while the in-class discussion was designed to be carried out over 30-45 minutes during a regularly scheduled didactic time. Small-group size may be determined by faculty availability, though groups of five are optimal. There is no requirement for faculty preparation prior to the in-class session. Associated materials include objectives, the at-home video, a discussion guide for faculty facilitators, a case-based handout for students and residents, and assessment questions. We assessed our module with a pretest, immediate posttest, and the posttest again after 90 days.<h4>Results</h4>The mean pretest score was 66%, mean posttest score 76%, and mean retention test score 66%. There was an immediate increase of 10%, which did not remain at 90 days.<h4>Discussion</h4>We developed a flipped classroom module that can be implemented in any emergency medicine residency or clerkship. It addresses the theoretical challenges posed to traditional conference didactics by increasing the focus on problem solving and self-directed learning.
Project description:Introduction:This dental anatomy module is the second in a series that develops skills in analyzing the morphology, function, anomalies, and development of human teeth. Learning the visual details associated with teeth has often proven difficult using the lecture format; thus, we have utilized computer-assisted flipped learning, which has been shown to be just as effective as lectures and frees up class time for active learning. Methods:In a flipped classroom approach, students learn basic knowledge with a self-paced, interactive tutorial prior to class. In class, students are assigned to small groups and start with a readiness assessment quiz, administered first individually and then to each team. This is followed by a review for the whole class. The teams then practice critical thinking through practical application scenarios; a laboratory exercise follows where students wax tooth #25 and tooth #26. Results:Students rated faculty members who used team-based learning higher than those who used lecture format for similar morphology lectures. For the first 3 years that this flipped classroom technique was used, students consistently scored it higher than the lecture format on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple positive comments indicated their preference for this method. Discussion:Teaching students to see the subtle variations in tooth morphology takes time and attention. In a lecture, each key point is covered only once, and images appear fleetingly. A key advantage of the self-paced interactive tutorial coupled with flipped classroom activities is that each learner can take the time needed with each image in a tutorial.