A Complicated Opioid Overdose: A Simulation for Emergency Medicine Residents.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Opioid abuse is a growing problem in the United States. As a result, emergency medicine physicians often use naloxone to reverse opioid overdoses. While normally a safe drug, one potential complication of the antidote's use is flash pulmonary edema. This simulation was created after a patient followed the clinical course described after an opioid overdose. Methods:This simulation utilized a high-fidelity simulator to expose resident emergency medicine physicians to flash pulmonary edema secondary to naloxone administration. The simulation involved a 31-year-old male patient presenting with agonal respirations following an opioid overdose. The residents managed the patient appropriately with naloxone. However, he developed progressive dyspnea. The residents soon discovered that the patient was in flash pulmonary edema. They managed his airway, provided mechanical ventilation, and considered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Results:When this simulation was run for emergency medicine residents at SUNY Upstate Medical University, the learners felt that it was highly useful, and that it expanded their knowledge in this field. Out of 17 learners, the average rating to the question of: "[This simulation] added to my understanding of key concepts and helped the session meet the objectives" was 4.6 on a 1-5 Likert scale. Discussion:This simulation is a practical method by which many institutions can help to further physician knowledge on opioid overdose complications. It is relatively straightforward to run, and the educational yield is high.
Project description:Introduction:Opioid overdose is a growing problem in the US. Often, residents are first responders to community and in-hospital opioid overdoses, and so, hands-on naloxone administration education is necessary. While residents get a brief algorithm on suspected opioid overdose during their mandatory American Heart Association basic life support training, there is a lack of hands-on standardized curricula on how to administer this lifesaving medication. Methods:To fill this gap, we developed a hands-on workshop for medical trainees on how to respond to an opioid overdose. Trainees who completed our workshop left with a first-responder naloxone kit using the Massachusetts statewide open prescription. All attendees were asked to take a voluntary pre- and posttraining survey. Results:A total of 80 trainees from a variety of specialties and training levels participated in this workshop. We were able to successfully link the pre- and postdata of 29 participants. Trainees were assessed on comfort in administering naloxone as a first responder and in teaching patients how to administer naloxone (via a 5-point Likert scale) and on percentage of time they prescribed naloxone to high-risk patient populations. We saw statistically significant increases in comfort in using naloxone and comfort in teaching patients to administer naloxone. Discussion:This innovative curriculum provides an adaptable, short, and effective workshop with hands-on practice for medical trainees at a variety of training levels. The workshop can efficiently train future health care professionals how to approach an opioid overdose.
Project description:Importance:As opioid-related mortality continues to increase, naloxone remains a critical intervention in preventing overdose death. Opportunities to expand access through the health care setting should be optimized. Objective:To determine the characteristics of naloxone prescribing for US patients at high risk of opioid overdose. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study used Truven Health MarketScan data from October 1, 2015, through December 31, 2016, of individuals with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes related to opioid use, misuse, dependence, and overdose. The cohort included 138 108 commercially insured individuals aged 15 years or older in the United States with claims related to opioid misuse or dependence, opioid-related overdose, or both. Exposures:Outpatient naloxone pharmacy claims. Main Outcomes and Measures:Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, health care service use, and proportion prescribed naloxone were included in multivariable logistic regression analyses to test the association of opioid risk group with naloxone claim. Results:Of 138 108 high-risk individuals (mean [SD] age, 43.4 [0.4] years; 72 435 [52.4%] men), 2135 (1.5%) were prescribed naloxone. Having prior diagnoses of both opioid misuse or dependence and overdose was associated with a greater likelihood of receiving naloxone (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.98-2.72; P < .001) compared with having a prior diagnosis of opioid misuse or dependence without overdose. Having a prior diagnosis of opioid overdose alone was associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving naloxone (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94; P = .01) compared with having a prior diagnosis of opioid misuse or dependence without overdose. Factors associated with lower naloxone prescription included being aged 30 to 44 years (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.62-0.84; P < .001) and being from the Midwest (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.54-0.71; P < .001) or West (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98; P = .03). Opioid use disorder treatment, such as use of medication-assisted therapy (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.53-1.86; P < .001), visiting a detoxification facility (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.31-1.76; P < .001), or receiving other substance use disorder treatment (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30; P = .01), were associated with increased likelihood of receiving naloxone, as were receiving outpatient care from a pain specialist (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.40-1.76; P < .001), psychologist (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.29-1.70; P < .001), or surgeon (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.32; P < .001). Overall, 98.5% (n = 135 973) of high-risk patients did not received naloxone, despite many interactions with the health care system, including 88 618 hospitalizations, 229 680 emergency department visits, 298 058 internal medicine visits, and 568 448 family practice visits. Conclusions and Relevance:Patients at high risk of opioid overdose rarely received prescriptions for naloxone despite numerous interactions with the health care system. Prescribing in emergency, inpatient, and outpatient settings represents an opportunity to improve access.
Project description:The epidemic of opioid use disorder and opioid overdose carries extensive morbidity and mortality and necessitates a multi-pronged, community-level response. Bystander administration of the opioid overdose antidote naloxone is effective, but it is not universally available and requires consistent effort on the part of citizens to proactively carry naloxone. An alternate approach would be to position naloxone kits where they are most needed in a community, in a manner analogous to automated external defibrillators. We hypothesized that opioid overdoses would show geospatial clustering within a community, leading to potential target sites for such publicly deployed naloxone (PDN).We performed a retrospective chart review of 700 emergency medical service (EMS) runs that involved opioid overdose or naloxone administration in Cambridge, Massachusetts, between October 16, 2016 and May 10, 2017. We used geospatial analysis to examine for clustering in general, and to identify specific clusters amenable to PDN sites.Opioid-related emergency medical services (EMS) runs in Cambridge, Massachusetts (MA), exhibit significant geospatial clustering, and we identified three clusters of opioid-related EMS runs in Cambridge, MA, with distinct characteristics. Models of PDN sites at these clusters show that approximately 40% of all opioid-related EMS runs in Cambridge, MA, would be accessible within 200 meters of PDN sites placed at cluster centroids.Identifying clusters of opioid-related EMS runs within a community may help to improve community coverage of naloxone, and strongly suggests that PDN could be a useful adjunct to bystander-administered naloxone in stemming the tide of opioid-related death.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The standard of care for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression associated with opioid overdose is injectable naloxone. This study compared the usability of two naloxone delivery devices, a naloxone auto-injector (NAI) and a naloxone intranasal delivery system (NXN), in the administration of naloxone during a simulated opioid overdose emergency. NAI (EVZIO (®) ; kaleo, Inc., Richmond, VA, USA) is a Food and Drug Administration approved single-use pre-filled auto-injector containing 0.4 mg of naloxone. METHODS: Study participants were randomly assigned to administer naloxone using NAI and NXN, sequentially. The primary endpoint was successful administration of a simulated dose of naloxone into a mannequin during a simulated opioid emergency, both before and after receiving training. Secondary endpoints included using the NAI or NXN in accordance with the instructions-for-use and the comparative measurement of successful completion time of administration for both NAI and NXN. RESULTS: A total of 42 healthy participants aged 18-65 years were enrolled in the study. The proportion of participants able to successfully administer a simulated dose of naloxone was significantly greater for NAI compared to NXN both before (90.5% vs. 0.0%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and after (100% vs. 57.1%, respectively, P < 0.0001) participant training. The proportion of participants able to administer a simulated dose of naloxone in accordance with the instructions-for-use was also significantly greater for NAI compared to NXN before (85.7% vs. 0.0%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and after (100% vs. 0.0%, respectively, P < 0.0001) participant training. The average time to task completion for administration attempt before training was 0.9 ± 0.25 min for NAI versus 6.0 ± 4.76 min for NXN and after training was 0.5 ± 0.15 min for NAI versus 2.0 ± 2.15 min for NXN. CONCLUSION: Laypersons experienced substantially greater success administering a simulated dose of naloxone, both before and after training, using NAI versus NXN during a simulated opioid overdose emergency. No participants correctly used NXN without training.
Project description:Importance:The US opioid crisis was deemed a public health emergency in 2017. More than 130 individuals in the US die daily as a result of unintentional opioid overdose deaths. Objective:To measure use of take-home naloxone for overdose reversals performed by study participants with opioid use disorder receiving treatment at an opioid treatment program. Design, Setting, and Participants:In a year-long cohort study, between April 4, 2016, and May 16, 2017, 395 study participants enrolled at the University of New Mexico Addiction and Substance Abuse Opioid Treatment Program, an outpatient clinic treating substance use disorders. Inclusion criteria included all patients enrolled at University of New Mexico Addiction and Substance Abuse Opioid Treatment Program during the study enrollment period; positive history of opioid use disorder treated with methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone; and age 18 years or older. Exclusion criteria included allergy to naloxone and age younger than 18 years. The study closed 1 year after enrollment, on May 17, 2018. Data analysis was performed from May 2018 to July 2019. Exposure:Two doses of take-home naloxone combined with opioid overdose education were provided to study participants. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was to measure the association of take-home naloxone with overdose reversals performed by patients with opioid use disorder enrolled in an opioid treatment program. Results:We enrolled 395 study participants (270 female [68.4%]; mean [SD] age, 35.4 [12.6] years; 260 [65.8%] with Hispanic white race/ethnicity) in the 1-year prospective trial. Sixty-eight female participants (25.2% of all female participants) were pregnant at the time of enrollment. Seventy-three of the 395 study participants (18.0%) performed 114 overdose reversals in the community. All community reversals were heroin related. Most study participants (86.8%) stated that the person on whom they performed an overdose reversal was a friend, relative, acquaintance, or significant other. In the year before enrollment, only 18 study participants (4.5%) had been prescribed naloxone. Conclusions and Relevance:Take-home naloxone as part of overdose education and naloxone distribution provided to patients in an opioid treatment program may be associated with a strategic targeted harm reduction response for reversing opioid overdose-related deaths. Policy makers may consider regulations to mandate overdose education and naloxone distribution in opioid treatment programs.
Project description:Emergency departments (EDs) may be high-yield venues to address opioid deaths with education on both overdose prevention and appropriate actions in a witnessed overdose. In addition, the ED has the potential to equip patients with nasal naloxone kits as part of this effort. We evaluated the feasibility of an ED-based overdose prevention program and described the overdose risk knowledge, opioid use, overdoses, and overdose responses among participants who received overdose education and naloxone rescue kits (OEN) and participants who received overdose education only (OE).Program participants were surveyed by telephone after their ED visit about their substance use, overdose risk knowledge, history of witnessed and personal overdoses, and actions in a witnessed overdose including use of naloxone.A total of 415 ED patients received OE or OEN between January 1, 2011 and February 28, 2012. Among those, 51 (12%) completed the survey; 37 (73%) of those received a naloxone kit, and 14 (27%) received OE only. Past 30-day opioid use was reported by 35% OEN and 36% OE, and an overdose was reported by 19% OEN and 29% OE. Among 53% (27/51) of participants who witnessed another individual experiencing an overdose, 95% OEN and 88% OE stayed with victim, 74% OEN and 38% OE called 911, 26% OEN and 25% OE performed rescue breathing, and 32% OEN (n=6) used a naloxone kit to reverse the overdose. We did not detect statistically significant differences between OEN and OE-only groups in opioid use, overdose or response to a witnessed overdose.This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based opioid overdose prevention education and naloxone distribution to trained laypersons, patients and their social network. The program reached a high-risk population that commonly witnessed overdoses and that called for help and used naloxone, when available, to rescue people. While the study was retrospective with a low response rate, it provides preliminary data for larger, prospective studies of ED-based overdose prevention programs.
Project description:Background:Rapid naloxone administration is crucial in reversing an opioid overdose. We investigated whether equipping community members, including people who use opioids (PWUO), with a smartphone application enabling them to signal and respond to suspected overdose would support naloxone administration in advance of Emrgency Medical Services (EMS). Methods:This observational cohort study of opioid overdose intervention used a dedicated smartphone app, UnityPhilly, activated by volunteers witnessing an overdose to signal other nearby volunteers in Philadelphia (March 2019 - February 2020). Alerted volunteers chose to respond, or declined to respond, or ignored/missed the alert. Witnessing volunteer was connected to 9-1-1 through a semi-automated telephone call. The primary outcome was layperson-initiated overdose reversal before EMS arrival, and a secondary outcome was hospital transfer. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03305497. Findings:112 volunteers, including 57 PWUO and 55 community members, signaled 291 suspected opioid overdose alerts. 89 (30?6%) were false alarms. For 202 true alerts, the rate of layperson initiated naloxone use was 36?6% (74/202 cases). Most naloxone-use cases occurred in the street (58?11% (43/74)) and some in home settings (22?98% (17/74)). The first naloxone dose was provided by a nearby volunteer responding to the alert in 29?73% (22/74) of cases and by the signaling volunteer in 70?27% (52/74) of cases. Successful reversal was reported in 95?9% (71/74) of cases. Layperson intervention preceded EMS by 5 min or more in 59?5% of cases. Recovery without hospital transport was reported in 52?7% (39/74) of cases. Interpretation:Our findings support the benefits of equipping community members, potentially witnessing suspected opioid overdose, with naloxone and an emergency response community smartphone app, alerting EMS and nearby laypersons to provide additional naloxone. Funding:Funding provided by NIH through NIDA, grant number: 5R34DA044758.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) is responsible for a growing number of deaths. Some case series have suggested that IMF overdoses require significantly higher naloxone doses than heroin overdoses. Our objective was to determine if the naloxone dose required to treat an opioid overdose is associated with the finding of fentanyl, opiates, or both on urine drug screen (UDS).<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective chart review was conducted at a single emergency department and its affiliated emergency medical services (EMS) agency. The charts of all patients who received naloxone through this EMS from 1/1/2017 to 6/15/2018 were reviewed. The study included patients diagnosed with a non-suicidal opioid overdose whose UDS was positive for opiates, fentanyl, or both. Data collected included demographics, vital signs, initial GCS, EMS and ED naloxone administrations, response to treatment, laboratory findings, and ED disposition. The fentanyl-only and fentanyl + opiate groups were compared to the opiate-only group using the stratified (by ED provider) variant of the Mann-Whitney U test.<h4>Results</h4>Eight hundred and thirty-seven charts were reviewed, and 121 subjects were included in the final analysis. The median age of included subjects was 38 years and 75% were male. In the naloxone dose analysis, neither the fentanyl-only (median 0.8 mg, IQR 0.4-1.6; p?=?0.68) nor the fentanyl + opiate (median 0.8 mg, IQR 0.4-1.2; p?=?0.56) groups differed from the opiate-only group (median 0.58 mg, IQR 0.4-1.6).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings refute the notion that high potency synthetic opioids like illicitly manufactured fentanyl require increased doses of naloxone to successfully treat an overdose. There were no significant differences in the dose of naloxone required to treat opioid overdose patients with UDS evidence of exposure to fentanyl, opiates, or both. Further evaluation of naloxone stocking and dosing protocols is needed.
Project description:Fatal outcome of opioid overdose, once detected, is preventable through timely administration of the antidote naloxone. Take-home naloxone provision directly to opioid users for emergency use has been implemented recently in more than 15 countries worldwide, albeit mainly as pilot schemes and without formal evaluation. This systematic review assesses the effectiveness of take-home naloxone, with two specific aims: (1) to study the impact of take-home naloxone distribution on overdose-related mortality; and (2) to assess the safety of take-home naloxone in terms of adverse events.PubMed, MEDLINE and PsychINFO were searched for English-language peer-reviewed publications (randomized or observational trials) using the Boolean search query: (opioid OR opiate) AND overdose AND prevention. Evidence was evaluated using the nine Bradford Hill criteria for causation, devised to assess a potential causal relationship between public health interventions and clinical outcomes when only observational data are available.A total of 1397 records (1164 after removal of duplicates) were retrieved, with 22 observational studies meeting eligibility criteria. Due to variability in size and quality of the included studies, meta-analysis was dismissed in favour of narrative synthesis. From eligible studies, we found take-home naloxone met all nine Bradford Hill criteria. The additional five World Health Organization criteria were all either met partially (two) or fully (three). Even with take-home naloxone administration, fatal outcome was reported in one in 123 overdose cases (0.8%; 95% confidence interval = 0.4, 1.2).Take-home naloxone programmes are found to reduce overdose mortality among programme participants and in the community and have a low rate of adverse events.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The province of British Columbia (BC) Canada has experienced a rapid increase in illicit drug overdoses and deaths during the last 4 years, with a provincial emergency declared in April 2016. These deaths have been driven primarily by the introduction of synthetic opioids into the illicit opioid supply. This study aimed to measure the combined impact of large-scale opioid overdose interventions implemented in BC between April 2016 and December 2017 on the number of deaths averted. DESIGN:We expanded on the mathematical modelling methodology of our previous study to construct a Bayesian hierarchical latent Markov process model to estimate monthly overdose and overdose-death risk, along with the impact of interventions. SETTING AND CASES:Overdose events and overdose-related deaths in BC from January 2012 to December 2017. INTERVENTIONS:The interventions considered were take-home naloxone kits, overdose prevention/supervised consumption sites and opioid agonist therapy MEASUREMENTS: Counterfactual simulations were performed with the fitted model to estimate the number of death events averted for each intervention and in combination. FINDINGS:Between April 2016 and December 2017, BC observed 2177 overdose deaths (77% fentanyl-detected). During the same period, an estimated 3030 (2900-3240) death events were averted by all interventions combined. In isolation, 1580 (1480-1740) were averted by take-home naloxone, 230 (160-350) by overdose prevention services and 590 (510-720) were averted by opioid agonist therapy. CONCLUSIONS:A combined intervention approach has been effective in averting overdose deaths during British Columbia's opioid overdose crisis in the period since declaration of a public health emergency (April 2016-December 2017). However, the absolute numbers of overdose deaths have not changed.