Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficiency protects mice from severe influenza A viral infection.
ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cleaves various proteins to regulate inflammatory and injury responses. However, MMP-9's activities during influenza A viral (IAV) infections are incompletely understood. Herein, plasma MMP-9 levels were increased in patients with pandemic H1N1 and seasonal IAV infections. MMP-9 lung levels were increased and localized to airway epithelial cells and leukocytes in H1N1-infected WT murine lungs. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had lower mortality rates, reduced weight loss, lower lung viral titers, and reduced lung injury, along with lower E-cadherin shedding in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples than WT mice. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had an altered immune response to IAV with lower BALF PMN and macrophage counts, higher Th1-like CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, lower T regulatory cell counts, reduced lung type I interferon levels, and higher lung interferon-? levels. Mmp-9 bone marrow-chimera studies revealed that Mmp-9 deficiency in lung parenchymal cells protected mice from IAV-induced mortality. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- lung epithelial cells had lower viral titers than H1N1-infected WT cells in vitro. Thus, H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice are protected from IAV-induced lung disease due to a more effective adaptive immune response to IAV and reduced epithelial barrier injury due partly to reduced E-cadherin shedding. Thus, we believe that MMP-9 is a novel therapeutic target for IAV infections.
Project description:Essentials H1N1 Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a hemostatic challenge for the lung. Tissue factor (TF) on lung epithelial cells maintains lung hemostasis after IAV infection. Reduced TF-dependent activation of coagulation leads to alveolar hemorrhage. Anticoagulation might increase the risk for hemorrhages into the lung during severe IAV infection.Background Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a common respiratory tract infection that causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objective To investigate the effect of genetic deficiency of tissue factor (TF) in a mouse model of IAV infection. Methods Wild-type mice, low-TF (LTF) mice and mice with the TF gene deleted in different cell types were infected with a mouse-adapted A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H1N1 strain of IAV. TF expression was measured in the lungs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to measure extracellular vesicle TF, activation of coagulation, alveolar hemorrhage, and inflammation. Results IAV infection of wild-type mice increased lung TF expression, activation of coagulation and inflammation in BALF, but also led to alveolar hemorrhage. LTF mice and mice with selective deficiency of TF in lung epithelial cells had low basal levels of TF and failed to increase TF expression after infection; these two strains of mice had more alveolar hemorrhage and death than controls. In contrast, deletion of TF in either myeloid cells or endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells did not increase alveolar hemorrhage or death after IAV infection. These results indicate that TF expression in the lung, particularly in epithelial cells, is required to maintain alveolar hemostasis after IAV infection. Conclusion Our study indicates that TF-dependent activation of coagulation is required to limit alveolar hemorrhage and death after IAV infection.
Project description:Treatments against influenza A viruses (IAV) have to be updated regularly due to antigenic drift and drug resistance. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are considered effective therapeutic targets of acute lung inflammatory injury. This study aimed to explore the effects of PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib on IAV-induced lung injury and the underlying mechanisms. Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with IAV strain H1N1 to mimic pneumonia experimentally. Olaparib at different doses was intraperitoneally injected 2 days before and 5 consecutive days after virus stimulation. On day 6 post-infection, lung tissues as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled for histological and biochemical analyses. Olaparib increased the survival rate of IAV mice dose-dependently. Olaparib remarkably reduced IAV mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and inflammatory cell infiltration in IAV lungs. Moreover, olaparib significantly reduced the level of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-6, and IL-4 and increased IL-10 in IAV lungs. Also, olaparib efficiently reduced IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), TNF-?, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)3, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) release in IAV BALF. Olaparib decreased PARylated protein content and p65, I?B? phosphorylation in IAV lung tissues. This study successfully constructed the pneumonia murine model using IAV. Olaparib decreased IAV-induced mortality in mice, lung injury, and cytokine production possibly via modulation of PARP-1/NF-?B axis.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes severe pulmonary disease characterized by intense leukocyte infiltration. Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are central signaling enzymes, involved in cell growth, survival, and migration. Class IB PI3K or phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase-gamma (PI3K?), mainly expressed by leukocytes, is involved in cell migration during inflammation. Here, we investigated the contribution of PI3K? for the inflammatory and antiviral responses to IAV. PI3K? knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to lethality following infection with influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1. In the early time points of infection, infiltration of neutrophils was higher than WT mice whereas type-I and type-III IFN expression and p38 activation were reduced in PI3K? KO mice resulting in higher viral loads when compared with WT mice. Blockade of p38 in WT macrophages infected with IAV reduced levels of interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein to those induced in PI3K? KO macrophages, suggesting that p38 is downstream of antiviral responses mediated by PI3K?. PI3K? KO-derived fibroblasts or macrophages showed reduced type-I IFN transcription and altered pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a cell autonomous imbalance between inflammatory and antiviral responses. Seven days after IAV infection, there were reduced infiltration of natural killer cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes, increased concentration of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid, reduced numbers of resolving macrophages, and IL-10 levels in PI3K? KO. This imbalanced environment in PI3K? KO-infected mice culminated in enhanced lung neutrophil infiltration, reactive oxygen species release, and lung damage that together with the increased viral loads, contributed to higher mortality in PI3K? KO mice compared with WT mice. In humans, we tested the genetic association of disease severity in influenza A/H1N1pdm09-infected patients with three potentially functional PIK3CG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1129293, rs17847825, and rs2230460. We observed that SNPs rs17847825 and rs2230460 (A and T alleles, respectively) were significantly associated with protection from severe disease using the recessive model in patients infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Altogether, our results suggest that PI3K? is crucial in balancing antiviral and inflammatory responses to IAV infection.
Project description:To determine the role of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in acute lung injury (ALI), we delivered LPS or bleomycin by the intratracheal route to MMP-8(-/-) mice versus wild-type (WT) mice or subjected the mice to hyperoxia (95% O(2)) and measured lung inflammation and injury at intervals. MMP-8(-/-) mice with ALI had greater increases in lung polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophage counts, measures of alveolar capillary barrier injury, lung elastance, and mortality than WT mice with ALI. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from LPS-treated MMP-8(-/-) mice had more MIP-1alpha than BALF from LPS-treated WT mice, but similar levels of other pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice with ALI had less acute lung inflammation and injury than WT mice with ALI, confirming that MIP-1alpha promotes acute lung inflammation and injury in mice. Genetically deleting MIP-1alpha in MMP-8(-/-) mice reduced the increased lung inflammation and injury and mortality in MMP-8(-/-) mice with ALI. Soluble MMP-8 cleaved and inactivated MIP-1alpha in vitro, but membrane-bound MMP-8 on activated PMNs had greater MIP-1alpha-degrading activity than soluble MMP-8. High levels of membrane-bound MMP-8 were detected on lung PMNs from LPS-treated WT mice, but soluble, active MMP-8 was not detected in BALF samples. Thus, MMP-8 has novel roles in restraining lung inflammation and in limiting alveolar capillary barrier injury during ALI in mice by inactivating MIP-1alpha. In addition, membrane-bound MMP-8 on activated lung PMNs is likely to be the key bioactive form of the enzyme that limits lung inflammation and alveolar capillary barrier injury during ALI.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 10(4.5) PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD.
Project description:The non-structural protein, NS1, is a virulence factor encoded by influenza A viruses (IAVs). In this report, we provide evidence that the conserved residue, tyrosine (Y) 84, in a conserved putative SH2-binding domain in A/Duck/Hubei/2004/L-1 [H5N1] NS1 is critical for limiting an interferon (IFN) response to infection. A phenylalanine (F) substitution of this Y84 residue abolishes NS1-mediated downregulation of IFN-inducible STAT phosphorylation, and surface IFNAR1 expression. Recombinant IAV (rIAV) [H1N1] expressing A/Grey Heron/Hong Kong/837/2004 [H5N1] NS1-Y84F (rWSN-GH-NS1-Y84F) replicates to lower titers in human lung epithelial cells and is more susceptible to the antiviral effects of IFN-? treatment compared with rIAV expressing the intact H5N1 NS1 (rWSN-GH-NS1-wt). Cells infected with rWSN-GH-NS1-Y84F express higher levels of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) associated with an antiviral response compared with cells infected with rWSN-GH-NS1-wt. In mice, intranasal infection with rWSN-GH-NS1-Y84F resulted in a delay in onset of weight loss, reduced lung pathology, lower lung viral titers and higher ISG expression, compared with mice infected with rWSN-GH-NS1-wt. IFN-? treatment of mice infected with rWSN-GH-NS1-Y84F reduced lung viral titers and increased lung ISG expression, but did not alter viral titers and ISG expression in mice infected with rWSN-GH-NS1-wt. Viewed altogether, these data suggest that the virulence associated with this conserved Y84 residue in NS1 is, in part, due to its role in regulating the host IFN response.
Project description:IFN? is a key regulator of inflammatory responses but its role in influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis is unclear. Our studies show that infection of mice lacking the IFN? receptor (IFN?R-/-) at a dose which caused severe disease in wild type 129?Sv/Ev (WT) mice resulted in milder clinical symptoms and significantly lower lung virus titers by 6 days post-infection (dpi). Viral spread was reduced in IFN?R-/- lungs at 2 and 4 dpi. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were lower in IFN?R-/- mice at 2 dpi and there was less infiltration of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells than in WT mice. There was no difference in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and alveolar macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 2 and 4 dpi but by 4 dpi IFN?R-/- mice had significantly higher percentages of neutrophils. Our data strongly suggest that IAV can use the inflammatory response to promote viral spread.
Project description:An immune response of appropriate magnitude should be robust enough to control pathogen spread but not simultaneously lead to immunopathology. Primary infection with influenza A virus (IAV) results in a localized pulmonary infection and inflammation and elicits an IAV-specific CD8 T cell immune response necessary for viral clearance. Clearance of IAV-infected cells, and recovery from infection, is mediated by perforin/granzyme B- and Fas/FasL-mediated mechanisms. We recently reported that TRAIL is another means by which IAV-specific CD8 T cells can kill IAV-infected cells. The current study examined the role of TRAIL in the pulmonary CD8 T cell response to a clinically significant IAV [A/PR/8/34 (PR8; H1N1)] infection (i.e., leads to observable, but limited, morbidity and mortality in wild-type [WT] mice). Compared with WT mice, IAV-infected Trail(-/-) mice experienced increased morbidity and mortality despite similar rates of viral clearance from the lungs. The increased morbidity and mortality in Trail(-/-) mice correlated with increased pulmonary pathology and inflammatory chemokine production. Analysis of lung-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed increased numbers of IAV-specific CD8 T cells in infected Trail(-/-) mice, which correlated with increased pulmonary cytotoxic activity and increased pulmonary expression of MIG and MIP-1?. In addition, there was decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation of IAV-specific CD8 T cells in the lungs of Trail(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Together, these data suggest that TRAIL regulates the magnitude of the IAV-specific CD8 T cell response during a clinically significant IAV infection to decrease the chance for infection-induced immunopathology.
Project description:Although asthmatics has been considered to be highly susceptible to respiratory viral infection and most studies have focused on exacerbation of asthma by influenza A virus (IAV) infection, few experimental evidences exist to directly demonstrate that asthmatic mice are actually resistant to IAV infection. Here, we show that asthmatic mice are not highly susceptible to IAV in the early stage of infection and type III interferon (IFN) maintains antiviral immune response in the lung of IAV-infected asthmatic mouse resulting in inhibition of initial viral spread. C57BL/6 mice with allergic asthma were infected with IAV (WS/33: H1N1) and survival rate, body weight, viral titer, histopathological findings of lung and cytokine profiles including IFNs and Th2 cytokines were measured. Notably, asthmatic mice were significantly resistant to IAV and showed lower viral load until 7?days after infection. Furthermore, IAV-infected asthmatic mice exhibited decreased Th2-related inflammation in lung tissue until 7?days. These increased antiviral resistant mechanism and reduced Th2 inflammation were attributable to rapid induction of type III IFNs and blockade of type III IFNs in asthmatic lung led to aggravated IAV infection and to enhance the production of Th2 cytokines. Asthmatic mice showed bi-phasic responses against IAV-caused lung infection such as rapid production of type III IFNs and subsequent induction of type II IFNs. Actually, IAV-infected asthmatic mice become vulnerable to IAV infection after 7?days with noticeable morbidity and severe weight loss. However, intranasal administration of type III IFNs protects completely asthmatic mice from IAV-mediated immunopathology and lung infection until 14?days after infection. Taken together, our study indicates that the rapid induction of type III IFN might be distinctive immunological findings in the respiratory tract of IAV-infected asthmatic mice at the early stage of infection and crucial for suppression of initial viral spread in vivo asthma accompanying with restriction of Th2 cytokine productions.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and pulmonary emphysema. Persistent inflammation and remodeling of the lungs and airways result in reduced lung function and a lower quality of life. Galectin (Gal)-9 plays a crucial role as an immune modulator in various diseases. However, its role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema is unknown. This study investigates whether Gal-9 is involved in pulmonary inflammation and changes in emphysema in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model.Gal-9 was administered to mice subcutaneously once daily from 1 day before PPE instillation to day 5. During the development of emphysema, lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. Histological and cytological findings, concentrations of chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the BALF, and the influence of Gal-9 treatment on neutrophils were analyzed.Gal-9 suppressed the pathological changes of PPE-induced emphysema. The mean linear intercept (Lm) of Gal-9-treated emphysema mice was significantly lower than that of PBS-treated emphysema mice (66.1 ± 3.3 ?m vs. 118.8 ± 14.8 ?m, respectively; p < 0.01). Gal-9 decreased the number of neutrophils and levels of MMP-9, MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in the BALF. The number of neutrophils in the BALF correlated significantly with MMPs levels. Interestingly, Gal-9 pretreatment in vitro inhibited the chemotactic activity of neutrophils and MMP-9 production from neutrophils. Furthermore, in Gal-9-deficient mice, PPE-induced emphysema progressed significantly compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice (108.7 ± 6.58 ?m vs. 77.19 ± 6.97 ?m, respectively; p < 0.01).These results suggest that Gal-9 protects PPE-induced inflammation and emphysema by inhibiting the infiltration of neutrophils and decreasing MMPs levels. Exogenous Gal-9 could be a potential therapeutic agent for COPD.