Triazolopyrimidine and triazolopyridine scaffolds as TDP2 inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) repairs topoisomerase II (TOP2) mediated DNA damages and causes cellular resistance to clinically used TOP2 poisons. Inhibiting TDP2 can potentially sensitize cancer cells toward TOP2 poisons. Commercial compound P10A10, to which the structure was assigned as 7-phenyl triazolopyrimidine analogue 6a, was previously identified as a TDP2 inhibitor hit in our virtual and fluorescence-based biochemical screening campaign. We report herein that the hit validation through resynthesis and structure elucidation revealed the correct structure of P10A10 (Chembridge ID 7236827) to be the 5-phenyl triazolopyrimidine regioisomer 7a. Subsequent structure-activity relationship (SAR) via the synthesis of a total of 47 analogues of both the 5-phenyl triazolopyrimidine scaffold (7) and its bioisosteric triazolopyridine scaffold (17) identified four derivatives (7a, 17a, 17e, and 17z) with significant TDP2 inhibition (IC50?
Project description:Topoisomerase II (TOP2) poisons as anticancer drugs work by trapping TOP2 cleavage complexes (TOP2cc) to generate DNA damage. Repair of such damage by tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) could render cancer cells resistant to TOP2 poisons. Inhibiting TDP2, thus, represents an attractive mechanism-based chemosensitization approach. Currently known TDP2 inhibitors lack cellular potency and/or permeability. We report herein two novel subtypes of the deazaflavin TDP2 inhibitor core. By introducing an additional phenyl ring to the N-10 phenyl ring (subtype 11) or to the N-3 site of the deazaflavin scaffold (subtype 12), we have generated novel analogues with considerably improved biochemical potency and/or permeability. Importantly, many analogues of both subtypes, particularly compounds 11a, 11e, 12a, 12b, and 12h, exhibited much stronger cancer cell sensitizing effect than the best previous analogue 4a toward the treatment with etoposide, suggesting that these analogues could serve as effective cellular probes.
Project description:Anticancer topoisomerase "poisons" exploit the break-and-rejoining mechanism of topoisomerase II (TOP2) to generate TOP2-linked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). This characteristic underlies the clinical efficacy of TOP2 poisons, but is also implicated in chromosomal translocations and genome instability associated with secondary, treatment-related, haematological malignancy. Despite this relevance for cancer therapy, the mechanistic aspects governing repair of TOP2-induced DSBs and the physiological consequences that absent or aberrant repair can have are still poorly understood. To address these deficits, we employed cells and mice lacking tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2), an enzyme that hydrolyses 5'-phosphotyrosyl bonds at TOP2-associated DSBs, and studied their response to TOP2 poisons. Our results demonstrate that TDP2 functions in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and liberates DSB termini that are competent for ligation. Moreover, we show that the absence of TDP2 in cells impairs not only the capacity to repair TOP2-induced DSBs but also the accuracy of the process, thus compromising genome integrity. Most importantly, we find this TDP2-dependent NHEJ mechanism to be physiologically relevant, as Tdp2-deleted mice are sensitive to TOP2-induced damage, displaying marked lymphoid toxicity, severe intestinal damage, and increased genome instability in the bone marrow. Collectively, our data reveal TDP2-mediated error-free NHEJ as an efficient and accurate mechanism to repair TOP2-induced DSBs. Given the widespread use of TOP2 poisons in cancer chemotherapy, this raises the possibility of TDP2 being an important etiological factor in the response of tumours to this type of agent and in the development of treatment-related malignancy.
Project description:Mammalian Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) reverses Topoisomerase 2 (Top2) DNA-protein crosslinks triggered by Top2 engagement of DNA damage or poisoning by anticancer drugs. Tdp2 deficiencies are linked to neurological disease and cellular sensitivity to Top2 poisons. Herein, we report X-ray crystal structures of ligand-free Tdp2 and Tdp2-DNA complexes with alkylated and abasic DNA that unveil a dynamic Tdp2 active site lid and deep substrate binding trench well-suited for engaging the diverse DNA damage triggers of abortive Top2 reactions. Modeling of a proposed Tdp2 reaction coordinate, combined with mutagenesis and biochemical studies support a single Mg(2+)-ion mechanism assisted by a phosphotyrosyl-arginine cation-π interface. We further identify a Tdp2 active site SNP that ablates Tdp2 Mg(2+) binding and catalytic activity, impairs Tdp2 mediated NHEJ of tyrosine blocked termini, and renders cells sensitive to the anticancer agent etoposide. Collectively, our results provide a structural mechanism for Tdp2 engagement of heterogeneous DNA damage that causes Top2 poisoning, and indicate that evaluation of Tdp2 status may be an important personalized medicine biomarker informing on individual sensitivities to chemotherapeutic Top2 poisons.
Project description:Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) repairs topoisomerase II (TOP2) mediated DNA damages and causes resistance to TOP2-targeted cancer therapy. Inhibiting TDP2 could sensitize cancer cells toward TOP2 inhibitors. However, potent TDP2 inhibitors with favorable physicochemical properties are not yet reported. Therefore, there is a need to search for novel molecular scaffolds capable of inhibiting TDP2. We report herein a new simple, robust, homogenous mix-and-read fluorescence biochemical assay based using humanized zebrafish TDP2 (14M_zTDP2), which provides biochemical and molecular structure basis for TDP2 inhibitor discovery. The assay was validated by screening a preselected library of 1600 compounds (Z'???0.72) in a 384-well format, and by running in parallel gel-based assays with fluorescent DNA substrates. This library was curated via virtual high throughput screening (vHTS) of 460,000 compounds from Chembridge Library, using the crystal structure of the novel surrogate protein 14M_zTDP2. From this primary screening, we selected the best 32 compounds (2% of the library) to further assess their TDP2 inhibition potential, leading to the IC50 determination of 10 compounds. Based on the dose-response curve profile, pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) structure identification, physicochemical properties and efficiency parameters, two hit compounds, 11a and 19a, were tested using a novel secondary fluorescence gel-based assay. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies identified guanidine derivative 12a as an improved hit with a 6.4-fold increase in potency over the original HTS hit 11a. This study highlights the importance of the development of combination approaches (biochemistry, crystallography and high throughput screening) for the discovery of TDP2 inhibitors.
Project description:Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is a multifunctional protein implicated in DNA repair, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. In its DNA repair role, TDP2 safeguards genome integrity by hydrolyzing 5'-tyrosyl DNA adducts formed by abortive topoisomerase II (Top2) cleavage complexes to allow error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks, thereby conferring cellular resistance against Top2 poisons. TDP2 consists of a C-terminal catalytic domain responsible for its phosphodiesterase activity, and a functionally uncharacterized N-terminal region. Here, we demonstrate that this N-terminal region contains a ubiquitin (Ub)-associated (UBA) domain capable of binding multiple forms of Ub with distinct modes of interactions and preference for either K48- or K63-linked polyUbs over monoUb. The structure of TDP2 UBA bound to monoUb shows a canonical mode of UBA-Ub interaction. However, the absence of the highly conserved MGF motif and the presence of a fourth ?-helix make TDP2 UBA distinct from other known UBAs. Mutations in the TDP2 UBA-Ub binding interface do not affect nuclear import of TDP2, but severely compromise its ability to repair Top2-mediated DNA damage, thus establishing the importance of the TDP2 UBA-Ub interaction in DNA repair. The differential binding to multiple Ub forms could be important for responding to DNA damage signals under different contexts or to support the multi-functionality of TDP2.
Project description:Topoisomerase II (Top2) activity involves an intermediate in which the topoisomerase is covalently bound to a DNA double-strand break via a 5'-phosphotyrosyl bond. Although these intermediates are normally transient, they can be stabilized by antitumor agents that act as Top2 "poisons," resulting in the induction of cytotoxic double-strand breaks, and they are implicated in the formation of site-specific translocations that are commonly associated with cancer. Recently, we revealed that TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) is a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (5'-TDP) that can cleave 5'-phosphotyrosyl bonds, and we denoted this protein tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase-2 (TDP2). Here, we have generated TDP2-deleted DT40 cells, and we show that TDP2 is the major if not the only 5'-TDP activity present in vertebrate cells. We also show that TDP2-deleted DT40 cells are highly sensitive to the anticancer Top2 poison, etoposide, but are not hypersensitive to the Top1 poison camptothecin or the DNA-alkyating agent methyl methanesulfonate. These data identify an important mechanism for resistance to Top2-induced chromosome breakage and raise the possibility that TDP2 is a significant factor in cancer development and treatment.
Project description:The abortive activity of topoisomerases can result in clastogenic and/or lethal DNA damage in which the topoisomerase is covalently linked to the 3'- or 5'-terminus of a DNA strand break. This type of DNA damage is implicated in chromosome translocations and neurological disease and underlies the clinical efficacy of an important class of anticancer topoisomerase 'poisons'. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase-1 protects cells from abortive topoisomerase I (Top1) activity by hydrolyzing the 3'-phosphotyrosyl bond that links Top1 to a DNA strand break and is currently the only known human enzyme that displays this activity in cells. Recently, we identified a second tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2; aka TTRAP/EAPII) that possesses weak 3'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (3'-TDP) activity, in vitro. Herein, we have examined whether TDP2 contributes to the repair of Top1-mediated DNA breaks by deleting Tdp1 and Tdp2 separately and together in murine and avian cells. We show that while deletion of Tdp1 in wild-type DT40 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts decreases DNA strand break repair rates and cellular survival in response to Top1-induced DNA damage, deletion of Tdp2 does not. However, deletion of both Tdp1 and Tdp2 reduces rates of DNA strand break repair and cell survival below that observed in Tdp1-/- cells, suggesting that Tdp2 contributes to cellular 3'-TDP activity in the absence of Tdp1. Consistent with this idea, over-expression of human TDP2 in Tdp1-/-/Tdp2-/-/- DT40 cells increases DNA strand break repair rates and cell survival above that observed in Tdp1-/- DT40 cells, suggesting that Tdp2 over-expression can partially complement the defect imposed by loss of Tdp1. Finally, mice lacking both Tdp1 and Tdp2 exhibit greater sensitivity to Top1 poisons than do mice lacking Tdp1 alone, further suggesting that Tdp2 contributes to the repair of Top1-mediated DNA damage in the absence of Tdp1. In contrast, we failed to detect a contribution for Tdp1 to repair Top2-mediated damage. Together, our data suggest that Tdp1 and Tdp2 fulfil overlapping roles following Top1-induced DNA damage, but not following Top2-induced DNA damage, in vivo.
Project description:The compaction of DNA and the continuous action of DNA transactions, including transcription and DNA replication, create complex DNA topologies that require Type IIA Topoisomerases, which resolve DNA topological strain and control genome dynamics. The human TOP2 enzymes catalyze their reactions via formation of a reversible covalent enzyme DNA-protein crosslink, the TOP2 cleavage complex (TOP2cc). Spurious interactions of TOP2 with DNA damage, environmental toxicants and chemotherapeutic "poisons" perturbs the TOP2 reaction cycle, leading to an accumulation of DNA-protein crosslinks, and ultimately, genomic instability and cell death. Emerging evidence shows that TOP2-DNA protein crosslink (DPC) repair entails multiple strand break repair activities, such as removal of the poisoned TOP2 protein and rejoining of the DNA ends through homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of TOP2-DPC resolution, with specific emphasis on the recently uncovered ZATT<sup>Znf451</sup>-licensed TDP2-catalyzed TOP2-DPC reversal mechanism.
Project description:Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase important for the repair of DNA adducts generated by non-productive (abortive) activity of topoisomerase II (TOP2). TDP2 facilitates therapeutic resistance to topoisomerase poisons, which are widely used in the treatment of a range of cancer types. Consequently, TDP2 is an interesting target for the development of small molecule inhibitors that could restore sensitivity to topoisomerase-directed therapies. Previous studies identified a class of deazaflavin-based molecules that showed inhibitory activity against TDP2 at therapeutically useful concentrations, but their mode of action was uncertain. We have confirmed that the deazaflavin series inhibits TDP2 enzyme activity in a fluorescence-based assay, suitable for high-throughput screen (HTS)-screening. We have gone on to determine crystal structures of these compounds bound to a 'humanized' form of murine TDP2. The structures reveal their novel mode of action as competitive ligands for the binding site of an incoming DNA substrate, and point the way to generating novel and potent inhibitors of TDP2.
Project description:Eukaryotic type II topoisomerases (Top2? and Top2?) are homodimeric enzymes; they are essential for altering DNA topology by the formation of normally transient double strand DNA cleavage. Anticancer drugs (etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone) and also Top2 oxidation and DNA helical alterations cause potentially irreversible Top2·DNA cleavage complexes (Top2cc), leading to Top2-linked DNA breaks. Top2cc are the therapeutic mechanism for killing cancer cells. Yet Top2cc can also generate recombination, translocations, and apoptosis in normal cells. The Top2 protein-DNA covalent complexes are excised (in part) by tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2/TTRAP/EAP2/VPg unlinkase). In this study, we show that irreversible Top2cc induced in suicidal substrates are not processed by TDP2 unless they first undergo proteolytic processing or denaturation. We also demonstrate that TDP2 is most efficient when the DNA attached to the tyrosyl is in a single-stranded configuration and that TDP2 can efficiently remove a tyrosine linked to a single misincorporated ribonucleotide or to polyribonucleotides, which expands the TDP2 catalytic profile with RNA substrates. The 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of TDP2 bound to a substrate bearing a 5'-ribonucleotide defines a mechanism through which RNA can be accommodated in the TDP2 active site, albeit in a strained conformation.