The Diverse Iron Distribution in Eudicotyledoneae Seeds: From Arabidopsis to Quinoa.
ABSTRACT: Seeds accumulate iron during embryo maturation stages of embryogenesis. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as model plant, it has been described that mature embryos accumulate iron within a specific cell layer, the endodermis. This distribution pattern was conserved in most of the analyzed members from Brassicales, with the exception of the basal Vasconcellea pubescens that also showed elevated amounts of iron in cortex cells. To determine whether the V. pubescens iron distribution was indicative of a wider pattern in non-Brassicales Eudicotyledoneae, we studied iron distribution pattern in different embryos belonging to plant species from different Orders from Eudicotyledoneae and one basal from Magnoliidae. The results obtained indicate that iron distribution in A. thaliana embryo is an extreme case of apomorphic character found in Brassicales, not-extensive to the rest of Eudicotyledoneae.
Project description:Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes.
Project description:Two interesting plants within the Chilean flora (wild and crop species) can be found with a history related to modern fruticulture: Fragaria chiloensis subsp. chiloensis (Rosaceae) and Vasconcellea pubescens (Caricaceae). Both species have a wide natural distribution, which goes from the Andes mountains to the sea (East-West), and from the Atacama desert to the South of Chile (North-South). The growing locations are included within the Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forest hotspot. Global warming is of great concern as it increases the risk of losing wild plant species, but at the same time, gives a chance for usually longer term genetic improvement using naturally adapted material and the source for generating healthy foods. Modern agriculture intensifies the attractiveness of native undomesticated species as a way to provide compounds like antioxidants or tolerant plants for climate change scenario. F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis as the mother of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an interesting genetic source for the improvement of fruit flavor and stress tolerance. On the other hand, V. pubescens produces fruit with high level of antioxidants and proteolytic enzymes of interest to the food industry. The current review compiles the botanical, physiological and phytochemical description of F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis and V. pubescens, highlighting their potential as functional foods and as source of compounds with several applications in the pharmaceutical, biotechnological, and food science. The impact of global warming scenario on the distribution of the species is also discussed.
Project description:The chloroplast genome is an integral part of plant genomes in a species along with nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, contributing to adaptation, diversification, and evolution of plant lineages. In the family Caricaceae, only the Carica papaya chloroplast genome and its nuclear and mitochondrial genomes were sequenced, and no chloroplast genome-wide comparison across genera was conducted. Here, we sequenced and assembled the chloroplast genome of Vasconcellea pubescens A.DC. using Oxford Nanopore Technology. The size of the genome is 158,712 bp, smaller than 160,100 bp of the C. papaya chloroplast genome. And two structural haplotypes, LSC_IRa_SSCrc_IRb and LSC_IRa_SSC_IRb, were identified in both V. pubescens and C. papaya chloroplast genomes. The insertion-deletion mutations may play an important role in Ycf1 gene evolution in family Caricaceae. Ycf2 is the only one gene positively selected in the V. pubescens chloroplast genome. In the C. papaya chloroplast genome, there are 46 RNA editing loci with an average RNA editing efficiency of 63%. These findings will improve our understanding of the genomes of these two crops in the family Caricaceae and will contribute to crop improvement.
Project description:Viola is a large genus with worldwide distribution and many traits not currently exemplified in model plants including unique breeding systems and the production of cyclotides. Here we report de novo genome assembly and transcriptomic analyses of the non-model species Viola pubescens using short-read DNA sequencing data and RNA-Seq from eight diverse tissues. First, V. pubescens genome size was estimated through flow cytometry, resulting in an approximate haploid genome of 455 Mbp. Next, the draft V. pubescens genome was sequenced and assembled resulting in 264,035,065 read pairs and 161,038 contigs with an N50 length of 3,455 base pairs (bp). RNA-Seq data were then assembled into tissue-specific transcripts. Together, the DNA and transcript data generated 38,081 ab initio gene models which were functionally annotated based on homology to Arabidopsis thaliana genes and Pfam domains. Gene expression was visualized for each tissue via principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, and gene co-expression analysis identified 20 modules of tissue-specific transcriptional networks. Some of these modules highlight genetic differences between chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers and may provide insight into V. pubescens' mixed breeding system. Orthologous clustering with the proteomes of A. thaliana and Populus trichocarpa revealed 8,531 sequences unique to V. pubescens, including 81 novel cyclotide precursor sequences. Cyclotides are plant peptides characterized by a stable, cyclic cystine knot motif, making them strong candidates for drug scaffolding and protein engineering. Analysis of the RNA-Seq data for these cyclotide transcripts revealed diverse expression patterns both between transcripts and tissues. The diversity of these cyclotides was also highlighted in a maximum likelihood protein cladogram containing V. pubescens cyclotides and published cyclotide sequences from other Violaceae and Rubiaceae species. Collectively, this work provides the most comprehensive sequence resource for Viola, offers valuable transcriptomic insight into V. pubescens, and will facilitate future functional genomics research in Viola and other diverse plant groups.
Project description:Dickeya dadantii is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for plant soft rot disease in a wide range of hosts, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Iron distribution in infected A. thaliana was investigated at the cellular scale using the Perls'-diaminobenzidine-H2 O2 (PDH) method. Iron visualization during infection reveals a loss of iron from cellular compartments and plant cell walls. During symptom progression, two distinct zones are clearly visible: a macerated zone displaying weak iron content and a healthy zone displaying strong iron content. Immunolabelling of cell wall methylated pectin shows that pectin degradation is correlated with iron release from cell walls, indicating a strong relationship between cell wall integrity and iron in plant tissues. Using a D. dadantii lipopolysaccharide antibody, we show that bacteria are restricted to the infected tissue, and that they accumulate iron in planta. In conclusion, weak iron content is strictly correlated with bacterial cell localization in the infected tissues, indicating a crucial role of this element during the interaction. This is the first report of iron localization at the cellular level during a plant-microbe interaction and shows that PDH is a method of choice in this type of investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: With 10,000 species, Magnoliidae are the largest clade of flowering plants outside monocots and eudicots. Despite an ancient and rich fossil history, the tempo and mode of diversification of Magnoliidae remain poorly known. Using a molecular data set of 12 markers and 220 species (representing >75% of genera in Magnoliidae) and six robust, internal fossil age constraints, we estimate divergence times and significant shifts of diversification across the clade. In addition, we test the sensitivity of magnoliid divergence times to the choice of relaxed clock model and various maximum age constraints for the angiosperms. RESULTS: Compared with previous work, our study tends to push back in time the age of the crown node of Magnoliidae (178.78-126.82 million years, Myr), and of the four orders, Canellales (143.18-125.90 Myr), Piperales (158.11-88.15 Myr), Laurales (165.62-112.05 Myr), and Magnoliales (164.09-114.75 Myr). Although families vary in crown ages, Magnoliidae appear to have diversified into most extant families by the end of the Cretaceous. The strongly imbalanced distribution of extant diversity within Magnoliidae appears to be best explained by models of diversification with 6 to 13 shifts in net diversification rates. Significant increases are inferred within Piperaceae and Annonaceae, while the low species richness of Calycanthaceae, Degeneriaceae, and Himantandraceae appears to be the result of decreases in both speciation and extinction rates. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a new time scale for the evolutionary history of an important, but underexplored, part of the tree of angiosperms. The ages of the main clades of Magnoliidae (above the family level) are older than previously thought, and in several lineages, there were significant increases and decreases in net diversification rates. This study is a new robust framework for future investigations of trait evolution and of factors influencing diversification in this group as well as angiosperms as a whole.
Project description:Plants of the Brassicales order, including Arabidopsis and many common vegetables, produce toxic isothiocyanates to defend themselves against pathogens. Despite this defence, plant pathogenic microorganisms like Pectobacterium cause large yield losses in fields and during storage of crops. The bacterial gene saxA was previously found to encode isothiocyanate hydrolase that degrades isothiocyanates in vitro. Here we demonstrate in planta that saxA is a virulence factor that can overcome the chemical defence system of Brassicales plants. Analysis of the distribution of saxA genes in Pectobacterium suggests that saxA from three different phylogenetic origins are present within this genus. Deletion of saxA genes representing two of the most common classes from P. odoriferum and P. versatile resulted in significantly reduced virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea. Furthermore, expressing saxA from a plasmid in a potato-specific P. parmentieri strain that does not naturally harbour this gene significantly increased the ability of the strain to macerate Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that a single gene may have a significant role in defining the host range of a plant pathogen.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In order to assess genetic diversity of a set of 41 Caricaceae accessions, this study used 34 primer pairs designed from the conserved domains of bacterial leaf blight resistance genes from rice, in a PCR based approach, to identify and analyse resistance gene analogues from various accessions of Carica papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana, V. microcarpa, V. parviflora, V. pubescens, V. stipulata and, V. quercifolia and Jacaratia spinosa. RESULTS: Of the 34 primer pairs fourteen gave amplification products. A total of 115 alleles were identified from 41 accesions along with 12 rare and 11 null alleles. The number of alleles per primer pair ranged from 4 to 10 with an average of 8.21 alleles/ primer pair. The average polymorphism information content value was 0.75/primer. The primers for the gene Xa1 did not give any amplification product. As a group, the Indian Carica papaya accessions produced a total of 102 alleles from 27 accessions. The similarity among the 41 accessions ranged from 1% to 53%. The dendrogram made from Jaccard's genetic similarity coefficient generated two major clusters showing that the alleles of Jacaratia spinosa and Vasconcellea accessions were distinctly different from those of Carica papaya accessions. All the alleles were sequenced and eleven of them were allotted accession numbers by NCBI. Homology searches identified similarity to rice BLB resistance genes and pseudogenes. Conserved domain searches identified gamma subunit of transcription initiation factor IIA (TFIIA), cytochrome P450, signaling domain of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP), Nickel hydrogenase and leucine rich repeats (LRR) within the sequenced RGAs. CONCLUSIONS: The RGA profiles produced by the 14 primer pairs generated high genetic diversity. The RGA profiles identified each of the 41 accessions clearly unequivocally. Most of the DNA sequences of the amplified RGAs from this set of 41 accessions showed significant homology to the conserved regions of rice bacterial leaf blight resistance genes. These information can be used in future for large scale investigation of tentative disease resistance genes of Carica papaya and other Caricaceae genus specially Vasconcellea. Inoculation studies will be necessary to link the identified sequences to disease resistance or susceptibility.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of the Brassicaceae family is the dominant genetic model plant. However, while the flowers within the Brassicaceae members are rather uniform, mainly radially symmetrical, mostly white with fixed organ numbers, species within the Cleomaceae, the sister family to the Brassicaceae show a more variable floral morphology. We were interested in understanding the molecular basis for these morphological differences. To this end, the floral transcriptome of a hybrid Tarenaya hassleriana, a Cleomaceae with monosymmetric, bright purple flowers was sequenced, annotated and analyzed in respect to floral regulators. RESULTS: We obtained a comprehensive floral transcriptome with high depth and coverage close to saturation analyzed using rarefaction analysis a method well known in biodiversity studies. Gene expression was analyzed by calculating reads per kilobase gene model per million reads (RPKM) and for selected genes in silico expression data was corroborated by qRT-PCR analysis. Candidate transcription factors were identified based on differences in expression pattern between A. thaliana and T. hassleriana, which are likely key regulators of the T. hassleriana specific floral characters such as coloration and male sterility in the hybrid plant used. Analysis of lineage specific genes was carried out with members of the fabids and malvids. CONCLUSIONS: The floral transcriptome of T. hassleriana provides insights into key pathways involved in the regulation of late anthocyanin biosynthesis, male fertility, flowering time and organ growth regulation which are unique traits compared the model organism A. thaliana. Analysis of lineage specific genes carried out with members of the fabids and malvids suggests an extensive gene birth rate in the lineage leading to core Brassicales while only few genes were potentially lost during core Brassicales evolution, which possibly reflects the result of the At-? whole genome duplication. Our analysis should facilitate further analyses into the molecular mechanisms of floral morphogenesis and pigmentation and the mechanisms underlying the rather diverse floral morphologies in the Cleomaceae.
Project description:Recent discoveries of reversible N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) methylation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and mapping of m(6)A methylomes in mammals and yeast have revealed potential regulatory functions of this RNA modification. In plants, defects in m(6)A methyltransferase cause an embryo-lethal phenotype, suggesting a critical role of m(6)A in plant development. Here, we profile m(6)A transcriptome-wide in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal that m(6)A is a highly conserved modification of mRNA in plants. Distinct from mammals, m(6)A in A. thaliana is enriched not only around the stop codon and within 3'-untranslated regions, but also around the start codon. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the unique distribution pattern of m(6)A in A. thaliana is associated with plant-specific pathways involving the chloroplast. We also discover a positive correlation between m(6)A deposition and mRNA abundance, suggesting a regulatory role of m(6)A in plant gene expression.