Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of OATP Dysfunction in Diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with hepatic metabolic dysfunction predisposing patients to drug-induced liver injury. Mouse models of type 2 diabetes (T2D) have dramatically reduced expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1A1, a transporter expressed in hepatocytes and in the kidneys. The effects of diabetes on OATP1B2 expression are less studied and less consistent. OATP1A1 and OATP1B2 both transport endogenous substrates such as bile acids and hormone conjugates as well as numerous drugs including gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA). As master pharmacokinetic regulators, the altered expression of OATPs in diabetes could have a profound and clinically significant influence on drug therapies. Here, we report a method to noninvasively measure OATP activity in T2D mice by quantifying the transport of hepatobiliary-specific gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) within the liver and kidneys using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). By comparing GBCA uptake in control and OATP knockout mice, we confirmed liver clearance of the hepatobiliary-specific GBCAs, Gd-EOB-DTPA, and gadobenate dimeglumine, primarily though OATP transporters. Then, we measured a reduction in the hepatic uptake of these hepatobiliary GBCAs in T2D ob/ob mice, which mirrored significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression of OATP1A1 and OATP1B2. As these GBCAs are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved agents and DCE-MRI is a standard clinical protocol, studies to determine OATP1B1/1B3 deficiencies in human individuals with diabetes can be easily envisioned.
Project description:Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function.
Project description:The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in ?15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n=70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n=109).This noninvasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to evaluate if intensified pre-scan patient preparation (IPPP) that comprises custom-made educational material on dynamic phase imaging and supervised pre-imaging breath-hold training in addition to standard informative conversation with verbal explanation of breath-hold commands (standard pre-scan patient preparation-SPPP) might reduce the incidence of gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-related transient severe respiratory motion (TSM) and severity of respiratory motion (RM) during dynamic phase liver MRI. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In this bi-institutional study 100 and 110 patients who received Gd-EOB-DTPA for dynamic phase liver MRI were allocated to either IPPP or SPPP at site A and B. The control group comprised 202 patients who received gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA) of which each 101 patients were allocated to IPPP or SPPP at site B. RM artefacts were scored retrospectively in dynamic phase images (1: none- 5: extensive) by five and two blinded readers at site A and B, respectively, and in the hepatobiliary phase of the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced scans by two blinded readers at either site. RESULTS:The incidence of TSM was 15% at site A and 22.7% at site B (p = 0.157). IPPP did not reduce the incidence of TSM in comparison to SPPP: 16.7% vs. 21.6% (p = 0.366). This finding was consistent at site A: 12% vs. 18% (p = 0.401) and site B: 20.6% vs. 25% (p = 0.590). The TSM incidence in patients with IPPP and SPPP did not differ significantly between both sites (p = 0.227; p = 0.390). IPPP did not significantly mitigate RM in comparison to SPPP in any of the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced dynamic phases and the hepatobiliary phase in patients without TSM (all p?0.072). In the Gd-DOTA control group on the other hand, IPPP significantly mitigated RM in all dynamic phases in comparison to SPPP (all p?0.031). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that Gd-EOB-DTPA-related TSM cannot be mitigated by education and training and that Gd-EOB-DTPA-related breath-hold difficulty does not only affect the subgroup of patients with TSM or exclusively the arterial phase as previously proposed.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a multiparametric gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI examination for the estimation of liver dysfunction classified by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Results:Liver dysfunction can be assessed by different methods. In a logistic regression analysis, T1- and T2-weighted images were affected by impaired liver function. In the assessment of liver dysfunction, the reduction rate in T1 mapping sequences showed a significant correlation in simple and multiple logistic regression. Conclusion:Changes in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI between plain images and images obtained during the hepatobiliary phase allowed good prediction of liver dysfunction, especially when using T1 mapping sequences. Materials and Methods:A total of 199 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. In the multivariable analysis, the full range of available MRI sequences was used to estimate the liver dysfunction of patients with various MELD scores.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare Gd-EOB-DTPA dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI (DHCE-MRI) with 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) as quantitative liver function tests for the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing liver resection. METHODS:Patients undergoing liver surgery and preoperative assessment of future remnant liver (FRL) function using 99mTc-mebrofenin HBS were included. Patients underwent DHCE-MRI. Total liver uptake function was calculated for both modalities: mebrofenin uptake rate (MUR) and Ki respectively. The FRL was delineated with both SPECT-CT and MRI to calculate the functional share. Blood samples were taken to assess biochemical liver parameters. RESULTS:A total of 20 patients were included. The HBS-derived MUR and the DHCE-MRI-derived mean Ki correlated strongly for both total and FRL function (Pearson r = 0.70, p = 0.001 and r = 0.89, p < 0.001 respectively). There was a strong agreement between the functional share determined with both modalities (ICC = 0.944, 95% CI 0.863-0.978, n = 20). There was a significant negative correlation between liver aminotransferases and bilirubin for both MUR and Ki. CONCLUSIONS:Assessment of liver function with DHCE-MRI is comparable with that of 99mTc-mebrofenin HBS and has the potential to be combined with diagnostic MRI imaging. This can therefore provide a one-stop-shop modality for the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing liver surgery. KEY POINTS:• Quantitative assessment of liver function using hepatobiliary scintigraphy is performed in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing liver surgery in order to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure. • Gd-EOB-DTPA dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI (DHCE-MRI) is an emerging method to quantify liver function and can serve as a potential alternative to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. • Assessment of liver function with dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI is comparable with that of hepatobiliary scintigraphy and has the potential to be combined with diagnostic MRI imaging.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Intravenous glycyrrhizin, having anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, is incorporated into the management of liver diseases in China. This investigation was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying hepatobiliary excretion of glycyrrhizin and to investigate its potential for drug-drug interactions on organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Human transporters mediating hepatobiliary excretion of glycyrrhizin were characterized at the cellular and vesicular levels and compared with rat hepatic transporters. The role of Oatp1b2 in glycyrrhizin's elimination and pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats using the inhibitor rifampin. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for glycyrrhizin, incorporating transporter-mediated hepatobiliary excretion, was established and applied to predict potential drug-drug interactions related to glycyrrhizin in humans. KEY RESULTS:Hepatobiliary excretion of glycyrrhizin involved human OATP1B1/1B3 (Oatp1b2 in rats)-mediated hepatic uptake from blood and human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2/breast cancer resistance protein (ABCP)/bile salt export pump (BSEP)/multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp2/Abcp/Bsep in rats)-mediated hepatic efflux into bile. In rats, rifampin impaired hepatic uptake of glycyrrhizin significantly increasing its systemic exposure. Glomerular-filtration-based renal excretion of glycyrrhizin was slow due to extensive protein binding in plasma. Quantitative analysis using the PBPK model demonstrated that OATP1B1/1B3 have critical roles in the pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizin, which is highly likely to be a victim of drug-drug interactions when co-administered with potent dual inhibitors of these transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Transporter-mediated hepatobiliary excretion governs glycyrrhizin's elimination and pharmacokinetics. Understanding glycyrrhizin's potential drug-drug interactions on OATP1B1/1B3 should enhance the therapeutic outcome of glycyrrhizin-containing drug combinations on liver diseases.
Project description:Objective: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI) for differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), as well as HCA classification by using the low signal intensity (SI) in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP). Methods: A systematic process was used to review all published data in MEDLINE database about Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI applied to differentiation of HCA and FNH, and classification of HCA by using low SI in the HBP. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated to assess the diagnostic value of low SI in the HBP. Results: A review of 45 articles identified 10 eligible studies with a total of 288 HCA lesions. The pooled proportion of low SI in the HBP of HCA were 91% (95% CI: 0.81-0.97). In specific, the subtypes of HCA were 75% (95% CI: 0.64-0.85) for I-HCA, 100% (95% CI: 0.95-1.00) for H-HCA, 92% (95% CI: 0.70-1.00) for U-HCA, and 59% (95% CI: 0.00-1.00) for b-HCA, respectively. The pooled specificity and sensitivity of low SI in the HBP for distinguishing FNH from HCA were 95% (95% CI: 0.92-0.98) and 92% (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), respectively. Conclusion: Low SI in the HBP of Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI is associated with higher accuracy for distinguishing HCA from FNH. However, the diagnostic accuracy may be overvalued, especially for the diagnosis of subtypes of b-HCA and I-HCA. Therefore, the risk factors and conventional imaging findings should be take into account simultaneously.
Project description:To assess the costs of diagnostic workup and surgery of three strategies for patients with colorectal cancer liver-metastases (CRCLM): gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI), MRI with extracellular contrast-media (ECCM-MRI) or contrast-enhanced MDCT (CE-MDCT).The within-trial cost evaluation was modelled as a decision-tree to calculate the cost of diagnosis and surgery. The model used clinical outcomes and resource utilization data from a prospective randomized multicentre study. Analyses were performed for the 354-patient safety population from eight participating countries.The diagnostic workup cost using Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI upfront resulted in savings compared to ECCM-MRI in all countries except Thailand (difference <2 %). Compared to CE-MDCT, initial imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI was less costly in all countries except Korea and Spain (differences 4 and 8 %, respectively). Significantly more patients in the Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI group were eligible for surgery (39.3 % (48/122) vs. 31.0 % (36/116) and 26.7 % (31/116) for ECCM-MRI and CE-MDCT, respectively), allowing more patients to undergo potentially curative surgery, but resulting in higher treatment costs for the strategy starting with Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI.The benefits of Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI due to less additional imaging and similar diagnostic workup costs in the three groups suggest that Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI should be the preferred initial imaging procedure to evaluate hepatic resectability in patients with CRCLM.• Diagnostic imaging cost to evaluate resectability was similar among the groups • Cost for imaging was rather small compared to the cost of surgery • Significantly more patients in the Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI arm were eligible for surgery • Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI is recommended for evaluating hepatic resectability in patients with CRCLM.
Project description:Limited data exists in China on the comparative cost of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI) with other imaging techniques. This study compared the total cost of Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and extracellular contrast media-enhanced MRI (ECCM-MRI) as initial imaging procedures in patients with suspected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We developed a decision-tree model on the basis of the Chinese clinical guidelines for HCC, which was validated by clinical experts from China. The model compared the diagnostic accuracy and costs of alternative initial imaging procedures. Compared with MDCT and ECCM-MRI, Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI imaging was associated with higher rates of diagnostic accuracy, i.e. higher proportions of true positives (TP) and true negatives (TN) with lower false positives (FP). Total diagnosis and treatment cost per patient after the initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI evaluation was similar to MDCT (¥30,360 vs. ¥30,803) and lower than that reported with ECCM-MRI (¥30,360 vs. ¥31,465). Lower treatment cost after initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI was driven by reduced utilization of confirmatory diagnostic procedures and unnecessary treatments. The findings reported that Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI offered higher diagnostic accuracy compared with MDCT and ECCM-MRI at a comparable cost, which indicates Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI could be the preferred initial imaging procedure for the diagnosis of HCC in China.
Project description:UNLABELLED:ATP11C is a homolog of ATP8B1, both of which catalyze the transport of phospholipids in biological membranes. Mutations in ATP8B1 cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type1 in humans, which is characterized by a canalicular cholestasis. Mice deficient in ATP11C are characterized by a conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and an unconjugated hypercholanemia. Here, we have studied the hypothesis that ATP11C deficiency interferes with basolateral uptake of unconjugated bile salts, a process mediated by organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B2. ATP11C localized to the basolateral membrane of central hepatocytes in the liver lobule of control mice. In ATP11C-deficient mice, plasma total bilirubin levels were 6-fold increased, compared to control, of which ?65% was conjugated and ?35% unconjugated. Plasma total bile salts were 10-fold increased and were mostly present as unconjugated species. Functional studies in ATP11C-deficient mice indicated that hepatic uptake of unconjugated bile salts was strongly impaired whereas uptake of conjugated bile salts was unaffected. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated near absence of basolateral bile salt uptake transporters OATP1B2, OATP1A1, OATP1A4, and Na(+) -taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide only in central hepatocytes of ATP11C-deficient liver. In vivo application of the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, partially restored expression of these proteins, but not their localization. Furthermore, we observed post-translational down-regulation of ATP11C protein in livers from cholestatic mice, which coincided with reduced OATP1B2 levels. CONCLUSIONS:ATP11C is essential for basolateral membrane localization of multiple bile salt transport proteins in central hepatocytes and may act as a gatekeeper to prevent hepatic bile salt overload. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and unconjugated hypercholanemia and loss of OATP expression in ATP11C-deficient liver strongly resemble the characteristics of Rotor syndrome, suggesting that mutations in ATP11C can predispose to Rotor syndrome. (Hepatology 2016;64:161-174).