Risk factors of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Republic of Korea.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Female sex workers (FSW) who live in urban areas in Republic of Korea have a particularly high risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). We investigated the prevalence of s STDs in FSWs in order to determine the factors associated with sexually transmitted infections in Korea. METHODS:Study data were collected from 832 FSWs through a 2014 survey on the prevalence of STDs in high risk populations in Republic of Korea. We assessed the associations between sexually transmitted infections and demographic and risk behaviour variables through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:The risk probability of sexually transmitted infection was higher for those who drank alcohol often as well as those who had their first sexual experience at an early age. However, the effects of these factors were attenuated by working conditions. The risk probability of sexually transmitted infections was higher for those who engaged in sex with several customers per day as well as for those who did not practice regular condom use. CONCLUSIONS:The risk factors for sexually transmitted infections among FSWs in Republic of Korea are related to and affected by working conditions. Thus, multifaceted health interventions to protect FSWs and their sexual health are deemed necessary.
Project description:Purpose:To study the sexual behavior and status of sexually transmitted urethritis (STU) in the elderly population of South Korea. Materials and Methods:Congregating places for elderly population, which were selected on the expected risk of sexually transmitted infections, were visited to study their sexual behavior, awareness on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and STU status using a specially developed survey and urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. In addition, analysis of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA) database was done to study the nationwide status and trends of STU of the elderly population. Results:The study found that approximately 42% of elderly South Koreans were sexually active. Elderlies in the high-risk group showed a higher percentage of multiple sexual partners and prostitution than elderlies in the low-risk group. Only 3% and 14% in the low-risk group and high-risk group used condoms, showing a very low rate of condom use. Both the urine PCR results and HIRA database analysis showed that the prevalence of STU was not high and it remained stable in recent years, implying that currently, STU is not a significant burden on public health in the elderly population of South Korea. Conclusions:The current study presented the sexual behavior in the elderly population of South Korea, as well as the recent prevalence and trend of STU in the elderly population. These results may be used as baseline data for future study, education, prevention and public campaign plan for STDs in the elderly population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Low-fee female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of acquiring and spreading human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. There is an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures targeted towards low-fee FSWs to reduce HIV/STD infections. Thus, this study aimed to reduce HIV/STD infections among low-fee FSW through a matched-pair, community-based randomized intervention trial carried out in 12 cities in three provinces in China. METHODS:Four cities from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, four from Yunnan Province, and four from Hunan Province were paired and participants received either the intervention package (including condom promotion, HIV and syphilis testing, reimbursement for syphilis treatment costs, and free anti-retroviral therapy or the current standard of care. Venue-based, convenience sampling was used to recruit FSWs. A face-to-face interview and HIV and syphilis blood testing was conducted at baseline and follow-up intervals of 24?months. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to evaluate the effect of the intervention package on reducing HIV/STD infection in the FSWs. RESULTS:A total of 1024 eligible FSWs were enrolled in the baseline survey and 843 in the follow-up. GLMM results showed that syphilis infection was reduced by 49% in the intervention group compared to the current standard of care group (P?=?0.0378, OR?=?0.51, 95% CI: 0.27-0.96). FSWs aged 35?years or older were 2.38 times more likely to get syphilis infection compared to those younger than 35?years old (P?<? 0.0001, OR?=?2.38, 95% CI: 1.55-3.65). The risk of syphilis infection among more educated FSWs was 0.43 times less than those with lower levels of education (P?<? 0.05, OR?=?0.43, 95% CI: 0.63-0.93). CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that comprehensive interventions can lead to significant declines in syphilis infection amongst low-tier FSWs. Integrating both behavioral and biomedical intervention measures should be considered when developing programs for low-fee FSWs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:CHiCTR-TRC-12002655.
Project description:Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico.Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes.A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial.NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance. METHODS:We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ? 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12) using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed. RESULTS:Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8%) of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ? $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.94) and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30-2.92). The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education. CONCLUSION:Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment.
Project description:Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) prolongs life and reduces infectiousness, in some contexts, it has been associated with increased sexual risk taking.Retrospective case-control study.Nairobi-based dedicated female sex worker (FSW) clinic.HIV-infected FSWs before and after ART initiation (n=62); HIV-infected and -uninfected control FSWs not starting ART during the same follow-up period (n=40).Initiation of ART.Self-reported condom use, client numbers and sexually transmitted infection incidence over the study period (before and after ART initiation in cases).Sexual risk-taking behaviour with casual clients did not increase after ART initiation; condom use increased and sexually transmitted infection incidence decreased in both cases and controls, likely due to successful cohort-wide HIV prevention efforts.ART provision was not associated with increases in unsafe sex in this FSW population.
Project description:Female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a core group in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young FSWs are particularly more vulnerable to HIV due to the combination of vulnerabilities associated with their youth and the sex work they engage in. This study aims to give more insight into HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviour of young FSWs in Nigeria, by focusing on the differences between BB and NBB young FSWs.Data was obtained from the Nigeria Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) for high-risk groups conducted in 2010. IBBSS is a quantitative survey conducted amongst identified high-risk sub populations within Nigeria. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour data for young BB and NBB FSWs aged 15-24 years for nine states was extracted and analysed.A total of 1796 FSWs aged 15-24 years were interviewed during the survey, 746 (41.5%) were BB while 1050 (58.5%) were NBB. The HIV prevalence was higher among BB FSWs compared to the NBB FSWs (21.0% vs. 15.5%). BB FSWs reported less condom use with boyfriends and casual partners than NBB FSWs (26.3% vs. 45.5%) and (55.1% vs. 61.1%) respectively while risk of HIV infection due to injecting drug use was higher in NBB compared to BB FSWs (6.6% vs. 1.2%).Existing and future interventions on HIV prevention should focus on empowering young FSWs with innovative and sustainable approaches aimed at improving their health and wellbeing.
Project description:Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among female sex workers (FSWs) and is associated with multiple HIV risk factors, including poor mental health, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Prior studies have focused on GBV of one type (e.g. physical or sexual) or from one kind of perpetrator (e.g., clients or regular partners), but many FSWs experience overlapping types of violence from multiple perpetrators, with varying frequency and severity. We examined the association between lifetime patterns of GBV and HIV risk factors in 283 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Patterns of GBV were identified with latent class analysis based on physical, sexual, or emotional violence from multiple perpetrators. Cross-sectional outcomes included depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, disordered alcohol and other drug use, number of sex partners, self-reported unprotected sex, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions, and a combined unprotected sex indicator based on self-report or PSA detection. We also measured HIV/STI incidence over 12 months following GBV assessment. Associations between GBV patterns and each outcome were modeled separately using linear regression for mental health outcomes and Poisson regression for sexual risk outcomes. Lifetime prevalence of GBV was 87%. We identified 4 GBV patterns, labeled Low (21% prevalence), Sexual (23%), Physical/Moderate Emotional (18%), and Severe (39%). Compared to women with Low GBV, those with Severe GBV had higher scores for depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and disordered alcohol use, and had more sex partners. Women with Sexual GBV had higher scores for disordered alcohol use than women with Low GBV, but similar sexual risk behavior. Women with Physical/Moderate Emotional GBV had more sex partners and a higher prevalence of unprotected sex than women with Low GBV, but no differences in mental health. HIV/STI incidence did not differ significantly by GBV pattern. The prevalence of GBV was extremely high in this sample of Kenyan FSWs, and different GBV patterns were associated with distinct mental health and sexual risk outcomes. Increased understanding of how health consequences vary by GBV type and severity could lead to more effective programs to reduce HIV risk in this vulnerable population.
Project description:Preventing unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, among adolescents is a public health priority. This report presents prevalence estimates for condom and contraceptive use among sexually active U.S. high school students from the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Behaviors examined included any condom use, primary contraceptive method use, and condom use with a more effective contraceptive method, all reported at last sexual intercourse. Analyses were limited to sexually active students (i.e., those who had sexual intercourse with one or more persons during the 3 months before the survey). Except for any condom use, students reporting only same-sex sexual contact were excluded from analyses. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated, and bivariate differences in prevalence were examined by demographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity, and grade) and other sexual risk behaviors (age of sexual initiation, previous 3-month and lifetime number of sex partners, and substance use before last sexual intercourse). Nationwide, 27.4% of high school students reported being sexually active (n = 3,226). Among sexually active students who reported having had sexual contact with someone of the opposite sex (n = 2,698), most students (89.7%) had used a condom or a primary contraceptive method at last sexual intercourse. Prevalence of any condom use at last sexual intercourse was 54.3%, and condoms were the most prevalent primary contraceptive method (43.9% versus 23.3% for birth control pills; 4.8% for intrauterine device [IUD] or implant; and 3.3% for shot, patch, or ring). Approximately 9% had used condoms with an IUD, implant, shot, patch, ring, or birth control pills. Using no pregnancy prevention method was more common among non-Hispanic black (23.2%) and Hispanic (12.8%) students compared with non-Hispanic white students (6.8%); compared with Hispanic students, using no pregnancy prevention method was more common among non-Hispanic black students. Prevalence of condom use was consistently lower among students with other sexual risk behaviors. Results underscore the need for public health professionals to provide quality sexual and reproductive health education and clinical services for preventing unintended pregnancy and STDs/HIV and decreasing disparities among sexually active youths.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the correlated risk factors among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese-Vietnamese border region in Yunnan Province, China. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2014 and 2015 in Hekou County, Yunnan Province, China. Convenience sampling and snowball sampling methods were used to recruit male clients for a questionnaire survey to collect information on demographics, sexual behavior, and drug use. Blood and urine samples were collected for testing of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors correlated with HIV infection. RESULTS:Of 776 respondents who participated in the study, 721 (92.91%) were Chinese and 55 (7.09%) were Vietnamese. Overall HIV prevalence in male clients of FSWs was 2.06%, 128 (16.49%) were infected with HSV-2, and five (0.64%) tested syphilis-positive. Two-thirds (68.81%) of respondents reported always using condoms with FSWs, and 89.05% reported condom use in the last episode of commercial sex. Male clients from Vietnam were significantly more likely to take morphine (9.09%) compared with Chinese male clients of FSWs. Age ?50 years (OR: 8.11, 95%CI: 1.26-52.16) and morphine positivity (OR: 7.35, 95%CI: 1.42-38.06) were associated with HIV infection in the multivariate logistic regression model. CONCLUSION:The relatively high proportion of male clients of FSWs who have numerous sexual partners and use condoms less frequently make them serve as important bridges for HIV transmission from FSWs to the low-risk general population. The positive association between morphine positivity and HIV infection confirmed illegal drug use as another important route for acquiring HIV infection in addition to sexual transmission, indicating that innovative interventions addressing both drug use and risky sexual behaviors are greatly required for male clients. Respondents aged ?50 years have a higher risk of HIV infection, which emphasizes that older male clients of FSWs should be focused in future HIV prevention interventions in the border regions of China.
Project description:Little is known about risk factors for persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection in low-income settings, and prior research has not quantified the relative duration of hrHPV infections stratified by risk factors. We compared the duration of hrHPV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) by exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), using a highly sensitive biomarker assay.From 2009 to 2011, 350 FSWs enrolled in this longitudinal study. Every 3 months, sociodemographic and sexual behavior data were collected via questionnaire, and APTIMA assays were used to detect the rRNA of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and messenger RNA of the E6/E7 oncoproteins expressed by hrHPV. Among 173 FSW who were infected with hrHPV during the observation period, accelerated failure time models estimated time ratios (TRs) for duration of hrHPV infection, comparing FSW infected with STIs at baseline to STI-uninfected FSWs.Median follow-up time was 26.2 months (interquartile range, 18.8-27.5 months). The median duration of hrHPV infection among all FSWs was 9.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.3-11.5). The duration of hrHPV infection among FSW infected with CT at baseline was greater than that among FSWs who were uninfected (adjusted TR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6). Among FSWs who were coinfected with hrHPV and CT at baseline, the adjusted TR was 3.4 (95% CI, 2.5-5.4) compared with FSWs infected with hrHPV only. No other STI was associated with hrHPV duration.Recent or concurrent CT infection was associated with prolonged hrHPV infection among a cohort of Nairobi FSWs. Management of CT could reduce risk for hrHPV persistence.