How to Find an Academic Position After Residency: Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Transitioning from trainee to practicing physician is a process that is not frequently discussed during postgraduate training, but such a discussion is necessary if the number of academic physicians is to increase and physicians from underrepresented communities are to gain insight about the varied opportunities to join academe. This workshop combines a case-based format in its didactic portion with a step-by-step guide and time line to introduce the process for securing an academic position postresidency. Methods:Kern's six-step model was used as the framework for the workshop's design, delivery, and assessment. The workshop was presented to medical students and residents at a series of programs fostering the development of the next generation of academic physicians that were offered at host medical schools across the US between July 2016 and May 2017. Results:Evaluation data were collected from 64 participants from nine academic medicine conferences across the nation. In comparing pre- and postworkshop responses, there was a statistically significant increase in confidence to find an academic position after residency (1.95 vs. 3.18, paired-sample t test, p < .001). More than 90% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the workshop's three objectives were met. Participants commented that they appreciated discussions on contracts and the steps they should take following residency in order to successfully obtain an academic position. Discussion:This workshop may assist trainees in making better-informed decisions about considerations that are important for finding and retaining an academic position long-term.
Project description:Introduction:Medical students are a significant source of the future academic medicine workforce, but surprisingly little is typically done to promote academic medicine career awareness during the early stages of medical education. To raise awareness among medical students of the critical role an academic residency plays in pursuing a future academic career, we developed a workshop that describes what an academic residency entails and what to consider when selecting such a program. Methods:The six-step Kern model was applied to develop a multimodal workshop to help trainees understand characteristics of and explore their interest in an academic residency program. The 60-minute workshop consists of a PowerPoint presentation, reflection exercise, and case scenarios to help trainees learn and apply new skills in selecting a residency program. The workshop was offered to diverse medical students at nine different medical schools across the country between July 2016 and May 2017. Results:Of the 115 workshop participants who completed the evaluation form, over 95% agreed or strongly agreed that each of the learning objectives was met. A paired t test of learner responses pre- and postworkshop demonstrated significantly increased confidence in finding an academic residency position. Discussion:This workshop fills an important gap in raising medical students' awareness of how to pursue an academic medicine career by highlighting the critical role of an academic residency program. Participants liked the use of vignettes and small-group discussion to better prepare them in exploring and benefiting from an academic residency position.
Project description:Introduction:Mentorship is essential for students considering a future in academic medicine. Mentoring is recognized as one of the most important factors in determining career success through enhancing trainees' goals and productivity. An effective mentoring relationship can drive trainees' goals to fruition by providing support so that opportunistic risk can be taken and failures can be reevaluated into learning experiences. Mentorship has such importance that it was deemed mandatory in education by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Moreover, mentoring can play a significant role in helping to diversify the academic medicine workforce. Methods:This 60-minute workshop utilizes a didactic PowerPoint presentation and small-group role-play exercise to introduce participants to the importance of mentoring in the development of academic medicine careers and to provide instruction on establishing effective meetings with prospective mentors. Faculty facilitated the workshop at nine regional academic medicine conferences held across the country. Results:Eighty-seven diverse participants completed an evaluation form. In comparing pre- and postworkshop responses, there was a statistically significant increase in confidence to "Find a mentor for a career in academic medicine" (2.29 vs. 3.26, p < .001) and "Have a successful relationship with an academic medicine mentor" (2.52 vs. 3.38, p < .001). Moreover, more than 85% agreed or strongly agreed that the workshop's learning objectives were met. Discussion:Trainees from diverse backgrounds gained crucial insight into the importance of mentorship and techniques on how to establish and maintain mentors while pursuing an academic medicine career.
Project description:Introduction:The future of academic medicine depends on attracting motivated trainees to the academic career path, but challenges to recruitment include unfamiliarity with academic career options. Methods:This workshop comprises a didactic session with small-group case discussion to enable trainees to learn how to: (1) define academic medical center roles and responsibilities, (2) assess the alignment of academic medical center roles with personal goals and interests, and (3) identify factors that support an academic medicine career trajectory. Workshop evaluations were collected at five academic medicine conferences for medical students and residents held across the U.S. Results:Among the 139 conference participants who completed an evaluation form, the majority had a statistically significant increase in confidence regarding their building a foundation for a career in academic medicine, and in identifying an academic medicine career role aligning with their own personal and professional interests. The majority strongly agreed or agreed that the workshop objectives were met. Trainees reported that the workshop was "illuminating," "informative," and "educational." Discussion:Improved understanding of academic medicine career roles and responsibilities can increase trainees' awareness of the opportunities in academic medicine and may support development of the next generation of academic physicians.
Project description:Introduction:Faculty must be trained to recognize, analyze, and provide feedback and resources to struggling medical learners. Training programs must be equipped to intervene when necessary with individualized remediation efforts to ensure learner success. Methods:This 90-minute interactive faculty development workshop provides a foundational competency-based framework for identifying and assisting the struggling medical learner. The workshop uses a mock academic promotions committee meeting addressing the case of a struggling undergraduate learner. The workshop was presented at two regional conferences, and participants completed an anonymous evaluation form containing 10 items on a 5-point Likert scale and two open-ended questions. Data were analyzed and a subgroup analysis performed using an independent t test and correlation. Qualitative data were read and coded for representative themes by two authors. Results:Fifty-five participants completed an evaluation form. The quality of the workshop was high (M = 4.5, SD = 0.6); participants agreed that the learning objectives were achieved and relevant to their educational needs (M = 4.4, SD = 0.7). A significant positive correlation existed between perceived quality and the interactive elements (.70, p < .05) as well as the intention to apply learning (.60, p < .05). Written comments revealed six themes: role-play, resources, interaction with colleagues, modeling, relevant content, and the process of learning. Discussion:The workshop's quality, relevance, and applicability were rated excellent among medical educators. Participants felt the interactive nature of the workshop was its most useful aspect, and a majority intended to apply the learning to their practice.
Project description:Introduction:There is an increasing call for developing validity evidence in medical education assessment. The literature lacks a practical resource regarding an actual development process. Our workshop teaches how to apply principles of validity evidence to existing assessment instruments and how to develop new instruments that will yield valid data. Methods:The literature, consensus findings of curricula and content experts, and principles of adult learning guided the content and methodology of the workshop. The workshop underwent stringent peer review prior to presentation at one international and three national academic conferences. In the interactive workshop, selected domains of validity evidence were taught with sequential cycles of didactics, demonstration, and deliberate practice with facilitated feedback. An exercise guide steered participants through a stepwise approach. Using Likert-scale items and open-response questions, an evaluation form rated the workshop's effectiveness, captured details of how learners reached the objectives, and determined participants' plans for future work. Results:The workshop demonstrated generalizability with successful implementation in diverse settings. Sixty-five learners, the majority being clinician-educators, completed evaluations. Learners rated the workshop favorably for each prompt. Qualitative comments corroborated the workshop's effectiveness. The active application and facilitated feedback components allowed learners to reflect in real time as to how they were meeting a particular objective. Discussion:This feasible and practical educational intervention fills a literature gap by showing the medical educator how to apply validity evidence to both existing and in-development assessment instruments. Thus, it holds the potential to significantly impact learner and, subsequently, patient outcomes.
Project description:Introduction:The expansion of medical schools and increased faculty attrition call for heightened efforts to encourage medical students and residents to consider academic careers. As diversity serves as a driver of institutional excellence, special attention to the ongoing underrepresentation of certain groups in academia, such as racial and ethnic minorities, women, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals, is warranted. Methods:We developed a 90-minute workshop to raise medical student and resident awareness of academic medicine careers, and the benefits and challenges of having a diverse faculty. The workshop consists of a didactic PowerPoint presentation and a reflection exercise, shared in small- and large-group format, discussing facilitators and barriers to pursuing academia. The workshop was implemented at nine regional conferences. Results:There were 165 diverse participants. In comparing pre- and postworkshop responses of learners using the sample t test, there was a statistically significant increase in confidence to succeed in academic medicine given learners' gender (2.69 vs. 3.34, p < .001), race and ethnicity (2.53 vs. 3.24, p < .001), or sexual orientation (3.04 vs. 3.42, p < .001). Approximately 95% of learners felt that each of the workshop's learning objectives had been achieved. Participants considered the workshop to be enlightening, motivational, realistic, and validating. Discussion:This workshop was effective in providing an interactive format for medical students and residents to gain awareness of the state, benefits, and challenges of diversity and inclusion in academic medicine, and can affect their perception of being a future faculty member.
Project description:Introduction:American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIAN) experience significant health inequities, yet there are very few curricula dedicated to training a culturally sensitive workforce to care for this population. There is a further dearth of curricula that center on Indigenous values and ways of knowing. Methods:We developed a 90-minute interactive workshop aimed at increasing faculty and trainee understanding of the social and structural determinants of urban AIAN health. The workshop consisted of a PowerPoint presentation, two videos, an interactive storytelling exercise, and reflection exercises. Participants also completed pre-/postworkshop questionnaires. The workshop was implemented three times at two medical schools. Results:There were a total of 35 diverse participants. Regarding the effect of the workshop on participants' knowledge base, a comparison of pre- and postworkshop questionnaire responses showed a statistically significant (p < .05) increase in the correct answer being chosen for each question. All participants agreed or strongly agreed that each of the three learning objectives had been met. Participants particularly valued the workshop's interactive nature, as well as its use of storytelling and multimedia to reinforce policy impact. Discussion:This workshop provided an interactive and effective method to increase participant knowledge of the importance of a land acknowledgment, of connecting federal Indian policy to health outcomes, and of how AIAN identity may impact access to health care.
Project description:Introduction:The growth of medical schools, faculty attrition, and reports of student disinterest in academia all stress the need to cultivate the next generation of academic physicians. Because medical educators serve as the largest segment of faculty, heightening diverse students' awareness of opportunities to engage in various educational roles and scholarship may help them consider future academic positions. Methods:We implemented a workshop utilizing didactics and a small-group case discussion to help students learn how to (1) define educational scholarship and portfolios, (2) recognize the value of educational scholarship, and (3) identify how to get started with educational scholarship. Results:One hundred and fifty-six learners participated in the workshop at 11 regional conferences. Of learners from conferences 1-6, 100% (69/69) responded to the statement "The workshop INCREASED my confidence in achieving the following - Performing educational scholarship." Among these learners, 39 (56.5%) strongly agreed and 20 (29.0%) agreed with this statement. Of learners from conferences 7-11, 98.9% (86/87) responded to the question "How much confidence do you have in your ability to succeed along a clinician-educator track and publish your education-related work?" Using a paired-samples t test, a statistically significant increase in learner confidence was noted (p < .01) before and after the workshop. Discussion:Diverse learners appreciated a heightened awareness of educational roles and scholarship, which may help them gain confidence, interest, and experience in becoming future medical educators.
Project description:Professional and governmental organizations recommend an ideal US physician workforce composed of at least 40 % primary care physicians. They also support primary care residencies to promote careers in primary care. Our study examines the relationship between graduation from a primary care or categorical internal medicine residency program and subsequent career choice.We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of a cohort of internal medicine residency alumni who graduated between 2001 and 2010 from a large academic center. Our primary predictor was graduation from a primary care versus a categorical internal medicine program and our primary outcome is current career role. We performed chi-square analysis comparing responses of primary care and categorical residents.We contacted 481 out of 513 alumni, of whom 322 responded (67 %). We compared 106 responses from primary care alumni to 169 responses from categorical alumni. Fifty-four percent of primary care alumni agreed that the majority of their current clinical work is in outpatient primary care vs. 20 % of categorical alumni (p < 0.001). While 92.5 % of primary-care alumni were interested in a primary care career prior to residency, only 63 % remained interested after residency. Thirty of the 34 primary care alumni (88 %) who lost interest in a primary care career during residency agreed that their ambulatory experience during residency influenced their subsequent career choice.A higher percentage of primary care alumni practice outpatient primary care as compared to categorical alumni. Some alumni lost interest in primary care during residency. The outpatient clinic experience may impact interest in primary care.
Project description:Introduction:Increasing faculty and leader diversity has been recommended as a way for health care organizations to achieve cultural competence in their patient care mission. Given the low numbers of underrepresented groups in medical school leadership positions, teaching diverse students and trainees the concept of leadership as influence may empower them to become more involved and bring diverse perspectives to their organizations. Methods:This 70-minute workshop consisted of a short presentation, a self-assessment, small- and large-group discussions, and case studies to: (1) describe the importance of diversity in medical school leadership, (2) define leadership, (3) define self-leadership, and (4) assess one's own self-leadership skills. The workshop was implemented at three US medical schools to diverse medical students and residents between September and December of 2019. Pre- and postworkshop evaluations were analyzed. Results:Greater than 95% of learners (n = 66) agreed that the workshop's learning objectives were met. Comments suggested participants appreciated learning about the lack of diversity among medical school leaders and the importance of cultivating their role in diversity in academic medicine. The case studies were highly rated and considered effective tools for learning. Discussion:This submission defined an empowering notion of leadership as influence. It taught learners that we can all lead (by influence) if we can improve our own self-leadership skills and become involved and bring diverse perspectives to health care organizations. Future research may focus on longer-term follow-up of participants to reassess their self-leadership skills and describe their level of involvement in their organizations.