Identifying and Managing Intraoperative Arrhythmia: A Multidisciplinary Operating Room Team Simulation Case.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Resuscitation of a critically ill patient is challenging for both novice learners and experienced health care providers. During a critical event, not only is it important to identify the correct underlying diagnosis, it is equally crucial that the appropriate Advance Cardiac Life Support algorithm, medications, and defibrillator modality are implemented. This scenario features a 56-year-old female who presents for excisional biopsy of an inguinal lymph node to evaluate lymphadenopathy concerning for lymphoma. Intraoperatively, she goes into cardiopulmonary arrest. Participants must identify and manage three different scenarios: (1) ventricular fibrillation, (2) unstable ventricular tachycardia, and (3) bradycardia, including the use of the defibrillator. Method:Weekly simulation sessions were conducted in the in situ simulation operating room at Massachusetts General Hospital. Surgical residents, anesthesiology residents, nurses, and surgical technicians participated in a multidisciplinary operating room team. Each approximately 60-minute session included an orientation, the case, and the debriefing. Equipment included a simulation operating room with general surgery supplies, general anesthesia equipment, a high-fidelity SimMan patient simulator, a code cart, and a defibrillator. Results:Ninety-one multidisciplinary participants completed this scenario from September to December 2015. Participants reported that the scenario was applicable to their clinical practice (96%), promoted teamwork skills (88%), and encouraged interprofessional learning (94%). Discussion:Intraoperative cardiac arrest is a devastating event that can result in poor patient outcomes if the care team is not thoroughly prepared for crisis management. This simulation case scenario was implemented to train multidisciplinary learners in the identification and management of such an event.
Project description:Introduction:Operating room (OR) fire can be a devastating and costly event to patients and health care providers. Prevention and effective management of such fires may present difficulties even for experienced OR staff. Methods:This simulation involved a 52-year-old man presenting for excisional biopsy of a cervical lymph node to be performed under sedation. Participants were expected to identify and manage both contained and uncontained fires resulting from ignition by electrosurgical cautery. We conducted weekly multidisciplinary simulations in the mock OR at Massachusetts General Hospital. Participants included surgery and anesthesiology residents, certified registered nurse anesthetists, registered nurses, and surgical technicians. Participants were unaware of the scenario content. Each 90-minute session was divided into three parts: an orientation (10 minutes), the case with rapid cycle debriefing (65 minutes), and a final debriefing with course evaluations (15 minutes). Equipment consisted of a simulation OR with general surgery supplies, general anesthesia equipment, a high-fidelity Laerdal SimMan 3G simulator, a code cart, a defibrillator, dry ice for smoke effects, and a projector with a fire image. Results:From April to June 2015, 86 participants completed this simulation. Participants reported that the simulation scenario was realistic (80%), was relevant to their clinical practice (93%), changed their practice (82%), and promoted teamwork (80%). Discussion:Prevention and management of OR fire require collaboration and prompt coordination between anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses. This simulation case scenario was implemented to train multidisciplinary learners in the identification and crisis management of such an event.
Project description:The human patient simulators that are currently used in multidisciplinary operating room team training scenarios cannot simulate surgical tasks because they lack a realistic surgical anatomy. Thus, they eliminate the surgeon's primary task in the operating room. The surgical trainee is presented with a significant barrier when he or she attempts to suspend disbelief and engage in the scenario.To develop and test a simulation-based operating room team training strategy that challenges the communication abilities and teamwork competencies of surgeons while they are engaged in realistic operative maneuvers.This pre-post educational intervention pilot study compared the gains in teamwork skills for midlevel surgical residents at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center after they participated in a standardized multidisciplinary team training scenario with 3 possible levels of surgical realism: (1) SimMan (Laerdal) (control group, no surgical anatomy); (2) "synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks" mannequin (medium-fidelity anatomy), and (3) a patient simulated by a deceased donor (high-fidelity anatomy).Participation in the simulation scenario and the subsequent debriefing.Teamwork competency was assessed using several instruments with extensive validity evidence, including the Nontechnical Skills assessment, the Trauma Management Skills scoring system, the Crisis Resource Management checklist, and a self-efficacy survey instrument. Participant satisfaction was assessed with a Likert-scale questionnaire.Scenario participants included midlevel surgical residents, anesthesia providers, scrub nurses, and circulating nurses. Statistical models showed that surgical residents exposed to medium-fidelity simulation (synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks) team training scenarios demonstrated greater gains in teamwork skills compared with control groups (SimMan) (Nontechnical Skills video score: 95% CI, 1.06-16.41; Trauma Management Skills video score: 95% CI, 0.61-2.90) and equivalent gains in teamwork skills compared with high-fidelity simulations (deceased donor) (Nontechnical Skills video score: 95% CI, -8.51 to 6.71; Trauma Management Skills video score: 95% CI, -1.70 to 0.49).Including a surgical task in operating room team training significantly enhanced the acquisition of teamwork skills among midlevel surgical residents. Incorporating relatively inexpensive, medium-fidelity synthetic anatomy in human patient simulators was as effective as using high-fidelity anatomies from deceased donors for promoting teamwork skills in this learning group.
Project description:Introduction:Emergency physicians must be able to manage inappropriately firing defibrillators. Many physicians may not experience this high-risk, low-frequency patient presentation during residency. We created this simulation to increase residents' knowledge of basic defibrillator function and confidence in managing patients with malfunctioning defibrillators. Methods:Sixteen emergency medicine residents of all levels of training participated in this curriculum. The educational experience began with a lecture. Residents then managed the simulated patient encounter in groups of four. The patient was a 63-year-old male presenting after feeling his defibrillator fire. He was found to have a supraventricular tachycardia with an inappropriately firing defibrillator. Learners needed to recognize the inappropriately firing defibrillator, inactivate it with a magnet, and treat the arrhythmia. Implementation of this scenario required audiovisual equipment and a simulation room equipped with high-fidelity simulator, patient monitor, code cart, defibrillator, and pacemaker magnet. Learners completed pre- and postcourse surveys to assess changes in baseline knowledge of defibrillator function and self-reported confidence in managing these complicated patients. Results:After participating in this educational intervention, residents improved their performance on a 10-question quiz from a class mean of 60% to 84% (p < .001). Residents also exhibited an increase in self-reported confidence in managing patients with inappropriately firing defibrillators (p < .001) and in knowing when to place a magnet over a patient's defibrillator (p < .001). Discussion:Residents demonstrated increased knowledge of defibrillator function as well as increased confidence in managing patients with malfunctioning defibrillators after participating in this simulation experience.
Project description:Introduction:Cardiac arrest in pregnancy is rare. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support courses rarely address interventions specific to obstetric patients, and knowledge gaps are frequent among providers. The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology and American Heart Association have published guidelines regarding management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy, and interdisciplinary simulation training has been advocated to reinforce key management points for this clinical scenario. Methods:In situ multidisciplinary simulation training was implemented for anesthesia and maternal fetal medicine fellows and obstetric nurses at our hospital. The case was amniotic fluid embolism in a 35-year-old parturient at term. The patient had a witnessed seizure before cardiovascular collapse. Learners were expected to initiate high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation and perform a perimortem cesarean delivery within 5 minutes while demonstrating clear communication with each other. The case required a labor room, high-fidelity mannequin, defibrillator, code cart, cesarean section instruments, and simulated medications and intravenous fluids. Results:Participants comprised two obstetric anesthesia fellows, three maternal fetal medicine fellows, and three obstetric nurses. Positive feedback about the training and increased perceptions of self-efficacy were received. Potential systems issues were detected and corrected because of the training, highlighting the value of in situ drills. Discussion:We found it challenging to implement more frequent multidisciplinary sessions, but participants found the experience highly rewarding. We hope to expand the training to all physicians and nurses covering the unit on a regular basis. Modified scenario versions are being used for nursing-only and obstetric resident-only simulations during protected teaching time for those services.
Project description:Introduction:Cardiorespiratory events are infrequent in pediatric teaching hospitals but can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Clear communication within the response team prevents delays in action and allows all team members to contribute to providing optimum management. This resource was developed to simulate high-acuity and low-frequency events for pediatric residents. The scenario options are recurrent supraventricular tachycardia, prolonged QT syndrome, myocarditis, and respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Methods:The simulation is best performed in a simulation center with audio- and video-recording capabilities but could also be performed in situ in the pediatric intensive care unit or emergency room. Necessary personnel include a simulation technician and two instructors. A code cart, mock medications, and defibrillator with hands-free pads appropriate for the mannequin are necessary supplies. Critical actions include initial survey and intervention, rhythm recognition, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use of defibrillator, and administration of anti-arrhythmic medications when needed. At the conclusion of the scenario, a formal debriefing with learners using structured feedback is performed. Results:These cases have been used with groups of pediatric or emergency medicine residents approximately 16 times over the past 3 years. Learners have reported that participation increased their confidence and comfort with management of cardiorespiratory events and that communication technique practice improved their teamwork and sign-out skills. Rhythm recognition and CPR performance scores during the simulation scenarios improved, with subjective improvement during actual cardiorespiratory events. Discussion:This resource advances learner knowledge of Pediatric Advanced Life Support algorithms and teamwork communication and identifies learner knowledge and management deficits.
Project description:Introduction:This curriculum includes two simulation cases for neonatal resuscitation training using the rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP) technique. RCDP is a simulation-based curriculum that presents participants with rounds of increasing difficulty in rapid repetition, interspersing brief, direct feedback within the simulation. In contrast, traditional debriefing focuses on learning after the scenario is complete. Traditional debriefing usually utilizes advocacy-inquiry debriefing but allows less opportunity for practice. Methods:Each case provides a neonatal resuscitation scenario (respiratory failure secondary to perinatal compromise and cardiac arrest secondary to placental abruption) for a term newborn in the delivery room. The curriculum utilizes high-fidelity neonatal mannequins with learner teams of three to six multidisciplinary teammates who participate in scenarios of increasing difficulty to revive a neonate. Learners can include a spectrum from beginning to advanced neonatal resuscitation providers. Learners are expected to perform the appropriate steps per the neonatal resuscitation program algorithm in addition to exhibiting effective crisis resource management skills. Results:Immediate assessment of learner performance and feedback within the RCDP model is more directive, which allows for rapid resumption of practice. The instructor may also choose to pause and back up or to pause and restart, depending on the correction needed. Discussion:Neonatal resuscitation program teaching utilizes a neonatal resuscitation performance evaluation, which may be used to guide opportunities for feedback within RCDP.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Problem solving in a clinical context requires knowledge and experience, and most traditional examinations for learners do not capture skills that are required in some situations where there is uncertainty about the proper course of action. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate anesthesiology residents for deficiencies in cognitive performance within and across 3 clinical domains (operating room, trauma, and cardiac resuscitation) using simulation-based assessment. METHODS: Individual basic knowledge and cognitive performance in each simulation-based scenario were assessed in 47 residents using a 15- to 29-item scenario-specific checklist. For every scenario and item we calculated group error scenario rate (frequency) and individual (resident) item success. For all analyses, alpha was designated as 0.05. RESULTS: Postgraduate year (PGY)-3 and PGY-4 residents' cognitive items error rates were higher and success rates lower compared to basic and technical performance in each domain tested (P < .05). In the trauma and resuscitation scenarios, the cognitive error rate by PGY-4 residents was fairly high (0.29-0.5) and their cognitive success rate was low (0.5-0.68). The most common cognitive errors were anchoring, availability bias, premature closure, and confirmation bias. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based assessment can differentiate between higher-order (cognitive) and lower-order (basic and technical) skills expected of relatively experienced (PGY-3 and PGY-4) anesthesiology residents. Simulation-based assessments can also highlight areas of relative strength and weakness in a resident group, and this information can be used to guide curricular modifications to address deficiencies in tasks requiring higher-order processing and cognition.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Children's hospitals frequently care for infants with various life-threatening airway anomalies. Management of these infants can be challenging given unique airway anatomy and potential malformations. Airway emergency management must be immediate and precise, often demanding specialized equipment and/or expertise. We developed a Neonatal-Infant Emergency Airway Program to improve medical responses, communication, equipment usage and outcomes for all infants requiring emergent airway interventions in our neonatal and infant intensive care unit (NICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS:All patients admitted to our quaternary NICU from 2008 to 2019 were included in this study. Our program consisted of a multidisciplinary airway response team, pager system, and emergency equipment cart. Respiratory therapists present at each emergency event recorded specialist response times, equipment utilization, and outcomes. A multidisciplinary oversite committee reviewed each incident. RESULTS:Since 2008, there were 159 airway emergency events in our NICU (~12 per year). Mean specialist response times decreased from 5.9 ± 4.9 min (2008-2012, mean ± SD) to 4.3 ± 2.2 min (2016-2019, p = 0.12), and the number of incidents with response times >5 min decreased from 28.8 ± 17.8% (2008-2012) to 9.3 ± 11.4% (2016-2019, p = 0.04 by linear regression). As our program became more standardized, we noted better equipment availability and subspecialist communication. Few emergency situations (n = 9, 6%) required operating room management. There were 3 patient deaths (2%). CONCLUSIONS:Our airway safety program, including readily available specialists and equipment, facilitated effective resolution of airway emergencies in our NICU and multidisciplinary involvement enabled rapid and effective changes in response to COVID-19 regulations. A similar program could be implemented in other centers.
Project description:Introduction:Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is an uncommon presentation to the pediatric emergency department (ED) or the pediatric ICU (PICU); however, if unrecognized or inappropriately treated, it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. This resource was created to simulate a high-acuity and low-frequency event targeting PICU fellows, pediatric emergency medicine fellows, pediatric residents, ED residents, medical students, and advanced nursing providers. Methods:This scenario details the case of a 12-year-old boy with a history of heart transplant who presents with the chief complaint of dizziness. He initially has multiple premature ventricular contractions and then progresses to pulseless ventricular tachycardia due to acute rejection. This simulation may be performed in a simulation lab or in situ in the ICU or ED. Necessary personnel include a simulation technician, instructors, and a nurse. A code cart and defibrillator with hands-free pads appropriate for the mannequin are needed supplies. Critical actions include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation with three shocks, and administration of anti-arrhythmic. At the end of the scenario, a formal debriefing and learner assessment with structured feedback are performed. Results:Approximately 110 learners have completed this module during 18 separate sessions. Written evaluation from participants (n = 94) using a Likert scale (1 = not at all, 4 = to a great extent) shows that the objectives of the simulation are met to a great extent, with an average score of 3.8. Discussion:In conclusion, this resource advances learner knowledge and comfort when managing a pediatric patient with pulseless ventricular tachycardia, reviews appropriate management, and helps identify knowledge deficits in the management of these patients.
Project description:During in situ simulation, interprofessional care teams practice in an area where clinical care occurs. This study aimed to detect latent safety threats (LST) in a training program, which combined in situ simulation scenarios with just-in-time and just-in-place self-directed task training in an emergency department. We hypothesized this simulation-based training in actual care areas allows the detection of at least one LST per simulation scenario. This prospective observational study (April 2015-March 2016) involved 135 physicians, nurses, and nurse technicians. Training themes selected were arrhythmia, respiratory insufficiency, shock, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Simulation weeks occurred every 3 months, with three 10-min scheduled in situ simulation scenarios alternating for each theme daily. The scenarios were followed by co-debriefing by two facilitators (a physician and a nurse). LST were identified by facilitators using a debriefing checklist. Additionally, a room was set up with task-trainers related to each theme. The number participants in scenarios was 114 (84% of the population) and in task-training, 101. The number of scenario cancelations was nine, making the final total number to 49 of 58 proposed. Fifty-six LST were observed, with an average of 1.1 per scenario. LST were divided into four categories: equipment (n?=?23, 41.1%), teamwork (n?=?12, 21.4%), medication (n?=?11, 19.6%), and others (n?=?10, 17.9%). There was a higher proportion in equipment-related LST (p?<?0.01). The training allowed a high rate of detecting LST regardless of theme. Equipment-related LST were more frequently found.