Gut microbiota profiling with differential tolerance against the reduced dietary fibre level in rabbit.
ABSTRACT: Dietary fibre is well acknowledged to be critical in maintaining the gut homeostasis in human and other monogastric animals. As a small monogastric herbivorous animal, rabbit is much sensitive to the reduced intake of dietary fibre and more interestingly shows individual difference in clinical tolerance. In the present study, we fed rabbits with fibre-deficiency diet for two weeks and successfully distinguished the individual tolerances according to clinical signs and gastrointestinal gross lesions. A total of 40 treatments were classified into three groups of the full health (N?=?10), moderate intestinal disorder (N?=?11) and severe intestinal disorder (N?=?19). Together with three controls, 43 individuals were subjected to gut microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It was revealed that the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio steadily decreased from 1.74 in healthy group to 1.03 in severe group. However, the healthy individuals that showed complete tolerance still remained a comparable Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio with controls. Notably, the class Alphaproteobacteria was found to be higher abundance in healthy group than controls and other treatment groups. The results would improve our understanding of the relationship among dietary fibre, gut microbiota and host health.
Project description:AIMS:Recent reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) have an altered gut microbiota composition; however, associations with diet remain largely uninvestigated. We aimed to explore differences in the gut microbiota between patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and healthy controls, focusing on associations with diet and disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS:The microbiota composition of two cross-sectional cohorts (discovery, n = 40 and validation, n = 44) of patients with systolic HF and healthy controls (n = 266) was characterized by sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The overall microbial community (beta diversity) differed between patients with HF and healthy controls in both cohorts (P < 0.05). Patients with HF had shifts in the major bacterial phyla, resulting in a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio than controls (P = 0.005). Patients reaching a clinical endpoint (listing for heart transplant or death) had lower bacterial richness and lower F/B ratio than controls (P < 0.01). Circulating levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide were associated with meat intake (P = 0.016), but not with gut microbiota alterations in HF. Low bacterial richness and low abundance of several genera in the Firmicutes phylum were associated with low fibre intake. CONCLUSIONS:The gut microbiota in HF was characterized by decreased F/B ratio and reduced bacterial diversity associated with clinical outcome. The gut microbiota alterations in HF were partly related to low fibre intake, emphasizing the importance of diet as a covariate in future studies. Our data could provide a rationale for targeting the gut microbiota in HF with high-fibre diet.
Project description:Composition of the gut microbiota has profound effects on intestinal carcinogenesis. Diet and host genetics play critical roles in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Whether diet and host genes interact with each other to bring specific changes in gut microbiota that affect intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Ability of dietary fibre to specifically increase beneficial gut microbiota at the expense of pathogenic bacteria in vivo via unknown mechanism is an important process that suppresses intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2 or GPR43) is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), metabolites of dietary fibre fermentation by gut microbiota. Here, we show FFAR2 is down modulated in human colon cancers than matched adjacent healthy tissue. Consistent with this, Ffar2(-/-) mice are hypersusceptible to development of intestinal carcinogenesis. Dietary fibre suppressed colon carcinogenesis in an Ffar2-dependent manner. Ffar2 played an essential role in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of beneficial gut microbiota, Bifidobacterium species (spp) and suppression of Helicobacter hepaticus and Prevotellaceae. Moreover, numbers of Bifidobacterium is reduced, whereas those of Prevotellaceae are increased in human colon cancers than matched adjacent normal tissue. Administration of Bifidobacterium mitigated intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in Ffar2(-/-) mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that interplay between dietary fibre and Ffar2 play a key role in promoting healthy composition of gut microbiota that stimulates intestinal health.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13) or no LcS (n = 15). Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16). Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Intestinal metabolism and microbiota profiles are impaired in obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, dysbiotic gut microbiota has been suggested to promote systemic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance through the release of endotoxins particularly lipopolysaccharides. We have previously shown that exercise training improves intestinal metabolism in healthy men. To understand whether changes in intestinal metabolism interact with gut microbiota and its release of inflammatory markers, we studied the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal metabolism and microbiota in subjects with insulin resistance. METHODS:Twenty-six, sedentary subjects (prediabetic, n = 9; type 2 diabetes, n = 17; age, 49 [SD, 4] yr; body mass index, 30.5 [SD, 3]) were randomized into SIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) and fatty acid uptake (FAU) from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serum inflammatory markers with multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. RESULTS:V?O2peak improved only after SIT (P = 0.01). Both training modes reduced systematic and intestinal inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-?, lipopolysaccharide binding protein) (time P < 0.05). Training modified microbiota profile by increasing Bacteroidetes phylum (time P = 0.03) and decreasing Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (time P = 0.04). Moreover, there was a decrease in Clostridium genus (time P = 0.04) and Blautia (time P = 0.051). Only MICT decreased jejunal FAU (P = 0.02). Training had no significant effect on intestinal GU. Colonic GU associated positively with Bacteroidetes and inversely with Firmicutes phylum, ratio Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and Blautia genus. CONCLUSIONS:Intestinal substrate uptake associates with gut microbiota composition and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Exercise training improves gut microbiota profiles and reduces endotoxemia.
Project description:Historically, the Mongol Empire ranks among the world's largest contiguous empires, and the Mongolians developed their unique lifestyle and diet over thousands of years. In this study, the intestinal microbiota of Mongolians residing in Ulan Bator, TUW province and the Khentii pasturing area were studied using 454 pyrosequencing and q-PCR technology. We explored the impacts of lifestyle and seasonal dietary changes on the Mongolians' gut microbes. At the phylum level, the Mongolians's gut populations were marked by a dominance of Bacteroidetes (55.56%) and a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (0.71). Analysis based on the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level revealed that the Mongolian core intestinal microbiota comprised the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Subdoligranulum and Coprococcus. Urbanisation and life-style may have modified the compositions of the gut microbiota of Mongolians from Ulan Bator, TUW and Khentii. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we found that the dietary structure was diverse and stable throughout the year in Ulan Bator and TUW, but was simple and varied during the year in Khentii. Accordingly, seasonal effects on intestinal microbiota were more distinct in Khentii residents than in TUW or Ulan Bator residents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gut health in poultry depends on the balance between the host, intestinal microbiota, intestinal microscopic features and diet. The effects of insect meal (a promising alternative protein source for poultry feed) on chicken gut morphology have recently been reported, but no data about intestinal microbiota and mucin composition modulation are available. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor (TM) meal inclusion on gut health of free-range chickens by intestinal microbiota, morphology and mucin composition characterization. RESULTS:One hundred forty female medium-growing hybrids were divided into 2 dietary treatments (control feed [C] and 7.5% TM inclusion, with 5 replicate pens/treatment and 14 birds/pen) and slaughtered at 97?days of age (2 birds/pen for a total of 10 chickens/diet). The gut microbiota assessment on cecal content samples by 16S rRNA amplicon based sequencing showed higher alpha (Shannon, P?<?0.05) and beta (Adonis and ANOSIM, P?<?0.001) diversity in birds fed TM diet than C. In comparison with C group, TM birds displayed significant increase and decrease, respectively, of the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, with higher Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratios (False Discovery Rate [FDR]?<?0.05). The relative abundance of Clostridium, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus and Sutterella genera was higher in TM chickens than C (FDR < 0.05). On the contrary, TM birds displayed significant decrease of the relative abundance of Bacteroides genus compared to the C group (FDR?<?0.05). Gut morphology evaluation by morphometric analysis on small intestine revealed similar villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio between C and TM birds. Characterization of gut mucin composition by periodic-acid Schiff, Alcian Blue pH?2.5 and high iron diamine staining on small and large intestine showed unaffected mucin staining intensity in TM chickens when compared to C group. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary TM meal inclusion may positively modulate the gut microbiota of the free-range chickens without influencing the intestinal morphology and mucin composition. Since the rapid growth of chickens directly depends on morphological and functional integrity of the digestive tract, the gut health assessment by a post mortem multidisciplinary approach appears to be fundamental.
Project description:Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive, multifaceted neurodegenerative disease associated with weight loss and gut problems. Under healthy conditions, tight junction (TJ) proteins maintain the intestinal barrier integrity preventing bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation. Reduction of TJs expression in Parkinson's disease patients has been linked with increased intestinal permeability-leaky gut syndrome. The intestine contains microbiota, most dominant phyla being Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes; in pathogenic or disease conditions the balance between these bacteria might be disrupted. The present study investigated whether there is evidence for an increased intestinal permeability and dysbiosis in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Our data demonstrate that decreased body weight and body length in R6/2 mice is accompanied by a significant decrease in colon length and increased gut permeability compared to wild type littermates, without any significant changes in the protein levels of the tight junction proteins (occludin, zonula occludens). Moreover, we found an altered gut microbiota in R6/2 mice with increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased of Firmicutes. Our results indicate an increased intestinal permeability and dysbiosis in R6/2 mice and further studies investigating the clinical relevance of these findings are warranted.
Project description:Gut microbiota have been associated with health, disease and behaviour in several species and are an important link in gut-brain axis communication. Diet plays a key role in affecting the composition of gut microbiota. In horses, high-starch diets alter the hindgut microbiota. High-starch diets are also associated with increased behavioural reactivity in horses. These changes in microbiota and behaviour may be associated. This study compares the faecal microbiota and behaviour of 10 naïve ponies. A cross-over design was used with experimental groups fed high-starch (HS) or high-fibre (HF) diets. Results showed that ponies were more reactive and less settled when being fed the HS diet compared to the HF diet. Irrespective of diet, the bacterial profile was dominated by two main phyla, Firmicutes, closely followed by Bacteroidetes. However, at lower taxonomic levels multivariate analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing data showed diet affected faecal microbial community structure. The abundance of 85 OTUs differed significantly related to diet. Correlative relationships exist between dietary induced alterations to faecal microbiota and behaviour. Results demonstrate a clear link between diet, faecal microbial community composition and behaviour. Dietary induced alterations to gut microbiota play a role in affecting the behaviour of the host.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the taxonomic richness and diversity of gut microbiota in patients with colorectal adenoma and elucidate the role of gut microorganisms in precancerous lesions in the colon and rectum. METHOD:Adenomatous tissues from 31 patients with colorectal adenoma and normal intestinal mucosal tissues from 20 healthy control subjects were collected through colonoscopy. The total bacterial genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 hypervariable region in bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. RESULTS:Patients with colorectal adenomas had a higher alpha diversity and richness indices compared to the healthy controls (P<0.01). The mucosal microbiota in colorectal adenoma tissue showed a distinctive structural difference from that in normal intestinal mucosal tissues. At the phylum level, a large decrease in Firmicutes with concomitant relative expansion of Proteobacteria was observed in patients with colorectal adenomas, resulting in a significant decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P<0.01). At the genus level, Lactococcus and Pseudomonas were enriched whereas Enterococcus, Bacillus, and Solibacillus were reduced obviously in the preneoplastic tissues (P<0.01). We also found a similar gut microbiome composition between low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia; the ratio of Escherichia-Shigella tended to increase in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, but this change was not statistically significant (P%0.28). CONCLUSION:Significant changes in the structure of the intestinal flora occur in patients with colorectal adenomas, indicating that the association of dysbiosis of the gut microbiota with the occurrence of a pro-oncogenic microenvironment.
Project description:Background:Gut microbiota holds a key-role in numerous biological functions and has emerged as a driving force for the development of diabetes. Diet contributes to gut microbiota diversity and functionality providing a tool for the prevention and management of the disease. The study aimed to investigate the effect of a dietary intervention with pistachio nuts, a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, dietary fibers and phytochemicals on gut microbiota composition in the rat model of Type 1 Diabetes. Methods:Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: healthy animals which received control diet (CD) or pistachio diet (PD), and diabetic animals which received control diet (DCD) or pistachio diet (DPD) for 4 weeks. Plasma biochemical parameters were determined and histological examination of liver and pancreas was performed at the end of the dietary intervention. Adherent intestinal microbiota populations in jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon were analyzed. Fecal microbiota populations at the beginning and the end of the study were determined by microbiological analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing. Results:Diabetic animals of both groups exhibited high plasma glucose and low insulin concentrations, as well as characteristic pancreatic lesions. Pistachio supplementation significantly increased lactobacilli and bifidobacteria populations in jejunum, ileum and caecum (p < 0.05) and normalized microbial flora in all examined intestinal regions of diabetic animals. After 4 weeks of supplementation, populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were increased in feces of both healthy and diabetic animals, while enterococci levels were decreased (p < 0.05). Next Generation Sequencing of fecal samples revealed increased and decreased counts of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, respectively, in healthy animals that received the pistachio diet. Actinobacteria OTUs were higher in diabetic animals and increased over time in the pistachio treated groups, along with increased abundance of Bifidobacterium. Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Romboutsia populations were elevated in healthy animals administered the pistachio nuts. Of note, relative abundance of Bacteroides was higher in healthy than in diabetic rats (p < 0.05). Conclusion:Dietary pistachio restored normal flora and enhanced the presence of beneficial microbes in the rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes.