A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of Patient Blood Management.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Patient blood management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary concept focused on the management of anaemia, minimisation of iatrogenic blood loss and rational use of allogeneic blood products. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyse post-operative outcome in patients with liberal vs restrictive exposure to allogeneic blood products and (ii) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PBM in patients undergoing surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed to compare post-operative complications in predominantly non-transfused patients (restrictive transfusion group) and patients who received one to three units of red blood cells (liberal transfusion group). Outcome measures included sepsis with/without pneumonia, acute renal failure, acute myocardial infarction and acute stroke. In a second step, a health economic model was developed to calculate cost-effectiveness of PBM (PBM-arm vs control-arm) for simulated cohorts of 10,000 cardiac and non-cardiac surgical patients based on the results of the meta-analysis and costs. RESULTS:Out of 478 search results, 22 studies were analysed in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of any complication in the restrictive transfusion group was 0.43 for non-cardiac and 0.34 for cardiac surgical patients. In the simulation model, PBM was related to reduced complications (1,768 vs 1,245) and complication-related deaths (411 vs 304) compared to standard care. PBM-related costs of therapy exceeded costs of the control arm by € 150 per patient. However, total costs, including hospitalisation, were higher in the control-arm for both non-cardiac (€ 2,885.11) and cardiac surgery patients (€ 1,760.69). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio including hospitalisation showed savings of € 30,458 (non-cardiac and cardiac surgery patients) for preventing one complication and € 128,023 (non-cardiac and cardiac surgery patients) for prevention of one complication-related death in the PBM-arm. DISCUSSION:Our results indicate that PBM may be associated with fewer adverse clinical outcomes compared to control management and may, thereby, be cost-effective.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Safely reducing red blood cell transfusions can prevent transfusion-related adverse effects, conserve the blood supply, and reduce health care costs. Both anemia and red blood cell transfusion are independently associated with AKI, but observational data are insufficient to determine whether a restrictive approach to transfusion can be used without increasing AKI risk. METHODS:In a prespecified kidney substudy of a randomized noninferiority trial, we compared a restrictive threshold for red blood cell transfusion (transfuse if hemoglobin<7.5 g/dl, intraoperatively and postoperatively) with a liberal threshold (transfuse if hemoglobin<9.5 g/dl in the operating room or intensive care unit, or if hemoglobin<8.5 g/dl on the nonintensive care ward). We studied 4531 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass who had a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death. The substudy's primary outcome was AKI, defined as a postoperative increase in serum creatinine of ?0.3 mg/dl within 48 hours of surgery, or ?50% within 7 days of surgery. RESULTS:Patients in the restrictive-threshold group received significantly fewer transfusions than patients in the liberal-threshold group (1.8 versus 2.9 on average, or 38% fewer transfusions in the restricted-threshold group compared with the liberal-threshold group; P<0.001). AKI occurred in 27.7% of patients in the restrictive-threshold group (624 of 2251) and in 27.9% of patients in the liberal-threshold group (636 of 2280). Similarly, among patients with preoperative CKD, AKI occurred in 33.6% of patients in the restrictive-threshold group (258 of 767) and in 32.5% of patients in the liberal-threshold group (252 of 775). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a restrictive transfusion approach resulted in fewer red blood cell transfusions without increasing the risk of AKI.
Project description:Anaemia and iron deficiency are frequent in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Perioperative patient blood management (PBM) is widely recommended in current practice guidelines. The aim of this protocol is to analyse the effect of a global perioperative PBM programme on the red blood cell (RBC) transfusion ratio, morbidities and rehabilitation score in elective cardiac surgery.This study is a prospective, single-centre trial with a 2-step protocol, A and B, as follows: A: non-drug intervention: the caregiver is given a blood management educational programme; B: drug intervention: systematic correction of perioperative iron, vitamin deficiencies, and anaemia. This study was designed to enrol 900 patients (500 in group A and 400 in group B) in a rolling period starting at anaesthesia consultation and ending 3 months after surgery. The primary objective was a 20% reduction in RBC transfusion after implementation of PBM programmes (protocol A + B) when compared to our previous transfusion ratio in the first half of 2018 (30.4% vs 38%). The secondary objectives were to evaluate the impact for each step of the study on the RBC transfusion rate, morbidity and the quality of postoperative rehabilitation.The strength of this study is its evaluation of the effect of a global PBM programme on RBC transfusion in cardiac surgery through a 2-step protocol. We aim to assess for the first time the impact of non-drug and drug interventions on RBC transfusion, comorbidities and delayed rehabilitation parameters. Trials registrations:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04040023: registered 29 July 2019.
Project description:Background:When safe to do so, avoiding blood transfusions in cardiac surgery can avoid the risk of transfusion-related infections and other complications while protecting a scarce resource and reducing costs. This protocol describes a kidney substudy of the Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery III (TRICS-III) trial, a multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial to determine whether the risk of major clinical outcomes in patients undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion. Objective:The objective of this substudy is to determine whether the risk of acute kidney injury is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion, and whether this holds true in patients with and without preexisting chronic kidney disease. Design and Setting:Multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial conducted in 73 centers in 19 countries (2014-2017). Patients:Patients (~4800) undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements:The primary outcome of this substudy is perioperative acute kidney injury, defined as an acute rise in serum creatinine from the preoperative value (obtained in the 30-day period before surgery), where an acute rise is defined as ?26.5 ?mol/L in the first 48 hours after surgery or ?50% in the first 7 days after surgery. Methods:We will report the absolute risk difference in acute kidney injury and the 95% confidence interval. We will repeat the primary analysis using alternative definitions of acute kidney injury, including staging definitions, and will examine effect modification by preexisting chronic kidney disease (defined as a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Limitations:It is not possible to blind patients or providers to the intervention; however, objective measures will be used to assess outcomes, and outcome assessors will be blinded to the intervention assignment. Results:Substudy results will be reported by the year 2018. Conclusions:This substudy will provide generalizable estimates of the risk of acute kidney injury of a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion in the presence of anemia during cardiac surgery done with cardiopulmonary bypass. Trial Registration:www.clinicaltrials.gov; clinical trial registration number NCT 02042898.
Project description:Restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies remain controversial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic benefits of restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.We identified randomized clinical trials through the 9th of December 2017 that investigated a restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy versus a liberal transfusion strategy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Individual patient data from each study were collected. Meta-analyses were performed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A trial sequential analysis (TSA)-adjusted random-effects model was used to pool the results from the included studies for the primary outcomes.Seven trials involving a total of 8886 patients were included. The TSA evaluations suggested that this meta-analysis could draw firm negative results, and the data were sufficient. There was no evidence that the risk of 30-day mortality differed between the patients assigned to a restrictive blood cell transfusion strategy and a liberal transfusion strategy (odds ratio (OR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 1.24; p?=?0.87). Furthermore, the study suggested that the restrictive transfusion strategy was not associated with significant increases in pulmonary morbidity (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.34; p?=?0.44), postoperative infection (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.3; p?=?0.58), acute kidney injury (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.14; p?=?0.71), acute myocardial infarction (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27; p?=?0.78), or cerebrovascular accidents (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.30; p?=?0.66).Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy was not inferior to the liberal strategy with respect to 30-day mortality, pulmonary morbidity, postoperative infection, cerebrovascular accidents, acute kidney injury, or acute myocardial infarction, and fewer red blood cells were transfused.
Project description:Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been proposed as a negative indicator of quality in cardiac surgery. Hospital length of stay (LOS) may be a surrogate of poor outcome in transfused patients.Data from 502 patients included in Transfusion Requirements After Cardiac Surgery (TRACS) study were analyzed to assess the relationship between RBC transfusion and hospital LOS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and enrolled in the TRACS study.According to the status of RBC transfusion, patients were categorized into the following three groups: 1) 199 patients (40%) who did not receive RBC, 2) 241 patients (48%) who received 3 RBC units or fewer (low transfusion requirement group), and 3) 62 patients (12%) who received more than 3 RBC units (high transfusion requirement group). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, the following factors were predictive of a prolonged hospital length of stay: age higher than 65 years, EuroSCORE, valvular surgery, combined procedure, LVEF lower than 40% and RBC transfusion of?>?3 units.RBC transfusion is an independent risk factor for increased LOS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This finding highlights the adequacy of a restrictive transfusion therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: http://NCT01021631.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative complications after major gastrointestinal surgery are a major contributor to hospital costs. Thus, reducing postoperative complications is a key target for cost-containment strategies. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between postoperative complications and hospital costs following small bowel resection. METHODS:Postoperative complications were recorded for 284 adult patients undergoing major small bowel resection surgery between January 2013 and June 2018. Complications were defined and graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system. In-hospital cost of index admission was calculated using an activity-based costing methodology; it was reported in US dollars at 2019 rates. Regression modeling was used to investigate the relationships among a priori selected perioperative variables, complications, and costs. FINDINGS:The overall complication prevalence was 81.6% (95% CI: 85.7-77.5). Most complications (69%) were minor, but 22.9% of patients developed a severe complication (Clavien-Dindo grades III or IV). The unadjusted median total hospital cost for patients with any complication was 70% higher than patients without complications (median [IQR] USD 19,659.64 [13,545.81-35,407.14] vs. 11,551.88 [8,849.46-15,329.87], P < 0.001). The development of 1, 2, 3, and ? 4 complications increased hospital costs by 11%, 41%, 50%, and 195%, respectively. Similarly, more severe complications incurred higher hospital costs (P < 0.001). After adjustments were made (for the Charlson Comorbidity Index, anemia, surgical urgency and technique, intraoperative fluid administration, blood transfusion, and hospital readmissions), a greater number and increased severity of complications were associated with a higher adjusted median hospital cost. Patients who experienced complications had an adjusted additional median cost of USD 4,187.10 (95% CI: 1,264.89-7,109.31, P = 0.005) compared to those without complications. CONCLUSIONS:Postoperative complications are a key target for cost-containment strategies. Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of postoperative complications following small bowel resection surgery and quantify their associated increase in hospital costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australian Clinical Trials Registration number: 12620000322932.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Requirements for allogeneic red cell transfusion after total lower limb arthroplasty are still high (20-50%), and post-operative intravenous iron has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements for this surgery. We performed a cost analysis to ascertain whether this alternative is also likely to be cost-effective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 182 matched-pairs of total lower limb arthroplasty patients, managed with a restrictive transfusion protocol and without (control group) or with post-operative intravenous iron (iron group), were retrospectively reviewed. Acquisition and administration costs of iron (iron sucrose or ferric carboxymaltose) and allogeneic red cell concentrates, haemoglobin measurements, and prolonged stay in hospital were used for blood management cost analysis. RESULTS: Patients in the iron group received 600 mg intravenous iron, without clinically relevant incidents, and had a lower allogeneic transfusion rate (11.5% vs 26.4% for the iron and control groups, respectively; p=0.001). The reduction in transfusion rate was more pronounced in anaemic patients (17% vs 40%; p=0.015) than in non-anaemic ones (9.6% vs 21.2%; p=0.011). There were no differences with respect to post-operative infection rate. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusion stayed in hospital longer (+1.9 days [95% CI: 1.2-2.6]). As intravenous iron reduces the allogeneic transfusion rate, both iron formulations were cost-neutral in the different cost scenarios (-25.5 to 62.1 €/patient for iron sucrose, and -51.1 to 64.4 €/patient for ferric carboxymaltose). DISCUSSION: In patients presenting with or without pre-operative anaemia, post-operative intravenous iron after total lower limb arthroplasty seems to be safe and is associated with reduced transfusion rates, without incremental costs. For anaemic patients, its efficacy could be increased by associating some other blood-saving method.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with moderate-severe systolic dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft have a higher incidence of postoperative low cardiac output. Preconditioning with levosimendan may be a useful strategy to prevent this complication. In this context, design cost-effective strategies like preconditioning with levosimendan may become necessary. METHODS:In a sequential assignment of patients with Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction less than 40%, two strategies were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness: standard care (n?=?41) versus preconditioning with Levosimendan (n?=?13). The adverse effects studied included: postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation, low cardiac output, renal failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation. The costs were evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. RESULTS:Preconditioning with levosimendan in moderate to severe systolic dysfunction (Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction <?40%), was associated with a lower incidence of postoperative low cardiac output in elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery 2(15.4%) vs 25(61%) (P?<?0.01) and lesser intensive care unit length of stay 2(1-4) vs 4(3-6) days (P?=?0.03). Average cost on levosimendan group was 14,792€ while the average cost per patient without levosimendan was 17,007€. Patients with no complications represented 53.8% of the total in the levosimendan arm, as compared to 31.7% in the non-levosimendan arm. In all Montecarlo simulations for sensitivity analysis, use of levosimendan was less expensive and more effective. CONCLUSIONS:Preconditioning with levosimendan, is a cost-effective strategy preventing postoperative low cardiac output in patients with moderate-severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perioperative anaemia leads to impaired oxygen supply with a risk of vital organ ischaemia. In healthy and fit individuals, anaemia can be compensated by several mechanisms. Elderly patients, however, have less compensatory mechanisms because of multiple co-morbidities and age-related decline of functional reserves. The purpose of the study is to evaluate whether elderly surgical patients may benefit from a liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategy compared to a restrictive transfusion strategy. METHODS:The LIBERAL Trial is a prospective, randomized, multicentre, controlled clinical phase IV trial randomising 2470 elderly (? 70?years) patients undergoing intermediate- or high-risk non-cardiac surgery. Registered patients will be randomised only if Haemoglobin (Hb) reaches ?9?g/dl during surgery or within 3?days after surgery either to the LIBERAL group (transfusion of a single RBC unit when Hb???9?g/dl with a target range for the post-transfusion Hb level of 9-10.5?g/dl) or the RESTRICTIVE group (transfusion of a single RBC unit when Hb???7.5?g/dl with a target range for the post-transfusion Hb level of 7.5-9?g/dl). The intervention per patient will be followed until hospital discharge or up to 30?days after surgery, whichever occurs first. The primary efficacy outcome is defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, acute ischaemic stroke, acute kidney injury (stage III), acute mesenteric ischaemia and acute peripheral vascular ischaemia within 90?days after surgery. Infections requiring iv antibiotics with re-hospitalisation are assessed as important secondary endpoint. The primary endpoint will be analysed by logistic regression adjusting for age, cancer surgery (y/n), type of surgery (intermediate- or high-risk), and incorporating centres as random effect. DISCUSSION:The LIBERAL-Trial will evaluate whether a liberal transfusion strategy reduces the occurrence of major adverse events after non-cardiac surgery in the geriatric population compared to a restrictive strategy within 90?days after surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT03369210 ).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are among the highest consumers of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) components. The impact of patient blood management (PBM) efforts on HSCT recipients is poorly understood. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:This observational study assessed changes in blood product use and patient-centered outcomes before and after implementing a multidisciplinary PBM program for patients undergoing HSCT at a large academic medical center. The pre-PBM cohort was treated from January 1 through September 31, 2013; the post-PBM cohort was treated from January 1 through September 31, 2015. RESULTS:We identified 708 patients; 284 of 352 (80.7%) in the pre-PBM group and 225 of 356 (63.2%) in the post-PBM group received allogeneic RBCs (p?<?0.001). Median (interquartile range [IQR]) RBC volumes were higher before PBM than after PBM (3 [2-4] units vs. 2 [1-4] units; p = 0.004). A total of 259 of 284 pre-PBM patients (91.2%) and 57 of 225 (25.3%) post-PBM patients received RBC transfusions when hemoglobin levels were?more than?7?g/dL (p?<?0.001). The median (IQR) PLT transfusion quantities was 3 (2-5) units for pre-PBM patients and 2 (1-4) units for post-PBM patients (p?<?0.001). For patients with PLT counts of more than 10?×?109 /L, a total of 1219 PLT units (73.4%) were transfused before PBM and 691?units (48.8%) were transfused after PBM (p?<?0.001). Estimated transfusion expenditures were reduced by $617,152 (18.3%). We noted no differences in clinical outcomes or transfusion-related adverse events. CONCLUSION:Patient blood management implementation for HSCT recipients was associated with marked reductions in allogeneic RBC and PLT transfusions and decreased transfusion-related costs with no detrimental impact on clinical outcomes.