Synthetic CpG-ODN rapidly enriches immune compartments in neonatal chicks to induce protective immunity against bacterial infections.
ABSTRACT: Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) induce innate immunity against bacterial infections. Despite recent advances, how CpG-ODN alone protects against bacterial infections remained elusive. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that CpG-ODN orchestrates anti-microbial protective immunity by inducing a rapid enrichment of various immune compartments in chickens. In this study, eighteen-day-old embryonated eggs were injected with either 50?µg of CpG-ODN or saline (~n?=?90 per group). In the first experiment, four days after CpG-ODN treatment, chicks were challenged subcutaneously with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and mortality was monitored for 8 days. We found significant protection, and reduced clinical scores in CpG-ODN treated chicks. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection induced by CpG-ODN, first we investigated cytokine expression kinetics elicited by CpG-ODN. The spleen and lung were collected from embryos or chicks (n?=?3-4 per group) at 10 time points post-CpG-ODN inoculation. Multiplex gene analysis (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, and lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF), revealed a significantly higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines following CpG-ODN treatment compared to the saline controls. In our study, LITAF stands out in the cytokine profiles of spleen and lungs, underscoring its role in CpG-ODN-induced protection. The third experiment was designed to examine the effects of CpG-ODN on immune cell populations in spleen, lungs, and thymus. Flow cytometry analysis was conducted at 24, 48 and 72?hrs (thymus only collected at 72?hr) after CpG-ODN administration to examine the changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, monocyte/macrophage cell populations and their expression of maturation markers (CD40 and CD86). Flow cytometry data indicated a significant enrichment of macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in both spleen and lungs of CpG-ODN treated embryos and chicks. Macrophages in spleen and lungs showed an upregulation of CD40 but not CD86, whereas thymocytes revealed significantly high CD4 and CD8 expression. Overall, the present study has demonstrated that CpG-ODN provides protection in neonatal chicks against E. coli infection not only by eliciting cytokine responses and stimulating immune cells but also through enriching immunological niches in spleen and lungs.
Project description:The transition to antibiotic-free poultry production in the face of pathogenic threats is a very challenging task. We recently demonstrated that mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN alone by the intrapulmonary route (IPL) has potential as an effective alternative to antibiotics in neonatal chicks against Escherichia coli septicemia. How exactly mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN elicits, protective antibacterial immunity remained poorly understood. In this study, CpG-ODN or saline was delivered via the intrapulmonary route to day-old chicks (n?=?80/group) using a compressor nebulizer in an acrylic chamber (1?mg/mL CpG-ODN for 15?minutes). In the first part of the study, two days after mucosal CpG-ODN delivery, 40 chicks from each group were challenged subcutaneously with 1?×?105 cfu (n?=?20) or 1?×?106 cfu (n?=?20) of E. coli and the mortality pattern was monitored for seven days. We found significantly higher survival, better clinical conditions and lower bacterial loads in chicks that received mucosal CpG-ODN. To explore the mechanisms behind this protective immunity, we first looked at the kinetics of the cytokine gene expression (three birds/ group/ time for 10 time-points) in the lungs and spleens. Multiplex gene analysis demonstrated a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes mRNA in the CpG-ODN group. Interleukin (IL)-1? robustly upregulated many folds in the lung after CpG-ODN delivery. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF) and IL-18 showed expression for an extended period in the lungs. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated in both lungs and spleen, whereas IL-4 showed upregulation in the lungs. To investigate the kinetics of immune enrichment in the lungs and spleens, we performed flow cytometry, histology, and immunohistochemistry at 24, 48 and 72 hrs after CpG-ODN delivery. CpG-ODN treated lungs showed a significant enrichment with monocytes/macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. Macrophages in CpG-ODN treated group demonstrated mature phenotypes (higher CD40 and MHCII expression). Importantly, mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN via the intrapulmonary route significantly enriched immune compartment in the spleen as well, suggesting a systemic effect in neonatal chicks. Altogether, intrapulmonary delivery of aerosolized CpG-ODN orchestrates protective immunity against E. coli septicemia by not only enhancing mucosal immunity but also the systemic immune responses.
Project description:There is a need for new vaccine adjuvant strategies that offer both vigorous antibody and T-cell mediated protection to combat difficult intracellular pathogens and cancer. To this aim, we formulated class-B synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine motifs (CpG-ODN) with a nanostructure (Coa-ASC16 or coagel) formed by self-assembly of 6-0-ascorbyl palmitate ester. Our previous results demonstrated that mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG-ODN formulated with Coa-ASC16 (OVA/CpG-ODN/Coa-ASC16) elicited strong antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a) and Th1/Th17 cellular responses without toxic systemic effects. These responses were superior to those induced by a solution of OVA with CpG-ODN or OVA/CpG-ODN formulated with aluminum salts. In this study, we investigated the capacity of this adjuvant strategy (CpG-ODN/Coa-ASC16) to elicit CD8+ T-cell response and some of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in adaptive response. We also analyzed whether this adjuvant strategy allows a switch from an immunization scheme of three-doses to one of single-dose. Our results demonstrated that vaccination with OVA/CpG-ODN/Coa-ASC16 elicited an antigen-specific long-lasting humoral response and importantly-high quality CD8+ T-cell immunity with a single-dose immunization. Moreover, Coa-ASC16 promoted co-uptake of OVA and CpG-ODN by dendritic cells. The CD8+ T-cell response induced by OVA/CpG-ODN/Coa-ASC16 was dependent of type I interferons and independent of CD4+ T-cells, and showed polyfunctionality and efficiency against an intracellular pathogen. Furthermore, the cellular and humoral responses elicited by the nanostructured formulation were IL-6-independent. This system provides a simple and inexpensive adjuvant strategy with great potential for future rationally designed vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) has been used successfully to induce immune responses against viral and intracellular organisms in mammals. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of CpG-ODN on antigen presenting cells of young foals. METHODS:Peripheral blood monocytes of foals (n = 7) were isolated in the first day of life and monthly thereafter up to 3 months of life. Adult horse (n = 7) monocytes were isolated and tested once for comparison. Isolated monocytes were stimulated with IL-4 and GM-CSF (to obtain dendritic cells, DC) or not stimulated (to obtain macrophages). Macrophages and DCs were stimulated for 14-16 hours with either CpG-ODN, LPS or not stimulated. The stimulated and non-stimulated cells were tested for cell surface markers (CD86 and MHC class II) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of cytokines (IL-12, IFNalpha, IL-10) and TLR-9 using real time quantitative RT-PCR, and for the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB p65 using a chemiluminescence assay. RESULTS:The median fluorescence of the MHC class II molecule in non-stimulated foal macrophages and DCs at birth were 12.5 times and 11.2 times inferior, respectively, than adult horse cells (p = 0.009). That difference subsided at 3 months of life (p = 0.3). The expression of the CD86 co-stimulatory molecule was comparable in adult horse and foal macrophages and DCs, independent of treatment. CpG-ODN stimulation induced IL-12p40 (53 times) and IFNalpha (23 times) mRNA expression in CpG-ODN-treated adult horse DCs (p = 0.078), but not macrophages, in comparison to non-stimulated cells. In contrast, foal APCs did not respond to CpG-ODN stimulation with increased cytokine mRNA expression up to 3 months of age. TLR-9 mRNA expression and NF-kB activation (NF-kB p65) in foal DCs and macrophages were comparable (p > 0.05) to adult horse cells. CONCLUSION:CpG-ODN treatment did not induce specific maturation and cytokine expression in foal macrophages and DCs. Nevertheless, adult horse DCs, but not macrophages, increased their expression of IL-12 and IFNalpha cytokines upon CpG-ODN stimulation. Importantly, foals presented an age-dependent limitation in the expression of MHC class II in macrophages and DCs, independent of treatment.
Project description:CpG oligonucleotides (ODN) stimulate the innate immune system by triggering cells that express TLR9. The resulting response promotes tumor regression, an effect optimized by delivery of CpG ODN to the tumor site. This work examines the effect of instilling CpG ODN adsorbed onto polyketal microparticles (CpG-MP) into the lungs of mice with non-small cell lung cancer. Intrapulmonary delivery of CpG-MP improved ODN uptake and retention at the tumor site, thereby inducing a stronger Th1 response than systemically administered or unadsorbed CpG ODN. CpG-MP reversed the immunosuppression that characterized the tumor microenvironment by (i) decreasing the number of immunosuppressive Tregs and M2 macrophages while (ii) increasing the number of tumoricidal CD8(+) T cells and M1 macrophages. These effects promoted tumor regression and culminated in 82% permanent survival of mice with otherwise fatal Lewis lung cancer.
Project description:At birth, the immune system is still in development making neonates more susceptible to infections. The recognition of microbial ligands is a key step in the initiation of immune responses. It can be mimicked to stimulate the immune system by the use of synthetic ligands recognising pattern recognition receptors. In human and mouse, it has been found that neonatal cytokine responses to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands differ in many ways from those of adults but the relevant studies have been limited to cord blood and spleen cells. In this study, we compared the responses in neonate and adult sheep to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), a TLR9 ligand, in both a mucosal and a systemic organ. We observed that in response to CpG-ODN more IL-12 was produced by neonatal than adult sheep cells from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen. This higher IL-12 response was limited to the first 20 days after birth for MLN cells but persisted for a longer period for spleen cells. The major IL-12-producing cells were identified as CD14+CD11b+. These cells were poor producers of IL-12 in response to direct stimulation with CpG-ODN and required the cooperation of other MLN cells. The difference in response to CpG-ODN between neonates and adults can be attributed to both a higher proportion of CD14+CD11b+ cells in neonate lambs and their higher capacity to produce IL-15. The IL-15 increases IL-12 production by an amplifying feedback loop involving CD40.
Project description:Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is characterized by severe immunosuppression in young chicks of 3 to 6 week age group. Although vaccines are available to prevent IBD, outbreaks of disease are still noticed in the field among vaccinated flocks. Further, the birds surviving IBD become susceptible to secondary infections caused by various viral and bacterial agents. This study assessed the immunoprophylactic potential of Cytosine-guanosinedeoxynucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and Tinospora cordifolia stem aqueous extract in the specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks, experimentally infected with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Both of these agents (CpG ODN and herbal extract) showed significant increase in the IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-1 levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (p < 0.05) of chickens in the treatment groups following IBD infection.Further we found significant reduction in mortality rate in vvIBDV infected chicks treated with either, or in combination, compared with the birds of control group. Additionally, the adjuvant or immune enhancing potential of these two immunomodulatory agents with the commercially available IBDV vaccine was determined in chicks. The augmentation of vaccine response in terms of an enhanced antibody titer after vaccination, along with either or a combination of the two agents was noticed. The findings provide a way forward to counter the menace of IBDV in the poultry sector through use of these herbal or synthetic immunomodulatory supplements.
Project description:The diameter of biodegradable particles used to coencapsulate immunostimulants and subunit vaccines affects the magnitude of memory CD8+ T cells generated by systemic immunization. Possible effects on the magnitude of CD8+ T cells generated by mucosal immunization or memory subsets that potentially correlate more strongly with protection against certain pathogens, however, are unknown. In this study, we conjugated our novel host-derived mucosal immunostimulant, EP67, to the protective MCMV CTL epitope, pp89, through a lysosomal protease-labile double arginine linker (pp89-RR-EP67) and encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 micro- or nanoparticles. We then compared total magnitude, effector/central memory (CD127/KRLG1/CD62L), and IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-2 secreting subsets of pp89-specific CD8+ T cells as well as protection of naive female BALB/c mice against primary respiratory infection with MCMV 21 days after respiratory immunization. We found that decreasing the diameter of encapsulating particle from ?5.4 ?m to ?350 nm (i) increased the magnitude of pp89-specific CD8+ T cells in the lungs and spleen; (ii) partially changed CD127/KLRG1 effector memory subsets in the lungs but not the spleen; (iii) changed CD127/KRLG1/CD62L effector/central memory subsets in the spleen; (iv) changed pp89-responsive IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-2 secreting subsets in the lungs and spleen; (v) did not affect the extent to which encapsulation increased efficacy against primary MCMV respiratory infection over unencapsulated pp89-RR-EP67. Thus, although not observed under our current experimental conditions with MCMV, varying the diameter of nanoscale biodegradable particles may increase the efficacy of mucosal immunization with coencapsulated immunostimulant/subunit vaccines against certain pathogens by selectively increasing memory subset(s) of CD8+ T cells that correlate the strongest with protection.
Project description:As we age, the homeostatic function of many systems in the body, such as the immune function declines, which in turn contributes to augment susceptibility to disease. Here we describe that challenging aged mice with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated cytosine guanine motifs (CpG-ODN) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), (CpG-ODN+IFA) an inflammatory stimulus, led to the expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells with augmented expression of CD124 and CD31. These myeloid cells lasted longer in the spleen of aged mice than in their younger counterparts after CpG-ODN+IFA treatment and were capable of suppressing T cell proliferative response by arginase induction. Myeloid cells from aged CpG-ODN+IFA-treated mice presented increased arginase-1 expression and enzyme activity. In addition, we found a different requirement of cytokines for arginase induction according to mice age. In myeloid cells from young treated mice, arginase-1 expression and activity is induced by the presence of each IL-4 or IL-6 in their extracellular medium, unlike myeloid cells from aged treated mice which need the presence of both IL-4 and IL-6 together for arginase induction and suppressor function.
Project description:This study aims at identifying a dual transcriptomics and metabolomics blood signature following administration of CpG-ODN (cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides), a reference immune-stimulatory molecule. A clinical study was conducted with chicks and transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses were performed on whole-blood and plasma samples respectively. Statistical analyses resulting in lists of differentially expressed genes and metabolites with different abundance were identified in chicks treated with CpG-ODN. The results showed that CpG-ODN activates the innate immune systems within hours following administration and its effect lasts over time, as metabolomic and transcriptomic profiles are still varying at 6 days after administration. Overall design: CpG-ODN 2007, a prototypal immunomodulator, described as one of the most efficient agonists of chTLR21, the counterpart of mammalian TLR9, was injected at day of hatch and systemic changes were monitored in blood at different time points post injection. An early time point of 3h (D0+3h) post injection was chosen to secure early signature following CpG-ODN injection. As the immunomodulatory properties of CpG-ODN have been evaluated up to 4 days post-injection in the spleen, two additional time points to frame this timing at day three (D3) and day six (D6) were chosen to assess its functional effects over time
Project description:Changing the immune responses to allergens is the cornerstone of allergen immunotherapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy that consists of repeated administration of increasing doses of allergen extract is potentially curative. The major inconveniences of allergen-specific immunotherapy include failure to modify immune responses, long-term treatment leading to non-compliance and the potential for developing life-threating anaphylaxis. Here we investigated the effect of a novel liposomal formulation carrying low dose of allergen combined with CpG-ODN, a synthetic TLR9 agonist, on established allergic lung inflammation. We found that challenge with allergen (OVA) encapsulated in cationic liposome induced significantly less severe cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. Notably, short-term treatment (three doses) with a liposomal formulation containing co-encapsulated allergen plus CpG-ODN, but not allergen or CpG-ODN alone, reversed an established allergic lung inflammation and provided long-term protection. This liposomal formulation was also effective against allergens derived from Blomia tropicalis mite extract. The attenuation of allergic inflammation was not associated with increased numbers of Foxp3-positive or IL-10-producing regulatory T cells or with increased levels of IFN-gamma in the lungs. Instead, the anti-allergic effect of the liposomal formulation was dependent of the innate immune signal transduction generated in CD11c-positive putative dendritic cells expressing MyD88 molecule. Therefore, we highlight the pivotal role of dendritic cells in mediating the attenuation of established allergic lung inflammation following immunotherapy with a liposomal formulation containing allergen plus CpG-ODN.