Physiological levels of thrombospondin-1 decrease NO-dependent vasodilation in coronary microvessels from aged rats.
ABSTRACT: Aging and cardiovascular disease are associated with the loss of nitric oxide (NO) signaling and a decline in the ability to increase coronary blood flow reserve (CFR). Thrombospondin-1 (Thbs-1), through binding of CD47, has been shown to limit NO-dependent vasodilation in peripheral vascular beds via formation of superoxide (O2 (-)). The present study tests the hypothesis that, similar to the peripheral vasculature, blocking CD47 will improve NO-mediated vasoreactivity in coronary arterioles from aged individuals, resulting in improved CFR. Isolated coronary arterioles from young (4 mo) or old (24 mo) female Fischer 344 rats were challenged with the NO donor, DEA-NONO-ate (1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-4) M), and vessel relaxation and O2 (-) production was measured before and after Thbs-1, ?CD47, and/or Tempol and catalase exposure. In vivo CFR was determined in anesthetized rats (1-3% isoflurane-balance O2) via injected microspheres following control IgG or ?CD47 treatment (45 min). Isolated coronary arterioles from young and old rats relax similarly to exogenous NO, but addition of 2.2 nM Thbs-1 inhibited NO-mediated vasodilation by 24% in old rats, whereas young vessels were unaffected. Thbs-1 increased O2 (-) production in coronary arterioles from rats of both ages, but this was exaggerated in old rats. The addition of CD47 blocking antibody completely restored NO-dependent vasodilation in isolated arterioles from aged rats and attenuated O2 (-) production. Furthermore, ?CD47 treatment increased CFR from 9.6 ± 9.3 (IgG) to 84.0 ± 23% in the left ventricle in intact, aged animals. These findings suggest that the influence of Thbs-1 and CD47 on coronary perfusion increases with aging and may be therapeutically targeted to reverse coronary microvascular dysfunction.
Project description:Aging is associated with an altered ability to match oxygen delivery (QO2) to consumption ((.)VO2) in skeletal muscle and differences in the temporal profile of vasodilation may provide a mechanistic basis for the QO2-to-(.)VO2 mismatching during the rest-to-exercise transition. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the speed of vasodilation will be blunted in skeletal muscle first-order arterioles from old vs. young rats. Arterioles from the soleus and the red portion of the gastrocnemius (Gast(Red)) muscles were isolated from young (Y, 6 mo; n = 9) and old (O, 24 mo; n = 9) Fischer 344 rats and studied in vitro. Vessels were exposed to acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-6) M), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10(-4) M), and increased intraluminal flow, and the subsequent vasodilation was recorded at 30 frames/s. The data were fit to a monoexponential model and the dynamics of vasodilation [i.e., time delay, time constant (tau), and rate of change (delta/tau)] were calculated. With old age, the rate of vasodilation was significantly blunted in resistance vessels from the soleus to ACh (Y, 27.9 +/- 3.6; O, 8.8 +/- 2.6 microm/s) and flow (Y, 12.8 +/- 2.1; O, 3.1 +/- 0.9 microm/s). In the Gast(Red) the old age-associated impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilator dynamics was even greater than that of the soleus. With SNP neither the magnitude nor time constant of vasodilation was affected by age in either muscle. The results indicate that aging impairs the dynamics of vasodilation in resistance vessels from the soleus and Gast(Red) muscles mediated, in part, through the endothelium. Thus the old age-associated slower rate and magnitude of vasodilation could inhibit the delivery of O2 during the critical transition from rest to exercise in moderate to highly oxidative skeletal muscle.
Project description:An early manifestation of coronary artery disease in advanced age is the development of microvascular dysfunction leading to deficits in diastolic function. Our lab has previously shown that epicardial treatment with adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) preserves microvascular function following coronary ischemia in a young rodent model. Follow-up studies showed intravenous (i.v.) delivery of SVF allows the cells to migrate to the walls of small vessels and reset vasomotor tone. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that the i.v. cell injection of SVF would reverse the coronary microvascular dysfunction associated with aging in a rodent model. Fischer 344 rats were divided into 4 groups: young control (YC), old control (OC), old + rat aortic endothelial cells (O+EC) and old + GFP+ SVF cells (O+SVF). After four weeks, cardiac function and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were measured via echocardiography, and hearts were explanted either for histology or isolation of coronary arterioles for vessel reactivity studies. In a subgroup of animals, microspheres were injected during resting and dobutamine-stimulated conditions to measure coronary blood flow. GFP+ SVF cells engrafted and persisted in the myocardium and coronary vasculature four weeks following i.v. injection. Echocardiography showed age-related diastolic dysfunction without accompanying systolic dysfunction; diastolic function was improved in old rats after SVF treatment. Ultrasound and microsphere data both showed increased stimulated coronary blood flow in O+SVF rats compared to OC and O+EC, while isolated vessel reactivity was mostly unchanged. I.v.-injected SVF cells were capable of incorporating into the vasculature of the aging heart and are shown in this study to improve CFR and diastolic function in a model of advanced age. Importantly, SVF injection did not lead to arrhythmias or increased mortality in aged rats. SVF cells provide an autologous cell therapy option for treatment of microvascular and cardiac dysfunction in aged populations.
Project description:Little is known about the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on coronary arteriole remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms that underlie coronary arteriole structural remodeling in type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice. Passive structural properties of septal coronary arterioles isolated from 12- to 16-week-old diabetic db/db and control mice were assessed by pressure myography. Coronary arterioles from 12-week-old db/db mice were structurally similar to age-matched controls. By 16 weeks of age, coronary wall thickness was increased in db/db arterioles (p < 0.01), while luminal diameter was reduced (control: 118 ± 5 ?m; db/db: 102 ± 4 ?m, p < 0.05), augmenting the wall-to-lumen ratio by 58% (control: 5.9 ± 0.6; db/db: 9.5 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). Inward hypertrophic remodeling was accompanied by a 56% decrease in incremental elastic modulus (p < 0.05, indicating decreased vessel coronary wall stiffness) and a ~30% reduction in coronary flow reserve (CFR) in diabetic mice. Interestingly, aortic pulse wave velocity and femoral artery incremental elastic modulus were increased (p < 0.05) in db/db mice, indicating macrovascular stiffness. Molecular tissue analysis revealed increased elastin-to-collagen ratio in diabetic coronaries when compared to control and a decrease in the same ratio in the diabetic aortas. These data show that coronary arterioles isolated from type 2 diabetic mice undergo inward hypertrophic remodeling associated with decreased stiffness and increased elastin-to-collagen ratio which results in a decreased CFR. This study suggests that coronary microvessels undergo a different pattern of remodeling from macrovessels in type 2 DM.
Project description:To verify that adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? reciprocally regulate their expression, thereby synergistically affecting both coronary and aortic endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice.We examined endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation/vasorelaxation of coronary arterioles and aortas in control mice, diabetic mice (Lepr(db)), and Lepr(db) treated with adiponectin or neutralizing antibody to TNF-? (anti-TNF-?). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine in both coronary arterioles and aortas was blunted in Lepr(db) compared with control mice. Endothelium-independent vasodilation to sodium nitroprusside was comparable. Adiponectin and anti-TNF-? improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation of coronary arterioles and aortas in Lepr(db) without affecting dilator response to sodium nitroprusside. Adiponectin protein expression was significantly reduced, and TNF-? protein expression was significantly greater, in coronary arterioles and aortas of Lepr(db) compared with control mice. Immunofluorescence staining results indicate that adiponectin was colocalized with endothelial cells. Anti-TNF-? treatment upregulated adiponectin protein expression in Lepr(db) coronary arterioles and aortas. Adiponectin administration reduced TNF-? protein expression in Lepr(db). Although adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression in coronary arterioles and aortas was similar between control and diabetic mice, adiponectin receptor 2 protein expression was significantly reduced in Lepr(db). Both adiponectin and anti-TNF-? inhibited I?B? phosphorylation and nuclear factor ?B protein expression in Lepr(db), suggesting that adiponectin and TNF-? signaling may converge on nuclear factor ?B to reciprocally regulate their expression.A reciprocal suppression occurs between adiponectin and TNF-? that fundamentally affects the regulation of coronary and aortic endothelial function in type 2 diabetic mice.
Project description:Diabetes is associated with cardiac inflammation and impaired endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation, but molecular mechanisms involved in this dysfunction remain unclear. We examined contributions of inflammatory molecules lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), stress-activated kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and p38), arginase, and reactive oxygen species to coronary arteriolar dysfunction in a porcine model of type 1 diabetes. Coronary arterioles were isolated from streptozocin-induced diabetic pigs and control pigs for vasoreactivity and molecular/biochemical studies. Endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation to serotonin was diminished after 2?weeks of diabetes, without altering endothelium-independent vasodilation to sodium nitroprusside. Superoxide scavenger TEMPOL, NO precursor L-arginine, arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA, anti-LOX-1 antibody or JNK inhibitors SP600125 and BI-78D3 improved dilation of diabetic vessels to serotonin. However, hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase, anti-IgG antibody or p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 had no effect. Combined inhibition of arginase and superoxide levels did not further improve vasodilation. Arginase-I mRNA expression, LOX-1 and JNK protein expression, and superoxide levels were elevated in diabetic arterioles. In conclusion, sequential activation of LOX-1, JNK, and L-arginine consuming enzyme arginase-I in diabetes elicits superoxide-dependent oxidative stress and impairs endothelial NO-mediated dilation in coronary arterioles. Therapeutic targeting of these adverse vascular molecules may improve coronary arteriolar function during diabetes.
Project description:Aims:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients. Vascular large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channels, composed of four pore-forming ? subunits (BK-?), and four regulatory ?1 subunits (BK-?1), are densely expressed in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and play an important role in regulating vascular tone and myocardial perfusion. However, the role of BK channels in coronary microvascular dysfunction of human subjects with diabetes is unclear. In this study, we examined BK channel function and protein expression, and BK channel-mediated vasodilation in freshly isolated coronary arterioles from T2D patients. Methods and results:Atrial tissues were obtained from 16 patients with T2D and 25 matched non-diabetic subjects during cardiopulmonary bypass procedure. Microvessel videomicroscopy and immunoblot analysis were performed in freshly dissected coronary arterioles and inside-out single BK channel currents was recorded in enzymatically isolated coronary arteriolar SMCs. We found that BK channel sensitivity to physiological Ca2+ concentration and voltage was downregulated in the coronary arteriolar SMCs of diabetic patients, compared with non-diabetic controls. BK channel kinetics analysis revealed that there was significant shortening of the mean open time and prolongation of the mean closed time in diabetic patients, resulting in a remarkable reduction of the channel open probability. Functional studies showed that BK channel activation by dehydrosoyasaponin-1 was diminished and that BK channel-mediated vasodilation in response to shear stress was impaired in diabetic coronary arterioles. Immunoblot experiments confirmed that the protein expressions of BK-? and BK-?1 subunits were significantly downregulated, but the ratio of BK-?/BK-?1 was unchanged in the coronary arterioles of T2D patients. Conclusions:Our results demonstrated for the first time that BK channel function and BK channel-mediated vasodilation were abnormal in the coronary microvasculature of diabetic patients, due to decreased protein expression and altered intrinsic properties of BK channels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is often manifested as impaired cardiovascular reserve. We sought to determine if conducted vasodilation, which coordinates microvascular resistance longitudinally to match tissue metabolic demand, becomes compromised in HFpEF. We hypothesized that the metabolic vasodilator adenosine facilitates and that inhibition of ADK (adenosine kinase) augments conducted vasodilation for a more efficient myocardial perfusion and improved left ventricle (LV) diastolic function in HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS:We assessed conducted vasodilation in obese ZSF1 rats that develop LV diastolic dysfunction and is used to model human HFpEF. Additionally, conducted vasodilation was measured in arterioles isolated from the right atrial appendages of patients with HFpEF. We found a markedly reduced conducted vasodilation both in obese ZSF1 rats and in patients with HFpEF. Impaired conducted vasodilation was accompanied by increased vascular ADK expression. Isolated rat and human arterioles incubated with adenosine (10 nmol/L) or ADK inhibitor ABT-702 (0.1 µmol/L) both displayed augmented conducted vasodilation. Treatment of obese ZSF1 rats with ABT-702 (1.5 mg/kg, IP for 8 weeks) prevented LV diastolic dysfunction, and in a crossover design augmented conducted vasodilation and improved LV diastolic function. ABT-702 treated obese ZSF1 rats exhibited reduced expression of myocardial carbonic anhydrase 9 and collagen, surrogate markers of myocardial hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS:Upregulation of vascular ADK mitigates adenosine-facilitated conducted vasodilation in obese ZSF1 rats and in patients with HFpEF. We propose that pharmacological inhibition of ADK could be beneficial for therapeutic augmentation of conducted vasodilation, thereby improving tissue perfusion and LV diastolic function in HFpEF.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that upregulation of arginase contributes to impaired endothelial function in aging. In this study, we demonstrate that arginase upregulation leads to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and that in vivo chronic inhibition of arginase restores nitroso-redox balance, improves endothelial function, and increases vascular compliance in old rats. Arginase activity in old rats was significantly increased compared with that shown in young rats. Old rats had significantly lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher superoxide (O2(-)) production than young. Acute inhibition of both NOS, with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and arginase, with 2S-amino- 6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH), significantly reduced O2(-) production in old rats but not in young. In addition, the ratio of eNOS dimer to monomer in old rats was significantly decreased compared with that shown in young rats. These results suggest that eNOS was uncoupled in old rats. Although the expression of arginase 1 and eNOS was similar in young and old rats, inducible NOS (iNOS) was significantly upregulated. Furthermore, S-nitrosylation of arginase 1 was significantly elevated in old rats. These findings support our previously published finding that iNOS nitrosylates and activates arginase 1 (Santhanam et al., Circ Res 101: 692-702, 2007). Chronic arginase inhibition in old rats preserved eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio and significantly reduced O2(-) production and enhanced endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation to ACh. In addition, ABH significantly reduced vascular stiffness in old rats. These data indicate that iNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation of arginase 1 and the increase in arginase activity lead to eNOS uncoupling, contributing to the nitroso-redox imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular stiffness observed in vascular aging. We suggest that arginase is a viable target for therapy in age-dependent vascular stiffness.
Project description:Senescence is a major factor that increases oxidative stress in mitochondria, which contributes toward the pathogenesis of heart disease. However, the effect of antioxidant therapy on cardiac mitochondria in aged-cardiac performance remains elusive.We postulated that the mitochondrial targeting of superoxide scavenging would have benefits in the aged heart.Generation of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity increased in the heart of old mice compared with that in young mice. In old mice treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO (180?µg/kg/day, 28 days) co-infusion using a subcutaneously implanted minipump, levels of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity as well as hydrogen peroxide decreased markedly in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the systolic and diastolic function assessed by echocardiography. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated coronary arteries and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation were impaired in old mice compared with that in young mice and were improved by MitoTEMPO treatment. Mitochondria from the old mice myocardium showed lower rates of complex I-dependent and II-dependent respiration compared with that from young mice. Supplementation of MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the respiration rates and efficiency of ATP generation in mitochondria to a level similar to that of young mice.Resolution of oxidative stress in mitochondria by MitoTEMPO in old mice restored cardiac function and the capacity of coronary vasodilation to the same magnitude observed in young mice. An antioxidant strategy targeting mitochondria could have a therapeutic benefit in heart disease with senescence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Essential hypertension is considered to be a multifactorial disorder and its aetiology has yet to be clearly identified. As the adenosine receptors have a significant role in mediating vasodilation, alterations in their structures or signalling pathways may be involved in the development of hypertension. This study aimed to measure the expression of adenosine A3 receptors in a range of cardiovascular tissues and determine whether they could be altered with essential hypertension, and to functionally test responses to adenosine A3 receptor agonists in coronary blood vessels using the isolated perfused heart preparation. METHODS:mRNA samples from cardiovascular tissues and a range of blood vessels were collected from 10 week old male spontaneously hypertensive rats and age-gender matched Wistar rats (n = 8). The Langendorff heart perfusion preparation was used to characterise adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in the rat heart. RESULTS:Adenosine A3 receptor agonists induced coronary vasodilation. The expression of adenosine A3 receptors in cardiovascular tissues was altered in a tissue-specific pattern. Specifically, down-regulation of adenosine A3 receptor expression occurred in hypertensive hearts, which might be associated with attenuated vasodilator responses observed in coronary vessels to adenosine A3 receptor agonists. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated alterations in the expression of adenosine A3 receptors occurred in a tissue specific mode, and reduced adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Our findings with regard to changes in the adenosine A3 receptor in hypertensive hearts suggest that adenosine A3 receptor might play a role in the physiopathology of essential hypertension and potentially open the way to pharmacologic manipulation of vasomotor activity by the use of adenosine A3 receptor agonists.