Complementary Proteomics, Genomics approaches identifies potential pathogenicity/virulence factors in Tilletia indica induced under the influence of host factor.
ABSTRACT: Karnal bunt disease of wheat is incited by quarantine fungal pathogen T. indica. Till date, there is little information on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Karnal bunt. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, highly aggressive T. indica TiK isolate was cultured in the presence of host factor extracted from developing spikes of wheat variety WH-542. Modulation in protein profile of mycelial proteins and secretome from TiK cultured in the absence and presence of host factor was analyzed by 2-DE. Fifteen and twenty nine protein spots were up-regulated/differentially regulated in the proteome of mycelial and secreted proteins, respectively and identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified proteins are involved in suppression of host defense responses, lignin degradation of plant cell wall, penetration, adhesion of pathogen to host tissues, pathogen mediated reactive oxygen species generation, hydrolytic enzymes, detoxification of host generated reactive oxygen species. Further, integration of proteomic and genomic analysis has led to candidate pathogenicity/virulence factors identification. They were functionally annotated by sequence as well as structure based analysis. In this study, complementation of proteomics and genomics approaches resulted in novel pathogenicity/virulence factor(s) identification in T. indica.
Project description:Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell wall, signal transduction pathway. These results were integrated with T. indica genome sequence for identification of homologs of candidate pathogenicity/virulence related proteins. Protein identified in TiK isolate as malate dehydrogenase that converts malate to oxaloacetate which is precursor of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid is key pathogenicity factor in phytopathogenic fungi. These results were validated by GC-MS based metabolic profiling of T. indica isolates indicating that oxalic acid was exclusively identified in TiK isolate. Thus, integrated omics approaches leads to identification of pathogenicity/virulence factor(s) that would provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms of fungi and aid in devising effective disease management strategies.
Project description:Karnal bunt disease in wheat is caused by hemibiotrophic fungus, Tilletia indica that has been placed as quarantine pest in more than 70 countries. Despite its economic importance, little knowledge about the molecular components of fungal pathogenesis is known. In this study, first time the genome sequence of T. indica has been deciphered for unraveling the effectors' functions of molecular pathogenesis of Karnal bunt disease. The T. indica genome was sequenced employing hybrid approach of PacBio Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) and Illumina HiSEQ 2000 sequencing platforms. The genome was assembled into 10,957 contigs (N50 contig length 3 kb) with total size of 26.7 Mb and GC content of 53.99%. The number of predicted putative genes were 11,535, which were annotated with Gene Ontology databases. Functional annotation of Karnal bunt pathogen genome and classification of identified effectors into protein families revealed interesting functions related to pathogenesis. Search for effectors' genes using pathogen host interaction database identified 135 genes. The T. indica genome sequence and putative genes involved in molecular pathogenesis would further help in devising novel and effective disease management strategies including development of resistant wheat genotypes, novel biomarkers for pathogen detection and new targets for fungicide development.
Project description:Tilletia indica is an internationally quarantined fungal pathogen causing Karnal bunt of wheat. The present study carried out that the whole genome of T. indica was sequenced and identified transposable elements, pathogenicity-related genes using a comparative genomics approach. The T. indica genome assembly size of 33.7 MB was generated using Illumina and Pac Bio platforms with GC content of 55.0%. A total of 1737 scaffolds were obtained with N50 of 58,667 bp. The ab initio gene prediction was performed using Ustilago maydis as the reference species. A total number of 10,113 genes were predicted with an average gene size of 1945 bp out of which functionally annotated genes were 7262. A total number of 3216 protein-coding genes were assigned in different categories. Out of a total number of 1877 transposable elements, gypsy had the highest count (573). Total 5772 simple sequence repeats were identified in the genome assembly, and the most abundant simple sequence repeat type was trinucleotide having 42% of total SSRs. The comparative genome analysis suggested 3751 proteins of T. indica had orthologs in five fungi, whereas 126 proteins were unique to T. indica. Secretome analysis revealed the presence of 1014 secretory proteins and few carbohydrate-active enzymes in the genome. Some putative candidate pathogenicity-related genes were identified in the genome. The whole genome of T. indica will provide a window to understand the pathogenesis mechanism, fungal life cycle, survival of teliospores, and novel strategies for management of Karnal bunt disease of wheat.
Project description:Karnal bunt caused by Tilletia indica Mitra [syn. Neovossia indica (Mitra) Mundkur] is a significant biosecurity concern for wheat-exporting countries that are free of the disease. It is a seed-, soil-and air-borne disease with no effective chemical control measures. The current study used data from multi-year field experiments of two bi-parental populations and a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping panel to unravel the genetic basis for resistance in common wheat. Broad-sense heritability for Karnal bunt resistance in the populations varied from 0.52 in the WH542×HD29 population, to 0.61 in the WH542×W485 cross and 0.71 in a GWAS panel. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with seven years of phenotypic data identified a major locus on chromosome 3B (R2 = 27.8%) and a minor locus on chromosome 1A (R2 = 12.2%), in the WH542×HD29 population, with both parents contributing the high-value alleles. A major locus (R2 = 27.8%) and seven minor loci (R2 = 4.4-15.8%) were detected in the WH542×W485 population. GWA mapping validated QTL regions in the bi-parent populations, but also identified novel loci not previously associated with Karnal bunt resistance. Meta-QTL analysis aligned the results from this study with those reported in wheat over the last two decades. Two major clusters were detected, the first on chromosome 4B, which clustered with Qkb.ksu-4B, QKb.cimmyt-4BL, Qkb.cim-4BL, and the second on chromosome 3B, which clustered with Qkb.cnl-3B, QKb.cimmyt-3BS and Qkb.cim-3BS1 The results provide definitive chromosomal assignments for QTL/genes controlling Karnal bunt resistance in common wheat, and will be useful in pre-emptive breeding against the pathogen in wheat-producing areas that are free of the disease.
Project description:Karnal bunt disease of wheat, caused by the fungus Neovossia indica, is one of the most important challenges to the grain industry as it affects the grain quality and also restricts the international movement of infected grain. It is a seed-, soil- and airborne disease with limited effect of chemical control. Currently, this disease is contained through the deployment of host resistance but further improvement is limited as only a few genotypes have been found to carry partial resistance. To identify genomic regions responsible for resistance in a set of 339 wheat accessions, genome-wide association study (GWAS) was undertaken using the DArTSeq® technology, in which 18 genomic regions for Karnal bunt resistance were identified, explaining 5-20% of the phenotypic variation. The identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 2BL showed consistently significant effects across all four experiments, whereas another QTL on 5BL was significant in three experiments. Additional QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 1DL, 2DL, 4AL, 5AS, 6BL, 6BS, 7BS and 7DL that have not been mapped previously, and on chromosomes 4B, 5AL, 5BL and 6BS, which have been reported in previous studies. Germplasm with less than 1% Karnal bunt infection have been identified and can be used for resistance breeding. The SNP markers linked to the genomic regions conferring resistance to Karnal bunt could be used to improve Karnal bunt resistance through marker-assisted selection.
Project description:Signaling pathways that activate different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to certain environmental conditions, play important role in mating type switching (Fus3) and pathogenicity (Pmk1) in many fungi. In order to determine the roles of such regulatory genes in Tilletia indica, the causal pathogen of Karnal bunt (KB) of wheat, semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to isolate and determine the expression of MAP kinase homologues during fungal growth and development under in vitro culture. Maximum expression of TiFus3 and TiPmk1 genes were observed at 14th and 21st days of culture and decreased thereafter. To investigate whether the fungus alters the expression levels of same kinases upon interaction with plants, cultures were treated with 1% of host factors (extracted from S-2 stage of wheat spikes). Such treatment induced the expression of MAPks in time dependent manner compared to the absence of host factors. These results suggest that host factor(s) provide certain signal(s) which activate TiFus3 and TiPmk1 during morphogenetic development of T. indica. The results also provides a clue about the role of host factors in enhancing the disease potential due to induction of MAP kinases involved in fungal development and pathogenecity.
Project description:Karnal bunt disease caused by the fungus Tilletia indica Mitra is a serious concern due to strict quarantines affecting international trade of wheat. We announce here the first draft assembly of two monosporidial lines, PSWKBGH-1 and -2, of this fungus, having approximate sizes of 37.46 and 37.21 Mbp, respectively.
Project description:Two wheat varieties HD-29 (resistant, R) and WH-542 (susceptible, S) were pretreated with jasmonic acid (JA) or jasmonate and then artificially inoculated with sporidial suspension of Tilletia indica to study its influence in reducing Karnal bunt (KB) infection by regulating cystatin gene expression. JA was found to improve the plant defense against KB as its exogenous application resulted in decrease in coefficient of infection (CI) in both susceptible and resistant varieties following pathogen inoculation. Transcript profiling of wheat cystatin genes at different days after inoculation (DAI) showed that JA pretreatment positively induced cystatin gene expression in both varieties with greater induction of expression in resistant variety than the susceptible one (P< 0.05). Different temporal expression of three wheat cystatin genes, WC2, WC3 and WCMD was observed with their increased expression at 1DAI in the boot emergence stage which is most susceptible to KB and then slowly declined gradually at 3, 7 and 15 DAI in both the varieties. Except WC2, higher expression of other two cystatins viz. WC3 and WCMD at 1DAI showed higher response (P< 0.05) to KB pathogenesis at the disease-prone boot emergence stage as also evident by decrease of CI in both varieties. The results of determination of specific activity of cystatin by inhibitor assay were found to be consistent with those of transcript profiling. These findings suggest that jasmonic acid (JA) may act as a potential activator of induced resistance against Karnal bunt of wheat by upregulating cystatin gene expression.
Project description:Karnal bunt of wheat is an internationally quarantined disease affecting trade, quality, and production of wheat. During 2015-2016, a severe outbreak of Karnal bunt disease occurred in north-western plain zone of India. The present study was undertaken to decipher genetic variations in Indian isolates of <i>Tilletia indica</i> collected from different locations. Seven multilocus sequence fragments were selected to differentiate and characterize these <i>T. indica</i> isolates. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on pooled sequences of actin-related protein 2 (ARP2), ?-tubulin (TUB), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (EIF3A), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone 2B (H2B), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), and serine/threonine-protein kinase (STPK) showed that isolate KB-11 (Kaithal, Haryana) was highly conserved as it was located in cluster 1 and has the maximum sequence similarity with the reference strain. Other isolates in cluster 1 included KB-16 and KB-17, both from Uttar Pradesh, and KB-19 from Haryana. Isolates KB-07 (Jind, Haryana) and KB-18 (Mujaffar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh) were the most diverse and grouped in a subgroup of cluster 2. Maximum numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (675) were in the PGK gene across the <i>T. indica</i> isolates. The minimum numbers of SNPs (67) were in KB-11 (Kaithal, Haryana), while the maximum number of SNPs (165) was identified in KB-18, followed by 164 SNPs in KB-14. KB-18 isolate was found to be the most diverse amongst all <i>T. indica</i> isolates. This first study on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that the population of <i>T. indica</i> was highly diverse.
Project description:Tilletia species cause diseases on grass hosts with some causing bunt diseases on wheat (Triticum). Two of the four species infecting wheat have restricted distributions globally and are subject to quarantine regulations to prevent their spread to new areas. Tilletia indica causes Karnal bunt and is regulated by many countries while the non-regulated T. walkeri is morphologically similar and very closely related phylogenetically, but infects ryegrass (Lolium) and not wheat. Tilletia controversa causes dwarf bunt of wheat (DB) and is also regulated by some countries, while the closely related but non-regulated species, T. caries and T. laevis, both cause common bunt of wheat (CB). Historically, diagnostic methods have relied on cryptic morphology to differentiate these species in subsamples from grain shipments. Of the DNA-based methods published so far, most have focused on sequence variation among tested strains at a single gene locus. To facilitate the development of additional molecular assays for diagnostics, we generated whole genome data for multiple strains of the two regulated wheat pathogens and their closest relatives. Depending on the species, the genomes were assembled into 907 to 4633 scaffolds ranging from 24?Mb to 30?Mb with 7842 to 9952 gene models predicted. Phylogenomic analyses confirmed the placement of Tilletia in the Exobasidiomycetes and showed that T. indica and T. walkeri were in one clade whereas T. controversa, T. caries and T. laevis grouped in a separate clade. Single copy and species-specific genes were identified by orthologous group analysis. Unique species-specific genes were identified and evaluated as suitable markers to differentiate the quarantine and non-quarantine species. After further analyses and manual inspection, primers and probes for the optimum candidate genes were designed and tested in silico, for validation in future wet-lab studies.