Involvement of PRRSV NSP3 and NSP5 in the autophagy process.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Autophagy is an essential process in eukaryotic cells in which autophagosomes form to deliver cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Many studies have recently identified the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between viral infection and autophagy. METHODS:LC3 turnover and the proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway were investigated using western blot analysis. The formation and degradation of autophagosomes were detected using immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS:Autophagy was activated by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) NSP3, NSP5 and NSP9, which are two transmembrane proteins and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. The formation of autophagosomes was induced by NSP3 and NSP5 and developed from the ER; the fusion of these autophagosomes with lysosomes was limited. Although NSP3 and NSP5 are ER transmembrane proteins, these proteins did not activate the ER stress signaling pathways. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of NSP3 plays a pivotal role in activating autophagy. CONCLUSIONS:The data presented in this study reveal an important relationship between PRRSV NSPs and autophagy and provide new insights that improve our understanding of the involvement of PRRSV NSPs in the autophagy process.
Project description:Autophagy is a cellular response to starvation which generates autophagosomes to carry cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Degradation through autophagy can provide an innate defence against virus infection, or conversely autophagosomes can promote infection by facilitating assembly of replicase proteins. We demonstrate that the avian coronavirus, Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) activates autophagy. A screen of individual IBV non-structural proteins (nsps) showed that autophagy was activated by IBV nsp6. This property was shared with nsp6 of mammalian coronaviruses Mouse Hepatitis Virus, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus, and the equivalent nsp5-7 of the arterivirus Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. These multiple-spanning transmembrane proteins located to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they generated Atg5 and LC3II-positive vesicles, and vesicle formation was dependent on Atg5 and class III PI3 kinase. The vesicles recruited double FYVE-domain containing protein (DFCP) indicating localised concentration of phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate, and therefore shared many features with omegasomes formed from the ER in response to starvation. Omegasomes induced by viral nsp6 matured into autophagosomes that delivered LC3 to lysosomes and therefore recruited and recycled the proteins needed for autophagosome nucleation, expansion, cellular trafficking and delivery of cargo to lysosomes. The coronavirus nsp6 proteins activated omegasome and autophagosome formation independently of starvation, but activation did not involve direct inhibition of mTOR signalling, activation of sirtuin1 or induction of ER stress.
Project description:The RNA synthesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a positive-strand RNA virus, is compartmentalized in virus-induced double-membrane vesicles where viral proteins and some cellular proteins assemble into replication and transcription complexes (RTCs). The viral replicase proteins are the major components of the RTCs but the physical associations among these non-structural proteins (nsps) remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the potential interactions between PRRSV nsps by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and pull-down assays. Our analyses revealed a complex network of interactions involving most of PRRSV nsps. Among them, nsp9 and nsp12 were identified as the hubs of the nsp interactome; transmembrane proteins nsp2 and nsp5 both interacted with nsp3, indicating that the three membrane-bound proteins might bind together to form the scaffold to support the association of RTCs with the intracellular membrane. The PRRSV nsp interactions identified in this study may provide valuable clues for future researches on the RTC formation and function.
Project description:Autophagy is a cellular response to starvation that generates autophagosomes to carry long-lived proteins and cellular organelles to lysosomes for degradation. Activation of autophagy by viruses can provide an innate defense against infection, and for (+) strand RNA viruses autophagosomes can facilitate assembly of replicase proteins. We demonstrated that nonstructural protein (NSP) 6 of the avian coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), generates autophagosomes from the ER. A statistical analysis of MAP1LC3B puncta showed that NSP6 induced greater numbers of autophagosomes per cell compared with starvation, but the autophagosomes induced by NSP6 had smaller diameters compared with starvation controls. Small diameter autophagosomes were also induced by infection of cells with IBV, and by NSP6 proteins of MHV and SARS and NSP5, NSP6, and NSP7 of arterivirus PRRSV. Analysis of WIPI2 puncta induced by NSP6 suggests that NSP6 limits autophagosome diameter at the point of omegasome formation. IBV NSP6 also limited autophagosome and omegasome expansion in response to starvation and Torin1 and could therefore limit the size of autophagosomes induced following inhibition of MTOR signaling, as well as those induced independently by the NSP6 protein itself. MAP1LC3B-puncta induced by NSP6 contained SQSTM1, which suggests they can incorporate autophagy cargos. However, NSP6 inhibited the autophagosome/lysosome expansion normally seen following starvation. Taken together the results show that coronavirus NSP6 proteins limit autophagosome expansion, whether they are induced directly by the NSP6 protein, or indirectly by starvation or chemical inhibition of MTOR signaling. This may favor coronavirus infection by compromising the ability of autophagosomes to deliver viral components to lysosomes for degradation.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Arteriviridae Synthesis of the viral RNA is directed by replication/transcription complexes (RTC) that are mainly composed of a network of PRRSV nonstructural proteins (nsps) and likely cellular proteins. Here, we mapped the interaction network among PRRSV nsps by using yeast two-hybrid screening in conjunction with coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and cotransfection assays. We identified a total of 24 novel interactions and found that the interactions were centered on open reading frame 1b (ORF1b)-encoded nsps that were mainly connected by the transmembrane proteins nsp2, nsp3, and nsp5. Interestingly, the interactions of the core enzymes nsp9 and nsp10 with transmembrane proteins did not occur in a straightforward manner, as they worked in the co-IP assay but were poorly capable of finding each other within intact mammalian cells. Further proof that they can interact within cells required the engineering of N-terminal truncations of both nsp9 and nsp10. However, despite the poor colocalization relationship in cotransfected cells, both nsp9 and nsp10 came together with membrane proteins (e.g., nsp2) at the viral replication and transcription complexes (RTC) in PRRSV-infected cells. Thus, our results indicate the existence of a complex interaction network among PRRSV nsps and raise the possibility that the recruitment of key replicase proteins to membrane-associated nsps may involve some regulatory mechanisms during infection.IMPORTANCE Synthesis of PRRSV RNAs within host cells depends on the efficient and correct assembly of RTC that takes places on modified intracellular membranes. As an important step toward dissecting this poorly understood event, we investigated the interaction network among PRRSV nsps. Our studies established a comprehensive interaction map for PRRSV nsps and revealed important players within the network. The results also highlight the likely existence of a regulated recruitment of the PRRSV core enzymes nsp9 and nsp10 to viral membrane nsps during PRRSV RTC assembly.
Project description:Our knowledge about the structure and function of the nonstructural proteins (nsps) encoded by the arterivirus replicase gene has advanced in recent years. The continued characterization of the nsps of the arterivirus prototype equine arteritis virus has not only corroborated several important functional predictions, but also revealed various novel features of arteriviral replication. For porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), based on bioinformatics predictions and experimental studies, a processing map for the pp1a and pp1ab replicase polyproteins has been developed. Crystal structures have been resolved for two of the PRRSV nonstructural proteins that possess proteinase activity (nsp1? and nsp4). The functional characterization of the key enzymes for arterivirus RNA synthesis, the nsp9 RNA polymerase and nsp10 helicase, has been initiated. In addition, progress has been made on nsp functions relating to the regulation of subgenomic mRNAs synthesis (nsp1), the induction of replication-associated membrane rearrangements (nsp2 and nsp3), and an intriguing replicative endoribonuclease (nsp11) for which the natural substrate remains to be identified. The role of nsps in viral pathogenesis and host immunity is also being explored, and specific nsps (including nsp1?/?, nsp2, nsp4, nsp7, and nsp11) have been implicated in the modulation of host immune responses to PRRSV infection. The nsp3-8 region was identified as containing major virulence factors, although mechanistic information is scarce. The biological significance of PRRSV nsps in virus-host interactions and the technical advancements in engineering the PRRSV genome by reverse genetics are also reflected in recent developments in the area of vaccines and diagnostic assays.
Project description:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic signaling mediator of many cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. STAT3 is known to play critical roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, immunity and inflammatory responses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on the STAT3 signaling since PRRSV induces a weak protective immune response in host animals. We report here that PRRSV infection of MARC-145 cells and primary porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages led to significant reduction of STAT3 protein level. Several strains of both PRRSV type 1 and type 2 led to a similar reduction of STAT3 protein level but had a minimal effect on its transcripts. The PRRSV-mediated STAT3 reduction was in a dose-dependent manner as the STAT3 level decreased, along with incremental amounts of PRRSV inocula. Further study showed that nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) of PRRSV induced the STAT3 degradation by increasing its polyubiquitination level and shortening its half-life from 24 h to ?3.5 h. The C-terminal domain of nsp5 was shown to be required for the STAT3 degradation. Moreover, the STAT3 signaling in the cells transfected with nsp5 plasmid was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that PRRSV antagonizes the STAT3 signaling by accelerating STAT3 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. This study provides insight into the PRRSV interference with the JAK/STAT3 signaling, leading to perturbation of the host innate and adaptive immune responses. IMPORTANCE:The typical features of immune responses in PRRSV-infected pigs are delayed onset and low levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, as well as weak cell-mediated immunity. Lymphocyte development and differentiation rely on cytokines, many of which signal through the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to exert their biological effects. Here, we discovered that PRRSV antagonizes the JAK/STAT3 signaling by inducing degradation of STAT3, a master transcription activator involved in multiple cellular processes and the host immune responses. The nsp5 protein of PRRSV is responsible for the accelerated STAT3 degradation. The PRRSV-mediated antagonizing STAT3 could lead to suppression of a broad spectrum of cytokines and growth factors to allow virus replication and spread in host animals. This may be one of the reasons for the PRRSV interference with the innate immunity and its poor elicitation of protective immunity. This finding provides insight into PRRSV pathogenesis and its interference with the host immune responses.
Project description:Coronaviruses express two very large replicase polyproteins, the 16 autoproteolytic cleavage products of which collectively form the membrane-anchored replication complexes. How these structures are assembled is still largely unknown, but it is likely that the membrane-spanning members of these nonstructural proteins (nsps) are responsible for the induction of the double-membrane vesicles and for anchoring the replication complexes to these membranes. For 3 of the 16 coronavirus nsps-nsp3, nsp4, and nsp6-multiple transmembrane domains are predicted. Previously we showed that, consistent with predictions, nsp4 occurs in membranes with both of its termini exposed in the cytoplasm (M. Oostra et al., J. Virol. 81:12323-12336, 2007). Strikingly, however, for both nsp3 and nsp6, predictions based on a multiple alignment of 27 coronavirus genome sequences indicate an uneven number of transmembrane domains. As a consequence, the proteinase domains present in nsp3 and nsp5 would be separated from their target sequences by the lipid bilayer. To look into this incongruity, we studied the membrane disposition of nsp3 and nsp6 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and murine hepatitis virus by analyzing tagged forms of the proteins expressed in cultured cells. Contrary to the predictions, in both viruses, both proteins had their amino terminus, as well as their carboxy terminus, exposed in the cytoplasm. We established that two of the three hydrophobic domains in nsp3 and six of the seven in nsp6 are membrane spanning. Subsequently, we verified that in nsp4, all four hydrophobic domains span the lipid bilayer. The occurrence of conserved non-membrane-spanning hydrophobic domains in nsp3 and nsp6 suggests an important function for these domains in coronavirus replication.
Project description:Coronaviruses replicate their genomes in association with rearranged cellular membranes. The coronavirus nonstructural integral membrane proteins (nsps) 3, 4 and 6, are key players in the formation of the rearranged membranes. Previously, we demonstrated that nsp3 and nsp4 interact and that their co-expression results in the relocalization of these proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into discrete perinuclear foci. We now show that these foci correspond to areas of rearranged ER-derived membranes, which display increased membrane curvature. These structures, which were able to recruit other nsps, were only detected when nsp3 and nsp4 were derived from the same coronavirus species. We propose, based on the analysis of a large number of nsp3 and nsp4 mutants, that interaction between the large luminal loops of these proteins drives the formation of membrane rearrangements, onto which the coronavirus replication-transcription complexes assemble in infected cells.
Project description:Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a member of the family Coronaviridae. These positive strand RNA viruses encode a replicase polyprotein that is processed into 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). The nsps assemble with membranes to generate double membrane vesicles, which are the sites of viral RNA synthesis. MHV nsp3 contains multiple domains including two papain-like protease domains, PLP1 and PLP2, and a predicted transmembrane (TM) domain. In this study, we determined the membrane topology of nsp3-TM and showed that TM-mediated tethering of PLP2 is important for processing at cleavage site 3. Biochemical analysis revealed that nsp3 is an integral membrane protein that is inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes co-translationally and glycosylated at asparagine-2357. Proteinase K digestion experiments indicate that the TM domain of nsp3 has 4 membrane-spanning helices. We show that nsp3-TM is sufficient in mediating ER membrane association of a cytosolic protein. This study is the first detailed analysis of the topology and function of the coronavirus nsp3 TM domain.
Project description:Serial undiluted passage of a porcine rotavirus in MA104 cells yielded three distinct virus populations, each of which bore different rearranged genes. Sequencing revealed that each of two populations bore a distinct intragenic recombinant NSP3 gene consisting of a partial duplication in a head-to-tail orientation without altering the NSP3 open reading frame and the third population carried both an intragenic recombinant NSP3 gene and an intergenic recombinant gene (1,647 nucleotides in length) which contained a truncated NSP2 gene inserted into the NSP5 gene at residue 332. The former two populations were viable, whereas the latter population was defective and interfering.