Infant dietary patterns and early childhood caries in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort.
ABSTRACT: Dental caries, although preventable, remains one of the most prevalent chronic disease worldwide. Most studies focused on the relationship between sugar intake and caries. However, examining multidimensional dietary patterns is becoming increasingly important. Here, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns from ages 6 to 12 months and early childhood caries (ECC) at age 2 to 3-years. Infant dietary data was collected from caregivers and dietary pattern trajectories from 6 to 12 months derived. Oral examinations were carried out by trained calibrated dentists at ages 2 and 3 years. Associations between dietary pattern and ECC were estimated using generalized estimating equation. We found a 3.9 fold lower prevalence of decayed surfaces among children with high Guidelines dietary pattern scores at 6-months (IRR 0.26; CI [0.12-0.53]; p-value?-4; CI [4.2?×?10-7-0.13]; p-value?=?0.01). Suggesting that following the Guideline dietary pattern, which corresponds most closely to current World Health Organization weaning guidelines, at 6 months and an increase in pattern score between 6 and 12 months were protective against ECC development compared to Predominantly breastmilk, Easy-to-prepare foods and Noodles (in soup) and seafood dietary patterns.
Project description:This study examines the impact of longitudinal dietary trajectories on obesity and early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children in Australia. Mother-infant dyads from the Healthy Smiles Healthy Kids study were interviewed at 4 and 8 months, and 1, 2, and 3 years of age. Children underwent anthropometric and oral health assessments between 3 and 4 years of age. Multivariable logistic regression and negative binomial regression analysis were performed for the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and the number of tooth surfaces with dental caries, respectively. The intake of core, discretionary, and sugary foods showed distinct quadratic (<i>n</i> = 3) trajectories with age. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 10% (<i>n</i> = 72) and that of early childhood caries (ECC) was 33% (mean decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs) score: 1.96). Children with the highest trajectories of discretionary foods intake were more likely to be overweight or obese (adjusted OR: 2.51, 95 %CI: 1.16-5.42). Continued breastfeeding beyond 12 months was associated with higher dmfs scores (adjusted IRR: 2.17, 95 %CI: 1.27-3.73). Highest socioeconomic disadvantage was the most significant determinant for overweight or obesity (adjusted OR: 2.86, 95 %CI: 1.11-7.34) and ECC (adjusted IRR: 2.71, 95 %CI: 1.48-4.97). Targeted health promotion interventions should be designed to prevent the incidence of two highly prevalent conditions in preschool children.
Project description:Early childhood caries (ECC) is major oral health problem, mainly in socially disadvantaged populations. ECC affects infants and preschool children worldwide. The prevalence of ECC differs according to the group examined, and a prevalence of up to 85% has been reported for disadvantaged groups. ECC is the presence of one or more decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth in children aged 71 months (5 years) or younger. It begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors along the margin of the gingiva. If the disease continues, caries can progress, leading to complete destruction of the crown. The main risk factors in the development of ECC can be categorized as microbiological, dietary, and environmental risk factors. Even though it is largely a preventable condition, ECC remains one of the most common childhood diseases. The major contributing factors for the for the high prevalence of ECC are improper feeding practices, familial socioeconomic background, lack of parental education, and lack of access to dental care. Oral health plays an important role in children to maintain the oral functions and is required for eating, speech development, and a positive self-image. The review will focus on the prevalence, risk factors, and preventive strategies and the management of ECC.
Project description:Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7).PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.
Project description:Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between nocturnal breastfeeding, snacking habits, or other risk factors and ECC in 18- to 23-month-old Japanese children.Study subjects were 1675 children aged 18 to 23 months. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by parents or guardians of the children. The survey contents included such things as number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth per child, smokers in the home, nocturnal breastfeeding habit, snack times, kinds of snacks consumed ? 4 days a week, kinds of drinks consumed ? 4 days a week, parents brushing their child's teeth daily, and the use of fluoride toothpaste. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds of ECC.The average number of decayed, missing and filled teeth was 0.10. The prevalence of dental caries was 3.3%. Nocturnal breastfeeding habits were reported in 357 subjects (21.3%). After excluding items of multicollinearity, significant associations were observed between ECC and nocturnal breastfeeding, drinking or eating sweets after dinner every day, and the intake of candy, soda and/or isotonic drinks ? 4 days a week.This study suggests that nocturnal breastfeeding and snacking habits are correlated with ECC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dental caries of deciduous teeth (Early Childhood Caries, ECC) has become a crucial oral health problem over the decades in China. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and severity of ECC among preschool children from Guangdong Province, Southern China. In addition, to assess the association of ECC with reported oral health-related behaviors.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional survey of 2592 participants was carried out in Guangdong Province by means of an equal-sized, stratified, multistage random sampling method during December 2015 and April 2016. The participants were divided into three groups according to their ages (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds). Half of the participants were derived from urban areas, while the other from rural areas. According to the standard for clinical dentition examination of the WHO 2013 criteria, the presence of ECC was determined by the dmft (decayed-missing-filled tooth) index using a CPI (Community Periodontal Index) probe. A questionnaire about caries-related factors was completed by each of the participants' parents or grandparents through a face-to-face and one-on-one interview. Then, t-test, Chi<sup>2</sup> tests, One-Way ANOVA served for statistical analysis, and logistic regression analysis as well as covariance analysis were executed to identify potential associated factors for ECC.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence (% dmft >?0) of ECC was 68.3 (95% CI: 66.5-70.1), the mean dmft was 4.36 (95% CI: 4.17-4.55), and the filled rate was 1.2%. In multivariable modeling, associated factors for both prevalence and mean dmft were older age, rural areas, consumption of sweets before sleep, dental visit history, low household income, and low parental education level. Initiating toothbrushing after 3?years of age and being exclusively/ predominantly breastfed indicated only the prevalence; being female and frequently consuming sweetened milk/powdered milk indicated only the mean dmft.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Preschool children in Guangdong Province, especially children from rural areas, experienced a significant amount of ECC. Associated factors for ECC included demographics, oral health measures, dietary factors, and socioeconomic factors. More attention should be given to prevention of ECC from early life. The construction of social support for oral health should be strengthened. Oral health education and promotion, especially of rural areas, should be intensified to reduce the inequality between urban and rural areas.
Project description:Early childhood caries (ECC) recurrence occurs in approximately 40% of treated cases within one year. The association of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans with the onset of ECC is well known. Also, S. mutans strains harboring collagen-binding proteins (Cbps) avidly bind to collagen-rich dentin and are linked to increased caries risk. Here, we investigated the presence of Cbp<sup>+</sup> S. mutans and C. albicans in saliva and dental plaque of children with varying caries statuses, and their salivary microbiome. In this cross-sectional study, 143 children who were caries-free (n = 73), treated for ECC with no signs of recurrence after 6 months (n = 45), or treated for ECC and experiencing recurrence within 6 months following treatment (n = 25) were enrolled. Co-infection with C. albicans and S. mutans, especially Cbp<sup>+</sup> S. mutans, was strongly associated with caries recurrence. Subjects of the recurrence group infected with Cbp<sup>+</sup> S. mutans showed a greater burden of Candida spp. and of Mutans streptococci in dentin than those infected with Cbp<sup>-</sup> strains. Salivary microbiome analysis revealed that Streptococcus parasanguinis was overrepresented in the caries recurrence group. Our findings indicate that Cbp<sup>+</sup> S. mutans and C. albicans are intimately associated with caries recurrence, contributing to the establishment of recalcitrant biofilms.
Project description:The aim of this study was to reassess and confirm the relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and manifestations of psychomotor deficiency in 4-6-yr-old kindergarteners, which has remained elusive to date. A cross-sectional study with bi-township analysis was designed whereby 353 kindergarteners, aged 4-6 whose caries were greater (dmft (decayed, missing and filled teeth, dmft index) = 5.25) than that of the national average, located in a rural township of central Taiwan were recruited using simple random-selection. Besides the personal, demographic, and dietary information, the measurements for caries and the amended comprehensive scales (CCDI) of children's psychomotor development were used to address their relationship. One-way ANOVA vs. multiple linear regression were employed to compare the differences of variables between age, gender, BMI (Body Mass Index), and dmft scores vs. relationships among all variables, respectively. The results confirmed that there was a positive relationship between severe ECC (dmft > 3~8) and psychomotor deficiency (i.e., expressive language and comprehension-concept scales, etc.) amongst the kindergarteners analyzed. Our cross-sectional bi-township analysis has confirmed that there is indeed an association between severe ECC and psychomotor deficiency in kindergarteners, and we suggest that this may arise through critical stages of growth, not only via personal language communications, but psycho-social engagements as well. Therefore, a new hypothesis is proposed.
Project description:The type and duration of breastfeeding can be key factors in the development of early childhood caries (ECC). The association between nighttime feeding and ECC was investigated. Specifically, whether cosleeping is a potential mediator of children's oral health was investigated, considering many of the etiological factors of caries. In this cross-sectional study, 212 children (aged 2-4 years) from Madrid (Spain) who breastfed at night were examined to assess the mean decayed/filled primary teeth (dft) index, and a questionnaire was administered to the mothers to collect data on the practice of breastfeeding and cosleeping and its duration, the number of nighttime feeding sessions, sugar content in the diet, dental hygiene habits, and age at first dental visit. The dft index was lower in the group that breastfed for less than 18 months (<i>p</i> = 0.02). In addition, there were significant differences in the dft index in the group breastfeeding for more than 18 months between those who coslept for 18 months or more and those who coslept for less than 18 months (<i>p</i> < 0.05), as well as between those who coslept for 18 months or more and those who did not cosleep (<i>p</i> < 0.01). In conclusion, breastfeeding at night from 18 months onwards is considered a risk factor for ECC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early childhood caries (ECC) is a common disorder characterized by the presence of one or more decayed (non-cavitated or cavitated lesions), missing (due to caries), or filled tooth surfaces of primary teeth in children 71 months old or younger. South Africa has a diverse population in terms of culture, education, income, and occupation. This diversity is due to the consequences of historical racial discrimination, poverty, unemployment, lack of accessibility to health services, and quality of education. These factors make South Africa unique, and the disease and risk profiles for this country differ from those of other countries at similar stages of development. For these reasons, it is important to identify the unique maternal and infant risk factors for ECC in the South African context.<h4>Objective</h4>The purpose of this study is to determine the risk factors associated with the incidence and prevalence of ECC in South Africa in children under the age of 6 years.<h4>Methods</h4>All cross-sectional and cohort studies documenting risk factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of dental disease and severity (decayed, missing, and filled scores) will be included. We will search 7 databases for eligible studies, and those included will be based on prespecified inclusion criteria. Only studies conducted with South African children who are aged 6 years and younger in which dental caries risk factors are documented will be included. There is no restriction on the time or language of publication. Included articles will be scrutinized for quality by using a risk of bias tool developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. The results will be presented narratively, and if possible, a meta-analysis will be performed.<h4>Results</h4>The literature search was conducted in November 2020.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results of this study will provide a framework to inform medical and dental personnel to highlight mothers and infants at risk of developing ECC.<h4>Trial registration</h4>PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42020216455; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=216455.<h4>International registered report identifier (irrid)</h4>DERR1-10.2196/26701.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapidly progressing form of dental infection and a significant public health problem, especially among socially and economically disadvantaged populations. This study aimed to assess the risk factors for ECC among a cohort of Sub-Saharan African children and to determine the role of genetics in the etiology of ECC.<h4>Methods</h4>A sample of 691 children (338 with ECC, 353 without ECC, age < 6 years) was recruited from schools in Lagos, Nigeria. Socio-demographic, dental services utilization and infant dietary data were obtained with interviewer-administered questionnaire. Oral examination was conducted using the WHO oral health diagnostic criteria. Saliva samples were collected from the children for genetic analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected from previous study for genotyping. Genetic association analyses to investigate the role of genetics in the etiology of ECC was done. Bivariate comparisons and Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between ECC and predictor variables, p < 0.05.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 338 children with ECC, 64 (18.9%) had Severe-Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC). Children aged 48-59 months comprised the highest proportion of subjects with ECC (165; 48.8%) and S-ECC (24; 37.5%) while female subjects had higher dt (3.13 ± 2.56) and dmft values 3.27 ± 2.64. ECC was significantly more prevalent among children who were breastfed at night ≥ 12 months (OR 3.30; CI 0.39, 4.75), those with no previous dental visit (OR 1.71; CI 0.24, 2.77), those who used sweetened pacifiers (OR 1.85; CI 0.91, 3.79) and those who daily consumed sugar-sweetened drinks/snacks (OR 1.35; CI 0.09, 18.51). A suggestive increased risk for ECC (OR 1.26, p = 0. 0.0397) was observed for the genetic variant rs11239282 on chromosome 10. We also observed a suggestive reduced risk for ECC (OR 0.80, p = 0.03) for the rs131777 on chromosome 22. None of the genetic variants were significant after correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni p value p = 0.004).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Prolonged night-time breastfeeding, poor utilization of dental services and daily consumption of sugar were risk factors for ECC. Larger sample size is needed to confirm the results of the genetic analysis and to conduct genome wide studies in order to discover new risk loci for ECC.