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Analysis of bHLH coding genes of Cicer arietinum during heavy metal stress using biological network.
ABSTRACT: bHLH family of transcription factors play important role in regulating many cellular and physiological functions in plants. These proteins are also known to be involved in response to several abiotic stress types. Cicer arietinum is an important source of protein in food across the globe. Considerable differential expression in the bHLH family of proteins during heavy metal exposure in Cicer arietinum was observed by microarray data analysis. The study aimed to construct a Pearson coefficient correlation based network of bHLH coding genes in the plant. Microarray data of Cicer arietinum recorded under cadmium and chromium stress (GSE86807) from GEO at NCBI was used for analysis. The network constructed from expression data set of the 85 bHLH coding genes revealed 10 hub genes that are connected with topological genes. These hub genes are stress responsive genes that may also be regarded as the marker genes for heavy metal response. Our analysis reported a new set of reference genes (hub genes) that have potentially significant role in development of stress tolerant crops.
Project description:The total RNA were extracted from pooled tissues of leaves and flowers from several plants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then small RNAs ranging in 18–30 nucleotides were size fractionated electrophoretically, isolated from the gel, ligated with the 5′ and 3′ RNA adapters. The ligated product was reverse transcribed and subsequently amplified using 10–12 PCR cycles. The purified PCR product was sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer II. The qualified reads were used to predict microRNAs and phased small interfering RNAs from chickpea. Identification of microRNAs and phased small inferfering RNAs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by analyzing small RNA sequencing profiles of leaves and flowers using Illumina GAII.
Project description:Valine-glutamine (VQ) proteins are plant-specific proteins that play crucial roles in plant development as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. VQ genes have been identified in various plants; however, there are no systematic reports in Cicer arietinum or Medicago truncatula. Herein, we identified 19 and 32 VQ genes in C. arietinum and M. truncatula, respectively. A total of these VQ genes were divided into eight groups (I-VIII) based on phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure analyses and motif patterns revealed that these VQ genes might have originated from a common ancestor. In silico analyses demonstrated that these VQ genes were expressed in different tissues. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the VQ genes were differentially regulated during multiple abiotic stresses. This report presents the first systematic analysis of VQ genes from C. arietinum and M. truncatula and provides a solid foundation for further research of the specific functions of VQ proteins.
Project description:The emergence of epidemic fungal pathogenic resistance to current antifungal drugs has increased the interest in developing alternative antibiotics from natural sources. Cicer arietinum is well known for its medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to isolate antimicrobial proteins from Cicer arietinum. An antifungal protein, C-25, was isolated from Cicer arietinum and purified by gel filtration. C-25 protein was tested using agar diffusion method against human pathogenic fungi of ATCC strains and against clinical isolates of Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, and MIC values determined were varied from 1.56 to 12.5 ?g/mL. The SEM study demonstrated that C-25 induces the bleb-like surface changes, irregular cell surface, and cell wall disruption of the fungi at different time intervals. Cytotoxic activity was studied on oral cancer cells and normal cells. It also inhibits the growth of fungal strains which are resistant to fluconazole. It reduced the cell proliferation of human oral carcinoma cells at the concentration of 37.5 ?g/mL (IC50) and no toxic effect was found on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells even at higher concentration of 600 ?g/mL. It can be concluded that C-25 can be considered as an effective antimycotic as well as antiproliferative agent against human oral cancer cells.
Project description:A priority in the management and use of elite plant materials for breeding has been based on molecular markers or DNA sequencing of entire genomes, in order to perform genetic differentiation which is still quite costly. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is one of the species with genomic monotony and very low polymorphism, and its detection even with DNA markers has not been easy. In germplasm banks, the genetic distinction is a priority in order to use properly selected lines. In this study, 57 chickpea accessions from a germplasm bank were analyzed by using nrRAMP (non-radioactive Random Amplified Microsatellite Polymorphism) markers, and their genetic variability was determined. Our results showed DNA polymorphisms, which are enough to differentiate between the accessions and between C. arietinum and Cicer reticulatum (out-group); this last wild species is closely related to chickpea. We concluded that the nrRAMP technique was an effective and a highly useful method to assess the genetic diversity and variability among closely related plants, such as chickpea; in addition, this technique can be easily implemented in laboratories.
Project description:We report the complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium ciceri strain CC1192, an efficient nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont of Cicer arietinum (chickpea). The genome consists of 6.94 Mb distributed between a single chromosome (6.29 Mb) and a plasmid (0.65 Mb).
Project description:Drought adversely affects crop production across the globe. The root system immensely contributes to water management and the adaptability of plants to drought stress. In this study, drought-induced phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of two contrasting chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes were compared at the vegetative, reproductive transition, and reproductive stages. At the vegetative stage, drought-tolerant genotype maintained higher root biomass, length, and surface area under drought stress as compared to sensitive genotype. However, at the reproductive stage, root length and surface area of tolerant genotype was lower but displayed higher root diameter than sensitive genotype. The shoot biomass of tolerant genotype was overall higher than the sensitive genotype under drought stress. RNA-seq analysis identified genotype- and developmental-stage specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought stress. At the vegetative stage, a total of 2161 and 1873 DEGs, and at reproductive stage 4109 and 3772 DEGs, were identified in the tolerant and sensitive genotypes, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed enrichment of biological categories related to cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, response to abiotic stress, and response to hormones. Interestingly, the expression of stress-responsive transcription factors, kinases, ROS signaling and scavenging, transporters, root nodulation, and oxylipin biosynthesis genes were robustly upregulated in the tolerant genotype, possibly contributing to drought adaptation. Furthermore, activation/repression of hormone signaling and biosynthesis genes was observed. Overall, this study sheds new insights on drought tolerance mechanisms operating in roots with broader implications for chickpea improvement.
Project description:Chickpea has a profound nutritional and economic value in vegetarian society. Continuous decline in chickpea productivity is attributed to insufficient genetic variability and different environmental stresses. Chickpea like several other legumes is highly susceptible to terminal drought stress. Multiple genes control drought tolerance and ASR gene plays a key role in regulating different plant stresses. The present study describes the molecular characterization and functional role of Abscissic acid and stress ripening (ASR) gene from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and the gene sequence identified was submitted to NCBI Genbank (MK937569). Molecular analysis using MUSCLE software proved that the ASR nucleotide sequences in different legumes show variations at various positions though ASR genes are conserved in chickpea with only few variations. Sequence similarity of ASR gene to chickpea putative ABA/WDS induced protein mRNA clearly indicated its potential involvement in drought tolerance. Physiological screening and qRT-PCR results demonstrated increased ASR gene expression under drought stress possibly enabled genotypes to perform better under stress. Conserved domain search, protein structure analysis, prediction and validation, network analysis using Phyre2, Swiss-PDB viewer, ProSA and STRING analysis established the role of hypothetical ASR protein NP_001351739.1 in mediating drought responses. NP_001351739.1 might have enhanced the ASR gene activity as a transcription factor regulating drought stress tolerance in chickpea. This study could be useful in identification of new ASR genes that play a major role in drought tolerance and also develop functional markers for chickpea improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cold stress at reproductive phase in susceptible chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) leads to pollen sterility induced flower abortion. The tolerant genotypes, on the other hand, produce viable pollen and set seed under cold stress. Genomic information on pollen development in cold-tolerant chickpea under cold stress is currently unavailable. RESULTS: DDRT-PCR analysis was carried out to identify anther genes involved in cold tolerance in chickpea genotype ICC16349 (cold-tolerant). A total of 9205 EST bands were analyzed. Cold stress altered expression of 127 ESTs (90 up-regulated, 37 down-regulated) in anthers, more than two third (92) of which were novel with unknown protein identity and function. Remaining about one third (35) belonged to several functional categories such as pollen development, signal transduction, ion transport, transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, translation, energy and cell division. The categories with more number of transcripts were carbohydrate/triacylglycerol metabolism, signal transduction, pollen development and transport. All but two transcripts in these categories were up-regulated under cold stress. To identify time of regulation after stress and organ specificity, expression levels of 25 differentially regulated transcripts were also studied in anthers at six time points and in four organs (anthers, gynoecium, leaves and roots) at four time points. CONCLUSIONS: Limited number of genes were involved in regulating cold tolerance in chickpea anthers. Moreover, the cold tolerance was manifested by up-regulation of majority of the differentially expressed transcripts. The anthers appeared to employ dual cold tolerance mechanism based on their protection from cold by enhancing triacylglycerol and carbohydrate metabolism; and maintenance of normal pollen development by regulating pollen development genes. Functional characterization of about two third of the novel genes is needed to have precise understanding of the cold tolerance mechanisms in chickpea anthers.
Project description:Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse legume crop. We previously reported a draft genome assembly of the desi chickpea cultivar ICC 4958. Here we report an advanced version of the ICC 4958 genome assembly (version 2.0) generated using additional sequence data and an improved genetic map. This resulted in 2.7-fold increase in the length of the pseudomolecules and substantial reduction of sequence gaps. The genome assembly covered more than 94% of the estimated gene space and predicted the presence of 30,257 protein-coding genes including 2230 and 133 genes encoding potential transcription factors (TF) and resistance gene homologs, respectively. Gene expression analysis identified several TF and chickpea-specific genes with tissue-specific expression and displayed functional diversification of the paralogous genes. Pairwise comparison of pseudomolecules in the desi (ICC 4958) and the earlier reported kabuli (CDC Frontier) chickpea assemblies showed an extensive local collinearity with incongruity in the placement of large sequence blocks along the linkage groups, apparently due to use of different genetic maps. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based mining of intra-specific polymorphism identified more than four thousand SNPs differentiating a desi group and a kabuli group of chickpea genotypes.