Forensic luminol reaction for detecting fecal occult blood in experimental mice.
ABSTRACT: Fecal occult blood (FOB) is a sign of gastrointestinal diseases, such as intestinal ulcers and colorectal cancer. In experimental animal studies, there is no standard method to detect FOB. Here, we present a simple protocol to detect FOB in mice, using the Luminol Reaction Experiment Kit® that was originally designed to detect bloodstains at a crime scene in criminal forensics. To obtain positive control bloody feces, we used an indomethacin-induced intestinal ulcer model in mice. By mixing small pieces of feces with a luminol solution, the fecal solution emitted visible blue-white chemiluminescence in dark field when feces contained hemoglobin. We also established a method for semi-quantification of hemoglobin content in the fecal solution, using a luminometer. This method is simple, quick, economical and semi-quantitative, allowing researchers to detect FOB in experimental mice.
Project description:Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem in tropical regions, affecting more than 250 million people. Sensitive diagnostic methods represent key tools for disease elimination, in particular in areas with low endemicity. Advances in the use of luminol-based chemiluminescent techniques have enabled greater sensitivity and speed in obtaining results in different diagnostic settings. In this study, we developed a luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) method to detect Schistosoma mansoni eggs in human fecal sediments processed by the Helmintex (HTX) method. After S. mansoni eggs were incubated with a solution of luminol-H2O2 the light emission was detected and measured by spectrophotometry at 431 nm for 5 min, using detection and counts of eggs by bright field optical microscopy as a reference. CL intensity was found to correlate with different sources and numbers of eggs. Furthermore, our results showed that the CL method can distinguish positive from negative samples with 100% sensitivity and 71% specificity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the use of CL for the diagnosis of helminths from fecal samples. The combination of the HTX method with CL represents an important advance in providing a reference method with the highest standards of sensitivity.
Project description:Vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, neutrophils, Kupffer cells and other diverse cell types generate superoxide (O2.-) and nitric oxide (.NO), which can react to form the potent oxidant peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). Peroxynitrite reacted with luminol to yield chemiluminescence which was greatly enhanced by bicarbonate. The quantum chemiluminescence yield of the ONOO- reaction with luminol in bicarbonate was approx. 10(-3). Chemiluminescence was superoxide dismutase-inhibitable, indicating that O2.- was a key intermediate for chemiexcitation. O2.- appears to be formed secondarily to the reaction of a bicarbonate-peroxynitrite complex with luminol, yielding luminol radical and O2.-. Luminol radical reacts with O2.- to form the unstable luminol endoperoxide, which follows the light-emitting pathway. Neither .NO nor O2.- alone were capable of directly inducing significant luminol chemiluminescence in our assay systems. These results suggest that ONOO- can be a critical unrecognized mediator of cell-derived luminol chemiluminescence reported in previous studies. In addition, it is shown that bicarbonate can participate in secondary oxidation reactions after reacting with ONOO-.
Project description:Iron porphyrin catalysts of the luminol reaction (horseradish peroxidase, hemoglobin, cytochrome c, and hemin) interact with diverse reducing compounds. Here, it is demonstrated how the chemiluminescence yield is modulated by such interactions. The compounds accepted as substrates protect the catalyst against the "suicide inactivation" caused by high peroxide concentrations. The reducing agents not accepted by the catalyst inhibit light production either by generating a futile redox cycle of the luminophore or by irreversibly inactivating the catalytic center. In the case of a futile cycle, light emission resumes as soon as the reducing agents in the reaction are consumed, whereas with an irreversible inactivation, light emission does not recover. The characteristics of luminescence enhancement and quenching depending on interfering agents are also reported here. They reveal details about the relative redox potentials of the involved compounds. It is discussed how this should be considered when the luminol reaction is used for quantitative analyses and when unpurified samples with a broad compound matrix are to be assayed.
Project description:Chemical generation of singlet oxygen under biologically relevant conditions is very important, considering the role played by singlet oxygen in cancer therapeutics. We now demonstrate that a luminol derivative can be chemically excited and transfer the excitation energy to the covalently attached photosensitizer derived from erythrosin. A photosensitizer module, when excited in this manner, can generate singlet oxygen in solution. As hydrogen peroxide is present in a relatively high concentration in cancer cells, singlet oxygen generation through chemical excitation may evolve into an important therapeutic approach.
Project description:A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU) and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenol (4-IMP), 4-iodophenol (4-IOP), 4-bromophenol (4-BOP) and 4-hydroxy-4'-iodobiphenyl (HIOP) had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF) with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25 ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs) have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP) in their utilized HRP concentration ranges.
Project description:Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced luminol chemiluminescence in rat Kupffer cells was doubled by the addition of L-arginine and significantly (up to 70%) inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, competitive inhibitors of L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide (NO) formation. The release of superoxide anion (O2-) by NADPH oxidase was neither affected by L-arginine nor by the inhibitors. Only very slight luminol chemiluminescence was detectable in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated Kupffer cells, a condition in which significant amounts of NO were formed but no O2-. In a cell-free system, significant luminol chemiluminescence only occurred when both authentic NO and the O2-/H2O2- generating system xanthine/xanthine oxidase were present. The results indicate that luminol chemiluminescence in phorbol-ester-activated Kupffer cells largely depends on L-arginine metabolism by NO synthase, requiring the concurrent formation of NO and O2-/H2O2.
Project description:Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death in developed countries, current diagnostic tests for early disease stages are suboptimal. We have performed a combination of UHPLC-MS metabolomics and 16S microbiome analyses on 224 feces samples in order to identify early biomarkers for both advanced adenomas (AD) and CRC. We report differences in fecal levels of cholesteryl esters and sphingolipids in CRC. We identified Fusobacterium, Parvimonas and Staphylococcus to be increased in CRC patients and Lachnospiraceae family to be reduced. We finally described Adlercreutzia to be more abundant in AD patients' feces. Integration of metabolomics and microbiome data revealed tight interactions between bacteria and host and performed better than FOB test for CRC diagnosis. This study identifies potential early biomarkers that outperform current diagnostic tools and frame them into the stablished gut microbiota role in CRC pathogenesis.
Project description:The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13?nm, 41?nm and 100?nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13?nm, 41?nm and 100?nm were 38.4??g L(-1), 35.9??g L(-1) and 39.6??g L(-1), with repeatabilities (RSD, n?=?7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10?mg L(-1) samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples.
Project description:Inflammatory cells, most especially neutrophils, can be a necessary component of the antitumor activity occurring after administration of photodynamic therapy. Generation of neutrophil responses has been suggested to be particularly important in instances when the delivered photodynamic therapy (PDT) dose is insufficient. In these cases, the release of neutrophil granules and engagement of antitumor immunity may play an important role in eliminating residual disease. Herein, we utilize in vivo imaging of luminol chemiluminescence to noninvasively monitor neutrophil activation after PDT administration. Studies were performed in the AB12 murine model of mesothelioma, treated with Photofrin-PDT. Luminol-generated chemiluminescence increased transiently 1 h after PDT, followed by a subsequent decrease at 4 h after PDT. The production of luminol signal was not associated with the influx of Ly6G+ cells, but was related to oxidative burst, as an indicator of neutrophil function. Most importantly, greater levels of luminol chemiluminescence 1 h after PDT were prognostic of a complete response at 90 days after PDT. Taken together, this research supports an important role for early activity by Ly6G+ cells in the generation of long-term PDT responses in mesothelioma, and it points to luminol chemiluminescence as a potentially useful approach for preclinical monitoring of neutrophil activation by PDT.
Project description:Metagenomic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene is generally performed to examine the diversity and abundance of commensal bacteria in feces, which is now recognized to be associated with human health and diseases. Guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN) solution is used as a less onerous way compared with a frozen method to transport and stock fecal samples at room temperature for DNA analysis; however, optimal methods to measure fecal bacterial composition in GuSCN solution remain to be investigated. Here, we examined the influence of various factors such as pretreatment (e.g., removing GuSCN solution and washing feces with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) before mechanical lysis), fecal concentration in the GuSCN solution, storage time, and position of fecal subsampling on the 16S rRNA-based analysis of fecal bacteria in GuSCN solution. We found that pretreatment and fecal concentration affected the bacterial composition, and a little change was noted with subsampling position. Based on these results, we propose a basic protocol, including fecal sampling, sample storage, and DNA extraction, for the 16S rRNA-based analysis of bacterial composition in feces suspended in GuSCN solution.