Imidazopyridines as Potent KDM5 Demethylase Inhibitors Promoting Reprogramming Efficiency of Human iPSCs.
ABSTRACT: Pioneering human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based pre-clinical studies have raised safety concerns and pinpointed the need for safer and more efficient approaches to generate and maintain patient-specific iPSCs. One approach is searching for compounds that influence pluripotent stem cell reprogramming using functional screens of known drugs. Our high-throughput screening of drug-like hits showed that imidazopyridines-analogs of zolpidem, a sedative-hypnotic drug-are able to improve reprogramming efficiency and facilitate reprogramming of resistant human primary fibroblasts. The lead compound (O4I3) showed a remarkable OCT4 induction, which at least in part is due to the inhibition of H3K4 demethylase (KDM5, also known as JARID1). Experiments demonstrated that KDM5A, but not its homolog KDM5B, serves as a reprogramming barrier by interfering with the enrichment of H3K4Me3 at the OCT4 promoter. Thus our results introduce a new class of KDM5 chemical inhibitors and provide further insight into the pluripotency-related properties of KDM5 family members.
Project description:The KDM5/JARID1 family of Fe(II)- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent demethylases remove methyl groups from tri- and dimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3. Accumulating evidence from primary tumors and model systems supports a role for KDM5A (JARID1A/RBP2) and KDM5B (JARID1B/PLU1) as oncogenic drivers. The KDM5 family is unique among the Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases in that there is an atypical insertion of a DNA-binding ARID domain and a histone-binding PHD domain into the Jumonji domain, which separates the catalytic domain into two fragments (JmjN and JmjC). Here we demonstrate that internal deletion of the ARID and PHD1 domains has a negligible effect on in vitro enzymatic kinetics of the KDM5 family of enzymes. We present a crystal structure of the linked JmjN-JmjC domain from KDM5A, which reveals that the linked domain fully reconstitutes the cofactor (metal ion and ?-ketoglutarate) binding characteristics of other structurally characterized Jumonji domain demethylases. Docking studies with GSK-J1, a selective inhibitor of the KDM6/KDM5 subfamilies, identify critical residues for binding of the inhibitor to the reconstituted KDM5 Jumonji domain. Further, we found that GSK-J1 inhibited the demethylase activity of KDM5C with 8.5-fold increased potency compared with that of KDM5B at 1 mm ?-ketoglutarate. In contrast, JIB-04 (a pan-inhibitor of the Jumonji demethylase superfamily) had the opposite effect and was ~8-fold more potent against KDM5B than against KDM5C. Interestingly, the relative selectivity of JIB-04 toward KDM5B over KDM5C in vitro translates to a ~10-50-fold greater growth-inhibitory activity against breast cancer cell lines. These data define the minimal requirements for enzymatic activity of the KDM5 family to be the linked JmjN-JmjC domain coupled with the immediate C-terminal helical zinc-binding domain and provide structural characterization of the linked JmjN-JmjC domain for the KDM5 family, which should prove useful in the design of KDM5 demethylase inhibitors with improved potency and selectivity.
Project description:Methylation of lysine residues on histone tail is a dynamic epigenetic modification that plays a key role in chromatin structure and gene regulation. Members of the KDM5 (also known as JARID1) sub-family are 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and Fe2+-dependent oxygenases acting as histone 3 lysine 4 trimethyl (H3K4me3) demethylases, regulating proliferation, stem cell self-renewal, and differentiation. Here we present the characterization of KDOAM-25, an inhibitor of KDM5 enzymes. KDOAM-25 shows biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration values of <100 nM for KDM5A-D in vitro, high selectivity toward other 2-OG oxygenases sub-families, and no off-target activity on a panel of 55 receptors and enzymes. In human cell assay systems, KDOAM-25 has a half maximal effective concentration of ?50 ?M and good selectivity toward other demethylases. KDM5B is overexpressed in multiple myeloma and negatively correlated with the overall survival. Multiple myeloma MM1S cells treated with KDOAM-25 show increased global H3K4 methylation at transcriptional start sites and impaired proliferation.
Project description:Members of the KDM5 histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase family are associated with therapeutic resistance, including endocrine resistance in breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism is poorly defined. Here we show that genetic deletion of KDM5A/B or inhibition of KDM5 activity increases sensitivity to anti-estrogens by modulating estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and by decreasing cellular transcriptomic heterogeneity. Higher KDM5B expression levels are associated with higher transcriptomic heterogeneity and poor prognosis in ER+ breast tumors. Single-cell RNA sequencing, cellular barcoding, and mathematical modeling demonstrate that endocrine resistance is due to selection for pre-existing genetically distinct cells, while KDM5 inhibitor resistance is acquired. Our findings highlight the importance of cellular phenotypic heterogeneity in therapeutic resistance and identify KDM5A/B as key regulators of this process.
Project description:The complexity by which cells regulate gene and protein expression is multifaceted and intricate. Regulation of 3' untranslated region (UTR) processing of mRNA has been shown to play a critical role in development and disease. However, the process by which cells select alternative mRNA forms is not well understood. We discovered that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae lysine demethylase, Jhd2 (also known as KDM5), recruits 3'UTR processing machinery and promotes alteration of 3'UTR length for some genes in a demethylase-dependent manner. Interaction of Jhd2 with both chromatin and RNA suggests that Jhd2 affects selection of polyadenylation sites through a transcription-coupled mechanism. Furthermore, its mammalian homolog KDM5B (also known as JARID1B or PLU1), but not KDM5A (also known as JARID1A or RBP2), promotes shortening of CCND1 transcript in breast cancer cells. Consistent with these results, KDM5B expression correlates with shortened CCND1 in human breast tumor tissues. In contrast, both KDM5A and KDM5B are involved in the lengthening of DICER1. Our findings suggest both a novel role for this family of demethylases and a novel targetable mechanism for 3'UTR processing.
Project description:The compound (O4I3) showed a remarkable OCT4 induction, which at least in part, is due to the inhibition of H3K4-specific lysine demethylase (KDM5, also known as JARID1). Experiments demonstrated that KDM5A, serves as a reprogramming barrier via interference with the enrichment of H3K4Me3 at the OCT4 promoter. Thus, our results introduce a new class of KDM5 chemical inhibitors and provide further insight into the pluripotency-related properties of KDM5-family members. Overall design: RNA was obtained from treated and non-treated human fibroblast and fibroblast-derived induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and treated with an episomal constrcuts of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in addition to O4I3
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations in the histone demethylases KDM5A, KDM5B, or KDM5C are found in intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) patients. Here, we use the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to delineate how KDM5 contributes to ID and ASD. We show that reducing KDM5 causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and changes in social behavior that correlates with compositional changes in the gut microbiota. Therapeutic alteration of the dysbiotic microbiota through antibiotic administration or feeding with a probiotic Lactobacillus strain partially rescues the behavioral, lifespan, and cellular phenotypes observed in kdm5-deficient flies. Mechanistically, KDM5 was found to transcriptionally regulate component genes of the immune deficiency (IMD) signaling pathway and subsequent maintenance of host-commensal bacteria homeostasis in a demethylase-dependent manner. Together, our study uses a genetic approach to dissect the role of KDM5 in the gut-microbiome-brain axis and suggests that modifying the gut microbiome may provide therapeutic benefits for ID and ASD patients.
Project description:KDM5 family members (A, B, C and D) that demethylate H3K4me3 have been shown to be involved in human cancers. Here we performed screening for KDM5A inhibitors from chemical libraries using the AlphaScreen method and identified a battery of screening hits that inhibited recombinant KDM5A. These compounds were further subjected to cell-based screening using a reporter gene that responded to KDM5A inhibition and 6 compounds were obtained as candidate inhibitors. When further confirmation of their inhibition activity on cellular KDM5A was made by immunostaining H3K4me3 in KDM5A-overexpressing cells, ryuvidine clearly repressed H3K4me3 demethylation. Ryuvidine prevented generation of gefitinib-tolerant human small-cell lung cancer PC9 cells and also inhibited the growth of the drug-tolerant cells at concentrations that did not affect the growth of parental PC9 cells. Ryuvidine inhibited not only KDM5A but also recombinant KDM5B and C; KDM5B was the most sensitive to the inhibitor. These results warrant that ryuvidine may serve as a lead compound for KDM5 targeted therapeutics.
Project description:Breast cancer is the one of the most frequent causes of female cancer mortality. KDM5A, a histone demethylase, can increase the proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance of cancers, including breast cancer, and is thus an important therapeutic target. In the present work, we performed hierarchical virtual screening towards the KDM5A catalytic pocket from a chemical library containing 90,000 compounds. Using multiple biochemical methods, the cyclopenta[c]chromen derivative 1 was identified as the top candidate for KDM5A demethylase inhibitory activity. Compared with the well-known KDM5 inhibitor CPI-455 (18), 1 exhibited higher potency against KDM5A and much higher selectivity for KDM5A over both KDM4A and other KDM5 family members (KDM5B and KDM5C). Additionally, compound 1 repressed the proliferation of various KDM5A-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, 1 promoted accumulation of p16 and p27 by blocking KDM5A-mediated H3K4me3 demethylation, leading to cell cycle arrest and senescence. To date, compound 1 is the first cyclopenta[c]chromen-based KDM5A inhibitor reported, and may serve as a novel motif for developing more selective and efficacious pharmacological molecules targeting KDM5A. In addition, our research provides a possible anti-cancer mechanism of KDM5A inhibitors and highlights the feasibility and significance of KDM5A as a therapeutic target for KDM5A-overexpressing breast cancer.
Project description:The KDM5 family of histone demethylases removes the H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) mark frequently found at promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and is therefore generally considered to contribute to corepression. In this study, we show that knockdown (KD) of all expressed members of the KDM5 family in white and brown preadipocytes leads to deregulated gene expression and blocks differentiation to mature adipocytes. KDM5 KD leads to a considerable increase in H3K4me3 at promoter regions; however, these changes in H3K4me3 have a limited effect on gene expression per se. By contrast, genome-wide analyses demonstrate that KDM5A is strongly enriched at KDM5-activated promoters, which generally have high levels of H3K4me3 and are associated with highly expressed genes. We show that KDM5-activated genes include a large set of cell cycle regulators and that the KDM5s are necessary for mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 cells, indicating that KDM5 KD may interfere with differentiation in part by impairing proliferation. Notably, the demethylase activity of KDM5A is required for activation of at least a subset of pro-proliferative cell cycle genes. In conclusion, the KDM5 family acts as dual modulators of gene expression in preadipocytes and is required for early stage differentiation and activation of pro-proliferative cell cycle genes.
Project description:The KDM5/JARID1 family of Fe(II)- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent demethylases removes methyl groups from methylated lysine 4 of histone H3. Accumulating evidence supports a role for KDM5 family members as oncogenic drivers. We compare the in vitro inhibitory properties and binding affinity of ten diverse compounds with all four family members, and present the crystal structures of the KDM5A-linked Jumonji domain in complex with eight of these inhibitors in the presence of Mn(II). All eight inhibitors structurally examined occupy the binding site of ?-ketoglutarate, but differ in their specific binding interactions, including the number of ligands involved in metal coordination. We also observed inhibitor-induced conformational changes in KDM5A, particularly those residues involved in the binding of ?-ketoglutarate, the anticipated peptide substrate, and intramolecular interactions. We discuss how particular chemical moieties contribute to inhibitor potency and suggest strategies that might be utilized in the successful design of selective and potent epigenetic inhibitors.