Cardiac CaV1.2 channels require ? subunits for ?-adrenergic-mediated modulation but not trafficking.
ABSTRACT: Ca2+ channel ?-subunit interactions with pore-forming ?-subunits are long-thought to be obligatory for channel trafficking to the cell surface and for tuning of basal biophysical properties in many tissues. Unexpectedly, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of mutant ?1C subunits lacking capacity to bind CaV? can traffic to the sarcolemma in adult cardiomyocytes in vivo and sustain normal excitation-contraction coupling. However, these ?-less Ca2+ channels cannot be stimulated by ?-adrenergic pathway agonists, and thus adrenergic augmentation of contractility is markedly impaired in isolated cardiomyocytes and in hearts. Similarly, viral-mediated expression of a ?-subunit-sequestering peptide sharply curtailed ?-adrenergic stimulation of WT Ca2+ channels, identifying an approach to specifically modulate ?-adrenergic regulation of cardiac contractility. Our data demonstrate that ? subunits are required for ?-adrenergic regulation of CaV1.2 channels and positive inotropy in the heart, but are dispensable for CaV1.2 trafficking to the adult cardiomyocyte cell surface, and for basal function and excitation-contraction coupling.
Project description:Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels play a key role in initiating muscle excitation-contraction coupling, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and hormone secretion. The association of CaV1.2 with a supramolecular complex impacts trafficking, localization, turnover, and, most importantly, multifaceted regulation of its function in the heart. Several studies hint at an important role for the C terminus of the α1C subunit as a hub for multidimensional regulation of CaV1.2 channel trafficking and function. Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for the four-residue PDZ binding motif at the C terminus of α1C in interacting with scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, in the subcellular localization of CaV1.2 in neurons, and in the efficient signaling to cAMP-response element-binding protein in neurons. However, the role of the α1C PDZ ligand domain in the heart is not known. To determine whether the α1C PDZ motif is critical for CaV1.2 trafficking and function in cardiomyocytes, we generated transgenic mice with inducible expression of an N-terminal FLAG epitope-tagged dihydropyridine-resistant α1C with the PDZ motif deleted (ΔPDZ). These mice were crossed with α-myosin heavy chain reverse transcriptional transactivator transgenic mice, and the double-transgenic mice were fed doxycycline. The ΔPDZ channels expressed, trafficked to the membrane, and supported robust excitation-contraction coupling in the presence of nisoldipine, a dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blocker, providing functional evidence that they appropriately target to dyads. The ΔPDZ Ca(2+) channels were appropriately regulated by isoproterenol and forskolin. These data indicate that the α1C PDZ motif is not required for surface trafficking, localization to the dyad, or adrenergic stimulation of CaV1.2 in adult cardiomyocytes.
Project description:L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) currents conducted by voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel CaV1.2 initiate excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Upon activation of ?-adrenergic receptors, phosphorylation of CaV1.2 channels by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) increases channel activity, thereby allowing more Ca(2+) entry into the cell, which leads to more forceful contraction. In vitro reconstitution studies and in vivo proteomics analysis have revealed that Ser-1700 is a key site of phosphorylation mediating this effect, but the functional role of this amino acid residue in regulation in vivo has remained uncertain. Here we have studied the regulation of calcium current and cell contraction of cardiomyocytes in vitro and cardiac function and homeostasis in vivo in a mouse line expressing the mutation Ser-1700-Ala in the CaV1.2 channel. We found that preventing phosphorylation at this site decreased the basal L-type CaV1.2 current in both neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. In addition, the incremental increase elicited by isoproterenol was abolished in neonatal cardiomyocytes and was substantially reduced in young adult myocytes. In contrast, cellular contractility was only moderately reduced compared with wild type, suggesting a greater reserve of contractile function and/or recruitment of compensatory mechanisms. Mutant mice develop cardiac hypertrophy by the age of 3-4 mo, and maximal stress-induced exercise tolerance is reduced, indicating impaired physiological regulation in the fight-or-flight response. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation at Ser-1700 alone is essential to maintain basal Ca(2+) current and regulation by ?-adrenergic activation. As a consequence, blocking PKA phosphorylation at this site impairs cardiovascular physiology in vivo, leading to reduced exercise capacity in the fight-or-flight response and development of cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:The cardiac L-type calcium channel is a multi-subunit complex that requires co-assembling of the pore-forming subunit CaV1.2 with auxiliary subunits CaV?2? and CaV?. Its traffic has been shown to be controlled by these subunits and by the activation of various G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Here, we explore the consequences of the prolonged activation of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) over CaV1.2 channel trafficking. Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) assay between ?-arrestin and L-type channels in angiotensin II-stimulated cells was used to assess the functional consequence of AT1R activation, while immunofluorescence of adult rat cardiomyocytes revealed the effects of GPCR activation on CaV1.2 trafficking. Angiotensin II exposure results in ?-arrestin1 recruitment to the channel complex and an apparent loss of CaV1.2 immunostaining at the T-tubules. Accordingly, angiotensin II stimulation causes a decrease in L-type current, Ca2+ transients and myocyte contractility, together with a faster repolarization phase of action potentials. Our results demonstrate that prolonged AT1R activation induces ?-arrestin1 recruitment and the subsequent internalization of CaV1.2 channels with a half-dose of AngII on the order of 100?nM, suggesting that this effect depends on local renin-angiotensin system. This novel AT1R-dependent CaV1.2-trafficking modulation likely contributes to angiotensin II-mediated cardiac remodeling.
Project description:Sympathetic nervous system triggered activation of protein kinase A, which phosphorylates several targets within cardiomyocytes, augments inotropy, chronotropy, and lusitropy. An important target of ?-adrenergic stimulation is the sarcolemmal L-type Ca(2+) channel, CaV1.2, which plays a key role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. The molecular mechanisms of ?-adrenergic regulation of CaV1.2 in cardiomyocytes, however, are incompletely known. Recently, it has been postulated that proteolytic cleavage at Ala(1800) and protein kinase A phosphorylation of Ser(1700) are required for ?-adrenergic modulation of CaV1.2.To assess the role of Ala(1800) in the cleavage of ?1C and the role of Ser(1700) and Thr(1704) in mediating the adrenergic regulation of CaV1.2 in the heart.Using a transgenic approach that enables selective and inducible expression in mice of FLAG-epitope-tagged, dihydropyridine-resistant CaV1.2 channels harboring mutations at key regulatory sites, we show that adrenergic regulation of CaV1.2 current and fractional shortening of cardiomyocytes do not require phosphorylation of either Ser(1700) or Thr(1704) of the ?1C subunit. The presence of Ala(1800) and the (1798)NNAN(1801) motif in ?1C is not required for proteolytic cleavage of the ?1C C-terminus, and deletion of these residues did not perturb adrenergic modulation of CaV1.2 current.These results show that protein kinase A phosphorylation of ?1C Ser(1700) does not have a major role in the sympathetic stimulation of Ca(2+) current and contraction in the adult murine heart. Moreover, this new transgenic approach enables functional and reproducible screening of ?1C mutants in freshly isolated adult cardiomyocytes in a reliable, timely, cost-effective manner.
Project description:L-type calcium currents conducted by CaV1.2 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. In the heart, the distal portion of the C terminus (DCT) is proteolytically processed in vivo and serves as a noncovalently associated autoinhibitor of CaV1.2 channel activity. This autoinhibitory complex, with A-kinase anchoring protein-15 (AKAP15) bound to the DCT, is hypothesized to serve as the substrate for ?-adrenergic regulation in the fight-or-flight response. Mice expressing CaV1.2 channels with the distal C terminus deleted (DCT-/-) develop cardiac hypertrophy and die prematurely after E15. Cardiac hypertrophy and survival rate were improved by drug treatments that reduce peripheral vascular resistance and hypertension, consistent with the hypothesis that CaV1.2 hyperactivity in vascular smooth muscle causes hypertension, hypertrophy, and premature death. However, in contrast to expectation, L-type Ca2+ currents in cardiac myocytes from DCT-/- mice were dramatically reduced due to decreased cell-surface expression of CaV1.2 protein, and the voltage dependence of activation and the kinetics of inactivation were altered. CaV1.2 channels in DCT-/- myocytes fail to respond to activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin, and the localized expression of AKAP15 is reduced. Therefore, we conclude that the DCT of CaV1.2 channels is required in vivo for normal vascular regulation, cell-surface expression of CaV1.2 channels in cardiac myocytes, and ?-adrenergic stimulation of L-type Ca2+ currents in the heart.
Project description:Calcium entry through CaV1.2 L-type calcium channels regulates cardiac contractility. Here, we study the impact of exocytic and post-endocytic trafficking on cell surface channel abundance in cardiomyocytes. Single-molecule localization and confocal microscopy reveal an intracellular CaV1.2 pool tightly associated with microtubules from the perinuclear region to the cell periphery, and with actin filaments at the cell cortex. Channels newly inserted into the plasma membrane become internalized with an average time constant of 7.5 min and are sorted out to the Rab11a-recycling compartment. CaV1.2 recycling suffices for maintaining stable L-type current amplitudes over 20 hr independent of de novo channel transport along microtubules. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton re-routes CaV1.2 from recycling toward lysosomal degradation. We identify endocytic recycling as essential for the homeostatic regulation of voltage-dependent calcium influx into cardiomyocytes. This mechanism provides the basis for a dynamic adjustment of the channel's surface availability and thus, of heart's contraction.
Project description:The BAR domain protein superfamily is involved in membrane invagination and endocytosis, but its role in organizing membrane proteins has not been explored. In particular, the membrane scaffolding protein BIN1 functions to initiate T-tubule genesis in skeletal muscle cells. Constitutive knockdown of BIN1 in mice is perinatal lethal, which is associated with an induced dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the functional role of BIN1 in cardiomyocytes is not known. An important function of cardiac T-tubules is to allow L-type calcium channels (Cav1.2) to be in close proximity to sarcoplasmic reticulum-based ryanodine receptors to initiate the intracellular calcium transient. Efficient excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and normal cardiac contractility depend upon Cav1.2 localization to T-tubules. We hypothesized that BIN1 not only exists at cardiac T-tubules, but it also localizes Cav1.2 to these membrane structures. We report that BIN1 localizes to cardiac T-tubules and clusters there with Cav1.2. Studies involve freshly acquired human and mouse adult cardiomyocytes using complementary immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy with dual immunogold labeling, and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we use surface biotinylation and live cell confocal and total internal fluorescence microscopy imaging in cardiomyocytes and cell lines to explore delivery of Cav1.2 to BIN1 structures. We find visually and quantitatively that dynamic microtubules are tethered to membrane scaffolded by BIN1, allowing targeted delivery of Cav1.2 from the microtubules to the associated membrane. Since Cav1.2 delivery to BIN1 occurs in reductionist non-myocyte cell lines, we find that other myocyte-specific structures are not essential and there is an intrinsic relationship between microtubule-based Cav1.2 delivery and its BIN1 scaffold. In differentiated mouse cardiomyocytes, knockdown of BIN1 reduces surface Cav1.2 and delays development of the calcium transient, indicating that Cav1.2 targeting to BIN1 is functionally important to cardiac calcium signaling. We have identified that membrane-associated BIN1 not only induces membrane curvature but can direct specific antegrade delivery of microtubule-transported membrane proteins. Furthermore, this paradigm provides a microtubule and BIN1-dependent mechanism of Cav1.2 delivery to T-tubules. This novel Cav1.2 trafficking pathway should serve as an important regulatory aspect of EC coupling, affecting cardiac contractility in mammalian hearts.
Project description:In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) following membrane depolarization regulates crucial Ca2+-dependent processes including duration and amplitude of the action potentials and excitation-contraction coupling. LTCCs are heteromultimeric proteins composed of the Cav1, Cav, Cav2 and Cav subunits. Here, using ascorbate peroxidase (APEX)-mediated proximity labeling and quantitative proteomics, we identified 61 proteins in the nano-environments of Cav2 in cardiomyocytes. These proteins are involved in diverse cellular functions such as cellular trafficking, muscular contraction, sarcomere organization and excitation-contraction coupling. Moreover, pull-down assays, co-immunoprecipitation analyses and super-resolution imaging using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) revealed that Cav2 interacts with the ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) in adult cardiomyocytes, probably coupling LTCCs and the RyR2 into a supramolecular complex at the dyads. This interaction is mediated by the Src-homology 3 domain of Cav2 and is necessary for an effective pacing frequency‐dependent increase of the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism in cardiomyocytes.
Project description:Lead ions (Pb2+) possess characteristics similar to Ca2+. Because of this and its redox capabilities, lead causes different toxic effects. The neurotoxic effects have been well documented; however, the toxic effects on cardiac tissues remain allusive. We utilized isolated guinea pig hearts and measured the effects of Pb2+ on their contractility and excitability. Acute exposure to extracellular Pb2+ had a negative inotropic effect and increased diastolic tension. The speed of contraction and relaxation were affected, though the effects were more dramatic on the speed of contraction. Excitability was also altered. Heart beat frequency increased and later diminished after lead ion exposure. Pro-arrhytmic events, such as early after-depolarization and a reduction of the action potential plateau, were also observed. In isolated cardiomyocytes and tsA 201 cells, extracellular lead blocked currents through Cav1.2 channels, diminished their activation, and enhanced their fast inactivation, negatively affecting their gating currents. Thus, Pb2+ was cardiotoxic and reduced cardiac contractility, making the heart prone to arrhythmias. This was due, in part, to Pb2+ effects on the Cav1.2 channels; however, other channels, transporters or pathways may also be involved. Acute cardiotoxic effects were observed at Pb2+ concentrations achievable during acute lead poisoning. The results suggest how Cav1.2 gating can be affected by divalent cations, such as Pb2, and also suggest a more thorough evaluation of heart function in individuals affected by lead poisoning.
Project description:Increased cardiac contractility during the fight-or-flight response is caused by ?-adrenergic augmentation of CaV1.2 voltage-gated calcium channels1-4. However, this augmentation persists in transgenic murine hearts expressing mutant CaV1.2 ?1C and ? subunits that can no longer be phosphorylated by protein kinase A-an essential downstream mediator of ?-adrenergic signalling-suggesting that non-channel factors are also required. Here we identify the mechanism by which ?-adrenergic agonists stimulate voltage-gated calcium channels. We express ?1C or ?2B subunits conjugated to ascorbate peroxidase5 in mouse hearts, and use multiplexed quantitative proteomics6,7 to track hundreds of proteins in the proximity of CaV1.2. We observe that the calcium-channel inhibitor Rad8,9, a monomeric G protein, is enriched in the CaV1.2 microenvironment but is depleted during ?-adrenergic stimulation. Phosphorylation by protein kinase A of specific serine residues on Rad decreases its affinity for ? subunits and relieves constitutive inhibition of CaV1.2, observed as an increase in channel open probability. Expression of Rad or its homologue Rem in HEK293T cells also imparts stimulation of CaV1.3 and CaV2.2 by protein kinase A, revealing an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that confers adrenergic modulation upon voltage-gated calcium channels.