Combination of Nonstructural Protein 1-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays Can Detect and Distinguish Various Dengue Virus and Zika Virus Infections.
ABSTRACT: The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated birth defects in regions of dengue virus (DENV) endemicity emphasize the need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests. We reported previously that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of DENV serotype 1 (DENV1) and ZIKV can distinguish primary DENV1, secondary DENV, and ZIKV infections. Whether ELISAs based on NS1 proteins of other DENV serotypes can discriminate various DENV and ZIKV infections remains unknown. We herein developed DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 NS1 IgG ELISAs to test convalescent- and postconvalescent-phase samples from reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed cases, including 25 primary DENV1, 24 primary DENV2, 10 primary DENV3, 67 secondary DENV, 36 primary West Nile virus, 38 primary ZIKV, and 35 ZIKV with previous DENV infections as well as 55 flavivirus-naive samples. Each ELISA detected primary DENV infection with a sensitivity of 100% for the same serotype and 23.8% to 100% for different serotypes. IgG ELISA using a mixture of DENV1-4 NS1 proteins detected different primary and secondary DENV infections with a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 89.5%. The ZIKV NS1 IgG ELISA detected ZIKV infection with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 82.9%. On the basis of the relative optical density ratio, the combination of DENV1-4 and ZIKV NS1 IgG ELISAs distinguished ZIKV with previous DENV and secondary DENV infections with a sensitivity of 91.7% to 94.1% and specificity of 87.0% to 95.0%. These findings have important applications to serodiagnosis, serosurveillance, and monitoring of both DENV and ZIKV infections in regions of endemicity.
Project description:The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated complications in flavivirus-endemic regions underscore the need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests to distinguish ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV) and other flavivirus infections. Compared with traditional envelope protein-based assays, several nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-based assays showed improved specificity, however, none can detect and discriminate three flaviviruses in a single assay. Moreover, secondary DENV infection and ZIKV infection with previous DENV infection, both common in endemic regions, cannot be discriminated. In this study, we developed a high-throughput and multiplex IgG microsphere immunoassay (MIA) using the NS1 proteins of DENV1-DENV4, ZIKV and West Nile virus (WNV) to test samples from reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain reaction-confirmed cases, including primary DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, WNV and ZIKV infections, secondary DENV infection, and ZIKV infection with previous DENV infection. Combination of four DENV NS1 IgG MIAs revealed a sensitivity of 94.3% and specificity of 97.2% to detect DENV infection. The ZIKV and WNV NS1 IgG MIAs had a sensitivity/specificity of 100%/87.9% and 86.1%/78.4%, respectively. A positive correlation was found between the readouts of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and MIA for different NS1 tested. Based on the ratio of relative median fluorescence intensity of ZIKV NS1 to DENV1 NS1, the IgG MIA can distinguish ZIKV infection with previous DENV infection and secondary DENV infection with a sensitivity of 88.9-90.0% and specificity of 91.7-100.0%. The multiplex and high-throughput assay could be applied to serodiagnosis and serosurveillance of DENV, ZIKV and WNV infections in endemic regions.
Project description:Background:The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated microcephaly present an urgent need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests, particularly for pregnant women in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic regions. Recent reports of enhanced ZIKV replication by dengue-immune sera have raised concerns about the role of previous DENV infection on the risk and severity of microcephaly and other ZIKV complications. Methods:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on ZIKV and DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) were established to test acute, convalescent phase, and post-convalescent phase serum/plasma samples from reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases including 20 primary ZIKV, 25 ZIKV with previous DENV, 58 secondary DENV, and 16 primary DENV1 infections. Results:ZIKV-NS1 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISAs combined can detect ZIKV infection with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 66.7%. The ZIKV-NS1 IgG cross-reactivity by samples from secondary DENV infection cases ranged from 66.7% to 28.1% (within 1 month to 1-2 years post-illness, respectively). Addition of DENV1-NS1 IgG ELISA can distinguish primary ZIKV infection; the ratio of absorbance of ZIKV-NS1 to DENV1-NS1 IgG ELISA can distinguish ZIKV with previous DENV and secondary DENV infections with a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 81.3%. These findings were supported by analysis of sequential samples. Conclusions:An algorithm for ZIKV serodiagnosis based on 3 simple ELISAs is proposed to distinguish primary ZIKV, ZIKV with previous DENV, and secondary DENV infections; this could be applied to serodiagnosis for ZIKV, serosurveillance, and monitoring ZIKV infection during pregnancy to understand the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and complications of ZIKV in dengue-endemic regions.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flavivirus family, has four distinct serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV1], DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4) that require differentiation for the effective prevention of morbid disease. Early and rapid differentiation between flaviviruses remains challenging. Full assays combining four individual, serotype-specific and one group-specific nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DENV NS1 were developed and validated. The sensitivities and specificities of the full NS1 ELISAs were evaluated with viral cultures and dengue acute-phase sera. Four serotype-specific NS1 ELISAs displayed high specificities for the detection and differentiation of appropriate serotypes. The group-specific NS1 ELISA was broadly reactive with the four dengue virus serotypes. None of the NS1 ELISAs displayed cross-reactivity with the other flaviviruses or samples from febrile patients with non-dengue virus infections. The full serotype- and group-specific MAb-based NS1 capture ELISAs may provide tools for the early detection and typing of dengue infection, which is preferable to reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for the rapid differential diagnosis of dengue virus infection in the field.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common and widespread arboviral infection worldwide. Though all four DENV serotypes cocirculate in nature, the clinicopathological framework of these serotypes is undefined in Pakistan. A cross-sectional, observational study was performed to document the circulation of various arboviruses in the Sindh region of Pakistan. Here we describe a population of patients diagnosed with DENV spanning a 2-year period. This study used an orthogonal system of NS1 antigen ELISA followed by RT-PCR for DENV detection and subtyping. A total of 168 NS1 positive patients were evaluated of which 91 patients were serotyped via RT-PCR. There was no significant difference between sex or age for infection risk and peak transmission occurred during the Autumn months. DENV2 was the most common serotype followed by DENV1 then DENV3, then DENV4. The data show that DENV1 patients were more likely to have abnormal liver function tests; DENV2 infected patients were more likely to exhibit arthralgia and neurological symptoms; DENV3 patients were more likely to complain of burning micturition and have elevated lymphocyte counts and low hematocrit; and DENV4 patients were more likely to report headaches and rash. Notably, no dengue hemorrhagic fever or other manifestations of severe dengue fever were present in patients with primary or secondary infections. We were able to identify significantly more NS1 antigen positive patients than RT-PCR. This study demonstrates that all four DENV serotypes are co-circulating and co-infecting in Pakistan.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Accurate, rapid, and early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infections is essential for optimal clinical care. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-LightMix dengue virus EC kit for DENV detection using samples from a dengue outbreak in Taiwan in 2015.<h4>Methods</h4>Sera from patients with suspected DENV infection were analyzed and compared using the LightMix kit, a Dengue NS1 Ag + Ab Combo kit for detection of NS1 antigen and DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and an "in-house" qualitative DENV-specific RT-PCR assay.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 8,989, 8,954, and 1581 samples were subjected to NS1 antigen detection, IgM and IgG detection, and LightMix assays, respectively. The LightMix assay yielded a linear curve for viral loads (VL) between 102 and 106 copies/reaction, and the minimum detection limits for DENV serotype 1 (DENV1) and DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 were 1, 10, and 100 focus forming units (FFU)/mL, respectively. There was 88.9% concordance between the results obtained using the NS1 antigen combo kit and by LightMix analysis, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the two methods were 89.4 and 100%, and 84.7 and 100%, respectively. Notably, fatal cases were attributed to DENV2 infection, and 79.5% (27/34) of these cases occurred in patients ? 71 years of age. Among these older patients, 82.3% (14/17) were NS1/IgM/IgG (+/-/-), exhibiting VLs between 106-109 copies/mL, which was markedly higher than the rate observed in the other age groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The LightMix assay was effective for early diagnosis of DENV infection. Our data indicate that high VLs during primary infection in elderly patients may be a positive predictor for severe illness, and may contribute to high mortality rates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Zika virus (ZIKV) had spread rapidly in the past few years in southern hemisphere where dengue virus (DENV) had caused epidemic problems for over half a century. The high degree of cross-reactivity of Envelope (E) protein specific antibody responses between ZIKV and DENV made it challenging to perform differential diagnosis between the two infections using standard ELISA method for E protein. METHODS:Using an IgG capture ELISA, we investigated the kinetics of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibody response during natural ZIKV infection and the cross-reactivity to NS1 proteins using convalescent sera obtained from patients infected by either DENV or ZIKV. RESULTS:The analyses of the sequential serum samples from ZIKV infected individuals showed NS1 specific Abs appeared 2 weeks later than E specific Abs. Notably, human sera from ZIKV infected individuals did not contain cross-reactivity to NS1 proteins of any of the four DENV serotypes. Furthermore, four out of five NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from ZIKV infected individuals did not bind to DENV NS1 proteins. Only limited amount of cross-reactivity to ZIKV NS1 was displayed in 108 DENV1 immune sera at 1:100 dilution. CONCLUSIONS:The high degree of NS1-specific Abs in both ZIKV and DENV infection revealed here suggest that NS1-based diagnostics would significantly improve the differential diagnosis between DENV and ZIKV infections.
Project description:Dengue is a global public health problem and is caused by four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV1-4). A major challenge in dengue vaccine development is that cross-reactive anti-DENV Abs can be protective or potentially increase disease via Ab-dependent enhancement. DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) has long been considered a vaccine candidate as it avoids Ab-dependent enhancement. In this study, we evaluated survival to challenge in a lethal DENV vascular leak model in mice immunized with NS1 combined with aluminum and magnesium hydroxide, monophosphoryl lipid A + AddaVax, or Sigma adjuvant system+CpG DNA, compared with mice infected with a sublethal dose of DENV2 and mice immunized with OVA (negative control). We characterized Ab responses to DENV1, 2, and 3 NS1 using an Ag microarray tiled with 20-mer peptides overlapping by 15 aa and identified five regions of DENV NS1 with significant levels of Ab reactivity in the NS1 + monophosphoryl lipid A + AddaVax group. Additionally, we profiled the Ab responses to NS1 of humans naturally infected with DENV2 or DENV3 in serum samples from Nicaragua collected at acute, convalescent, and 12-mo timepoints. One region in the wing domain of NS1 was immunodominant in both mouse vaccination and human infection studies, and two regions were identified only in NS1-immunized mice; thus, vaccination can generate Abs to regions that are not targeted in natural infection and could provide additional protection against lethal DENV infection. Overall, we identified a small number of immunodominant regions, which were in functionally important locations on the DENV NS1 protein and are potential correlates of protection.
Project description:4 one-step, real-time, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays were developed for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes by considering 2,056 full genome DENV sequences. DENV1 and DENV2 RT-LAMP assays were validated with 31 blood and 11 serum samples from Tanzania, Senegal, Sudan and Mauritania. DENV3 and DENV4 RT-LAMP assays were validated with 25 serum samples from Cambodia.4 final reaction primer mixes were obtained by using a combination of Principal Component Analysis of the full DENV genome sequences, and LAMP primer design based on sequence alignments using the LAVA software. These mixes contained 14 (DENV1), 12 (DENV2), 8 (DENV3) and 3 (DENV4) LAMP primer sets. The assays were evaluated with an External Quality Assessment panel from Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics. The assays were serotype-specific and did not cross-detect with other flaviviruses. The limits of detection, with 95% probability, were 22 (DENV1), 542 (DENV2), 197 (DENV3) and 641 (DENV4) RNA molecules, and 100% reproducibility in the assays was obtained with up to 102 (DENV1) and 103 RNA molecules (DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4). Validation of the DENV2 assay with blood samples from Tanzania resulted in 23 samples detected by RT-LAMP, demonstrating that the assay is 100% specific and 95.8% sensitive (positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 85.7%). All serum samples from Senegal, Sudan and Mauritania were detected and 3 untyped as DENV1. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP for DENV4 samples from Cambodia did not quite match qRT-PCR.We have shown a novel approach to design LAMP primers that makes use of fast growing sequence databases. The DENV1 and DENV2 assays were validated with viral RNA extracted clinical samples, showing very good performance parameters.
Project description:Although heterotypic secondary infection with dengue virus (DENV) is associated with severe disease, the majority of secondary infections are mild or asymptomatic. The mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection are poorly understood. In 2010, 108 DENV3-positive cases were enrolled in a pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua, with 61 primary and 47 secondary infections. We analyzed DENV-specific neutralization titers (NT50), IgM and IgG avidity, and antibody titer in serum samples collected during acute and convalescent phases and 3, 6, and 18 months post-infection. NT50 titers peaked at convalescence and decreased thereafter. IgG avidity to DENV3 significantly increased between convalescent and 3-month time-points in primary DENV infections and between the acute and convalescent phase in secondary DENV infections. While avidity to DENV2, a likely previous infecting serotype, was initially higher than avidity to DENV3 in secondary DENV infections, the opposite relation was observed 3-18 months post-infection. We found significant correlations between IgM avidity and NT50 in acute primary cases and between IgG avidity and NT50 in secondary DENV infections. In summary, our findings indicate that IgM antibodies likely play a role in early control of DENV infections. IgG serum avidity to DENV, analyzed for the first time in longitudinal samples, switches from targeting mainly cross-reactive serotype(s) to the current infecting serotype over time. Finally, serum avidity correlates with neutralization capacity.
Project description:Dengue fever, caused by infections with the dengue virus (DENV), affects nearly 400 million people globally every year. Early diagnosis and management can reduce the morbidity and mortality rates of severe forms of dengue disease as well as decrease the risk of wider outbreaks. Although the early diagnosis of dengue can be achieved using a number of commercial NS1 detection kits, none of these can differentiate among the four dengue virus serotypes. In this study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) NS1 by pairing a serotype-cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (MAb) with one of four serotype-specific MAbs in order to facilitate the rapid detection of NS1 antigens and the simultaneous differentiation of DENV serotypes. A total of 146 serum samples obtained from patients suspected to be in the acute phase of DENV infection were used to evaluate the clinical application of our novel test for the detection and serotyping of DENV. The overall sensitivity rate of our test was 84.85%, and the sensitivity rates for serotyping were as follows: 88.2% (15/17) for DENV serotype 1 (DENV1), 94.7% (18/19) for DENV2, 75% (12/16) for DENV3, and 66.6% (6/9) for DENV4. Moreover, there was no cross-reactivity among serotypes, and no cross-reactivity was observed in sera from nondengue patients. Thus, our test not only enables the rapid detection of the dengue virus but also can distinguish among the specific serotypes during the early stages of infection. These results indicate that our ELISA for DENV NS1 is a convenient tool that may help elucidate the epidemiology of DENV outbreaks and facilitate the clinical management of DENV infections.