ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons from the nigrostriatal pathway, formation of Lewy bodies, and microgliosis. During the past decades multiple cellular pathways have been associated with PD pathology (i.e., oxidative stress, endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and immune response), yet disease-modifying treatments are not available. We have recently used genetic data from familial and sporadic cases in an unbiased approach to build a molecular landscape for PD, revealing lipids as central players in this disease. Here we extensively review the current knowledge concerning the involvement of various subclasses of fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and lipoproteins in PD pathogenesis. Our review corroborates a central role for most lipid classes, but the available information is fragmented, not always reproducible, and sometimes differs by sex, age or PD etiology of the patients. This hinders drawing firm conclusions about causal or associative effects of dietary lipids or defects in specific steps of lipid metabolism in PD. Future technological advances in lipidomics and additional systematic studies on lipid species from PD patient material may improve this situation and lead to a better appreciation of the significance of lipids for this devastating disease.
Project description:Motivation:Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Results:Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3923 lipids and more than 400 000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1 400 000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. Availability and implementation:LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. Supplementary information:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Lipids are most adaptable molecules that acclimatize to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The precise molecular mechanism of this acclimatization achieved in <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> (MTB) remains elusive. Although lipids of MTB have been characterized to some details, a comparable resource does not exist between drug sensitive (DS) and resistant (DR) strains of MTB. Here, by employing high-throughput mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach, we attempted to analyze the differential lipidome profile of DS and DR MTB clinical isolates. We analyzed three major classes of lipids viz fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids and their respective subclasses. Notably, we observed differential fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids as evident from increased mycolic acids phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol, cardiolipin and triacylglycerides abundance, respectively, which are crucial for MTB virulence and pathogenicity. Considering the fact that 30% of the MTB genome codes for lipid, this comprehensive lipidomic approach unravels extensive lipid alterations in DS and DR that will serve as a resource for identifying biomarkers aimed at disrupting the functions of MTB lipids responsible for MDR acquisition in MTB.
Project description:Direct infusion high-resolution mass spectrometry (DIHRMS) is a novel, high-throughput approach to rapidly and accurately profile hundreds of lipids in human serum without prior chromatography, facilitating in-depth lipid phenotyping for large epidemiological studies to reveal the detailed associations of individual lipids with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Intact lipid profiling by DIHRMS was performed on 5662 serum samples from healthy participants in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS). We developed a novel semi-targeted peak-picking algorithm to detect mass-to-charge ratios in positive and negative ionization modes. We analyzed lipid partial correlations, assessed the association of lipid principal components with established CHD risk factors and genetic variants, and examined differences between lipids for a common genetic polymorphism. The DIHRMS method provided information on 360 lipids (including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids), with a median coefficient of variation of 11.6% (range: 5.4-51.9). The lipids were highly correlated and exhibited a range of associations with clinical chemistry biomarkers and lifestyle factors. This platform can provide many novel insights into the effects of physiology and lifestyle on lipid metabolism, genetic determinants of lipids, and the relationship between individual lipids and CHD risk factors.
Project description:The focus of the present study was to define the human plasma lipidome and to establish novel analytical methodologies to quantify the large spectrum of plasma lipids. Partial lipid analysis is now a regular part of every patient's blood test and physicians readily and regularly prescribe drugs that alter the levels of major plasma lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides. Plasma contains many thousands of distinct lipid molecular species that fall into six main categories including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and prenols. The physiological contributions of these diverse lipids and how their levels change in response to therapy remain largely unknown. As a first step toward answering these questions, we provide herein an in-depth lipidomics analysis of a pooled human plasma obtained from healthy individuals after overnight fasting and with a gender balance and an ethnic distribution that is representative of the US population. In total, we quantitatively assessed the levels of over 500 distinct molecular species distributed among the main lipid categories. As more information is obtained regarding the roles of individual lipids in health and disease, it seems likely that future blood tests will include an ever increasing number of these lipid molecules.
Project description:A comprehensive and standardized system to report lipid structures analyzed by MS is essential for the communication and storage of lipidomics data. Herein, an update on both the LIPID MAPS classification system and shorthand notation of lipid structures is presented for lipid categories Fatty Acyls (FA), Glycerolipids (GL), Glycerophospholipids (GP), Sphingolipids (SP), and Sterols (ST). With its major changes, i.e., annotation of ring double bond equivalents and number of oxygens, the updated shorthand notation facilitates reporting of newly delineated oxygenated lipid species as well. For standardized reporting in lipidomics, the hierarchical architecture of shorthand notation reflects the diverse structural resolution powers provided by mass spectrometric assays. Moreover, shorthand notation is expanded beyond mammalian phyla to lipids from plant and yeast phyla. Finally, annotation of atoms is included for the use of stable isotope-labeled compounds in metabolic labeling experiments or as internal standards. This update on lipid classification, nomenclature, and shorthand annotation for lipid mass spectra is considered a standard for lipid data presentation.
Project description:Both qualitative and quantitative changes occur in the lipid composition of Vitis vinifera L. tissues, which may compromise the defense response against Esca complex disease, a widespread and damaging trunk disease. In this study, a lipidomic analysis of grapevine leaves is conducted to assess how lipid membrane remodeling relates to the emergence and progression of Esca foliar symptoms. In total, 208 molecular species (including lipids, four hormones, and some other compounds of the metabolism of lipids) were detected. Lipid species were readily assigned to the classes fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and prenol lipids. Using different clustering analyses, distinct metabolic pathways stimulated at different stages of disease development were characterized. These analyses revealed consistent changes in the abundance of 13 galactolipids and two diacylglycerolipids. Overall, the observations indicated an increment in the levels of these lipid species in leaves of asymptomatic vines and a progressive drop with increasing foliar symptom severity in symptomatic vines. Five fatty acids also appear to exert a central role in the etiopathogenesis of Esca complex disease because of their accumulation in leaves of asymptomatic vines, namely, heptadecanoic, linoleic, ?-linolenic, arachidonic, and stearic acids. Symptomatic leaves were characterized by high levels of all lipid classes, except for galactolipids, lyso-galactolipids, and compounds relevant to the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids, that exhibited decreased levels. The data also suggested a jasmonic acid-associated signaling mechanism activation upon the invasion of woods by Esca-associated fungi, compared with abscisic and salicylic acids. Further research is required for validation of these results with additional molecular analyses using more vine cultivars.
Project description:Although assisted reproduction techniques involve the use of semen samples, there is little scientific methodology applied when selecting sperm. To select the most appropriate spermatozoa, first we need to define the optimal molecular characteristics. Sperm lipids may contribute to sperm function, thus our aim was to compare the lipidic profiles of sperm samples used in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles that ultimately led to a pregnancy with those that did not.Spermatozoa from infertile patients after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (group non-pregnant, n = 16; vs. group pregnant, n = 22) were analyzed for lipid composition using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, by means two platforms for measuring fatty acyls, bile-acids, lysoglycerophospholipids, glycerolipids, cholesteryl-esters, sphingolipids, and glycerophospholipids. Lipid levels were compared using a univariate test and multivariate analyses after logarithmic transformation.We detected 151 different lipids in the sperm samples, 10 of which were significantly increased in sperm samples from the NP group, ranging from 1.10- to 1.30-fold change. These were primarily ceramides, sphingomyelins and three glycerophospholipids, a lysophosphatidylcholine, and two plasmalogen species. Additionally, 2-Monoacylglycerophosphocholine were also found in higher levels in non-pregnant group.Our results describe the composition of sperm lipids linked to optimal sperm function, opening new possibilities for the development of male fertility diagnostic tools and culture media formulations to improve sperm quality and enhance reproductive results. Given that lipids compose the majority of the sperm plasma membrane, this information is also useful in designing new sperm selection tools that will allow for the selection of the best spermatozoa.
Project description:Recent advances in high-throughput lipid profiling by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) have made it possible to quantify hundreds of individual molecular lipid species (e.g. fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids) in a single experimental run for hundreds of samples. This enables the lipidome of large cohorts of subjects to be profiled to identify lipid biomarkers significantly associated with disease risk, progression and treatment response. Clinically, these lipid biomarkers can be used to construct classification models for the purpose of disease screening or diagnosis. However, the inclusion of a large number of highly correlated biomarkers within a model may reduce classification performance, unnecessarily inflate associated costs of a diagnosis or a screen and reduce the feasibility of clinical translation. An unsupervised feature reduction approach can reduce feature redundancy in lipidomic biomarkers by limiting the number of highly correlated lipids while retaining informative features to achieve good classification performance for various clinical outcomes. Good predictive models based on a reduced number of biomarkers are also more cost effective and feasible from a clinical translation perspective.The application of LICRE to various lipidomic datasets in diabetes and cardiovascular disease demonstrated superior discrimination in terms of the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve while using fewer lipid markers when predicting various clinical outcomes.The MATLAB implementation of LICRE is available from http://ww2.cs.mu.oz.au/?gwong/LICRE
Project description:Lipids play multiple roles essential for proper mitochondrial function, from their involvement in membrane structure and fluidity, cellular energy storage, and signaling. Lipids are also major targets for reactive species, and their peroxidation byproducts themselves mediate further damage. Thousands of lipid species, from multiple classes and categories, are involved in these processes, suggesting lipid quantitative and structural analysis can help provide a better understanding of mitochondrial physiological status. Due to the diversity of lipids that contribute to and reflect mitochondrial function, analytical methods should ideally cover a wide range of lipid classes, and yield both quantitative and structural information. We developed a high resolution LC-MS method that is able to monitor the major lipid classes found in biospecimens (ie. biofluids, cells and tissues) with relative quantitation in an efficient, sensitive, and robust manner while also characterizing individual lipid side-chains, by all ion HCD fragmentation and chromatographic alignment. This method was used to profile the liver mitochondrial lipids from 192 rats undergoing a dietary macronutrient study in which changes in mitochondria function are related to changes in the major fat and glycemic index component of each diet. A total of 381 unique lipids, spanning 5 of the major LIPID MAPS defined categories, including fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids, sphingolipids and prenols, were identified in mitochondria using the non-targeted LC-MS analysis in both positive and negative mode. The intention of this report is to show the breadth of this non-targeted LC-MS profiling method with regards to its ability to profile, identify and characterize the mitochondrial lipidome and the details of this will be discussed.
Project description:Self-reported skin discomfort is a common problem during pregnancy, but it is not clear whether skin barrier function is altered in the process. Few studies have described the skin barrier function during pregnancy. In this work, we used highly sensitive and high-resolution ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) to distinguish skin surface lipid (SSL) combined with multivariate analysis of lipids and metabolic changes to determine the relationship between SSL changes and skin physiology during pregnancy in order to better understand the skin condition of pregnant women. The results showed a significant reduction in the total lipid content in pregnant women. A total of 2270 lipids were detected, and the relative abundances of fatty acyls and glycerolipids were significantly reduced, while glycerophospholipids (GPs), sphingolipids, and saccharolipids was significantly increased in the pregnancy group. Multivariate data analysis indicated that 23 entities constituted the most important individual species responsible for the discrimination and phosphatidylcholine was the most abundant lipid in pregnancy group. In addition, compared to SSL profile of control group, it was observed that the average chain length of ceramides and fatty acids both decreased in SSL profile of pregnancy group. The main and most commonly affected pathway was that of GP pathways. These findings indicate that skin lipids are significantly altered in mid-pregnancy compared to the control group. Changes in ostrogen during pregnancy also make the skin more susceptible to inflammatory factors and lead to more fragile and susceptible skin, weakening the skin barrier along with the lipid alterations.