Assessment of the Immunosuppressive Potential of INF-? Licensed Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Their Secretome and Extracellular Vesicles.
ABSTRACT: There is an active search for the ideal strategy to potentialize the effects of Mesenchymal Stem-Cells (MSCs) over the immune system. Also, part of the scientific community is seeking to elucidate the therapeutic potential of MSCs secretome and its extracellular vesicles (EVs), in order to avoid the complexity of a cellular therapy. Here, we investigate the effects of human adipose MSCs (AMSCs) licensing with INF-? and TLR3 agonist over AMSCs proliferation, migration, as well as the immunomodulatory function. Furthermore, we evaluated how the licensing of AMSCs affected the immunomodulatory function of AMSC derived-secretome, including their EVs. INF-? licensed-AMSCs presented an elevated expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), accompanied by increased ICAM-1, as well as a higher immunosuppressive potential, compared to unlicensed AMSCs. Interestingly, the conditioned medium obtained from INF-? licensed-AMSCs also revealed a slightly superior immunosuppressive potential, compared to other licensing strategies. Therefore, unlicensed and INF-? licensed-AMSCs groups were used to isolate EVs. Interestingly, EVs isolated from both groups displayed similar capacity to inhibit T-cell proliferation. EVs isolated from both groups shared similar TGF-? and Galectin-1 mRNA content but only EVs derived from INF-? licensed-AMSCs expressed IDO mRNA. In summary, we demonstrated that INF-? licensing of AMSCs provides an immunosuppressive advantage both from a cell-cell contact-dependent perspective, as well as in a cell-free context. Interestingly, EVs derived from unlicensed and INF-? licensed-AMSCs have similar ability to control activated T-cell proliferation. These results contribute towards the development of new strategies to control the immune response based on AMSCs or their derived products.
Project description:Inflammatory licensed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to promote functional tissue repair. This study specifically sought to understand how the recipient tissue environment reciprocally affects MSC function. Inflammatory polarized macrophages, modeling an injured tissue environment, were exposed to licensed MSCs, and the resultant effects of MSC immunomodulation and functionality of the MSC secretome on chondrocyte homeostasis were studied.Inflammatory licensed MSCs were generated through priming with either IFN-? or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Macrophages were polarized to an inflammatory phenotype using IFN-?. Licensed MSCs were co-cultured with inflammatory macrophages and immunomodulation of MSCs was assessed in a T-cell proliferation assay. MSC gene expression was analyzed for changes in immunogenicity (MHC-I, MHC-II), immunomodulation (IDO, PTGS2, NOS2, TGF-?1), cytokine (IL-6, IL-8), and chemokine (CCL2, CXCL10) expression. Macrophages were assessed for changes in cytokine (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-?) and chemokine (CCL2, CXCL10) expression. Conditioned medium representing the secretome from IFN-? or poly I:C-primed MSCs was applied to IL-1?-stimulated chondrocytes, which were analyzed for catabolic (IL-6, TNF-?, CCL2, CXCL10, MMP-13, PTGS2) and matrix synthesis (ACAN, COL2A1) genes.IFN-?-primed MSCs had a superior ability to suppress T-cell proliferation compared to naïve MSCs, and this ability was maintained following exposure to proinflammatory macrophages. In naïve and licensed MSCs exposed to inflammatory macrophages, MHC-I and MHC-II gene expression was upregulated. The secretome from licensed MSCs was chondroprotective and downregulated inflammatory gene expression in IL-1?-stimulated chondrocytes.In-vitro inflammatory licensing agents enhanced the immunomodulatory ability of MSCs exposed to inflammatory macrophages, and the resultant secretome was biologically active, protecting chondrocytes from catabolic stimulation. Use of licensing agents produced a more consistent immunomodulatory MSC population compared to exposure to inflammatory macrophages. The clinical implications of this study are that in-vitro licensing prior to therapeutic application could result in a more predictable immunomodulatory and reparative response to MSC therapy compared to in-vivo inflammatory licensing by the recipient environment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies are being actively investigated in various inflammatory disorders. However, functional variability among MSCs cultured in vitro will lead to distinct therapeutic efficacies. Until now, the mechanisms behind immunomodulatory functional variability in MSCs are still unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We systemically investigated transcriptomic variations among MSC samples derived from multiple tissues to reveal their effects on immunomodulatory functions of MSCs. We then analyzed transcriptomic changes of MSCs licensed with INF? to identify potential molecular mechanisms that result in distinct MSC samples with different immunomodulatory potency.<h4>Results</h4>MSCs were clustered into distinct groups showing different functional enrichment according to transcriptomic patterns. Differential expression analysis indicated that different groups of MSCs deploy common regulation networks in response to inflammatory stimulation, while expression variation of genes in the networks could lead to different immunosuppressive capability. These different responsive genes also showed high expression variability among unlicensed MSC samples. Finally, a gene panel was derived from these different responsive genes and was able to regroup unlicensed MSCs with different immunosuppressive potencies.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study revealed genes with expression variation that contribute to immunomodulatory functional variability of MSCs and provided us a strategy to identify candidate markers for functional variability assessment of MSCs.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells expressing inhibitory receptors that bind to self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I are 'licensed', or rendered functionally more responsive to stimulation, whereas 'unlicensed' NK cells lacking receptors for self MHC class I are hyporesponsive. Here we show that contrary to the licensing hypothesis, unlicensed NK cells were the main mediators of NK cell-mediated control of mouse cytomegalovirus infection in vivo. Depletion of unlicensed NK cells impaired control of viral titers, but depletion of licensed NK cells did not. The transfer of unlicensed NK cells was more protective than was the transfer of licensed NK cells. Signaling by the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 limited the proliferation of licensed NK cells but not that of unlicensed NK cells during infection. Thus, unlicensed NK cells are critical for protection against viral infection.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells express inhibitory receptors with varied binding affinities to specific major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) haplotypes. NK cells can be classified as licensed or unlicensed based on their ability or inability to bind MHC-I, respectively. The role of donor vs host MHC on their development after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is not known. Following reciprocal MHC-disparate allogeneic transplants and during de novo NK-cell recovery, depletion of the licensed and not unlicensed population of NK cells as determined by the licensing patterns of donor MHC-I haplotypes, resulted in significantly increased susceptibility to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. A corresponding expansion of the licensed Ly49H(+) NK cells occurred with greater interferon ? production by these cells than unlicensed NK cells in the context of donor MHC-I. Thus, NK licensing behavior to MCMV corresponds to the donor, and not recipient, MHC haplotype after allo-HSCT in mice.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells show differential functionality based on their capability of binding to self-MHC consistent with licensing. Here we show in vivo confirmation of the physiologic effects of licensing with differential effects of NK subsets on anti-murine cytomegalovirus (anti-MCMV) responses after syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) depletion. After HSCT, depletion of licensed NK cells led to far greater viral loads in target organs early after infection compared with nondepleted and unlicensed depleted mice. There was a preferential expansion of licensed, C-type lectin-like activating receptor Ly49H+ NK cells with increased IFN? production after infection in nondepleted mice post-HSCT and after Treg depletion. Adoptive transfer of licensed NK subsets into immunodeficient hosts provided significantly greater MCMV resistance compared with transfer of total NK populations or unlicensed subsets. In non-HSCT mice, only concurrent depletion of Tregs or TGF-? neutralization resulted in detection of NK licensing effects. This suggests that licensed NK cells are the initial and rapidly responding population of NK cells to MCMV infection, but are highly regulated by Tregs and TGF-?.
Project description:Industrial-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is often used in clinical trials, and the effect of replicative senescence on MSC functionality is of mechanistic interest. Senescent MSCs exhibit cell-cycle arrest, cellular hypertrophy, and express the senescent marker ?-galactosidase. Although both fit and senescent MSCs display intact lung-homing properties in vivo, senescent MSCs acquire a significant defect in inhibiting T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in vitro. IFN? does not upregulate HLA-DR on senescent MSCs, whereas its silencing did not reverse fit MSCs' immunosuppressive properties. Secretome analysis of MSC and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell coculture demonstrate that senescent MSCs are significantly defective in up (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [GCSF], CXCL10, CCL2) or down (IL-1ra, IFN?, IL-2r, CCL4, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-5) regulating cytokines/chemokines. Unlike indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), silencing of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, GCSF, CCL2, and exogenous addition of VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-basic do not modulate MSCs' immunosuppressive properties. Kynurenine levels were downregulated in senescent MSC cocultures compared with fit MSC counterparts, and exogenous addition of kynurenine inhibits T-cell proliferation in the presence of senescent MSCs. IFN? prelicensing activated several immunomodulatory genes including IDO in fit and senescent MSCs at comparable levels and significantly enhanced senescent MSCs' immunosuppressive effect on T-cell proliferation. Our results define immune functional defects acquired by senescent MSCs, which are reversible by IFN? prelicensing.
Project description:During late mitosis and the early G1 phase, the origins of replication are licensed by binding to double hexamers of MCM2-7. In this study, we investigated how licensing and proliferative commitment are coupled in the epithelium of the small intestine. We developed a method for identifying cells in intact tissue containing DNA-bound MCM2-7. Interphase cells above the transit-amplifying compartment had no DNA-bound MCM2-7, but still expressed the MCM2-7 protein, suggesting that licensing is inhibited immediately upon differentiation. Strikingly, we found most proliferative Lgr5+ stem cells are in an unlicensed state. This suggests that the elongated cell-cycle of intestinal stem cells is caused by an increased G1 length, characterized by dormant periods with unlicensed origins. Significantly, the unlicensed state is lost in Apc-mutant epithelium, which lacks a functional restriction point, causing licensing immediately upon G1 entry. We propose that the unlicensed G1 phase of intestinal stem cells creates a temporal window when proliferative fate decisions can be made.
Project description:Objective:Several clinical studies have proposed the infusion of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) as an alternative therapy for joint diseases with inflammatory components, such as osteoarthritis. Indeed, AMSCs are able to stimulate tissue repair through a paracrine activity and the interaction with the inflammatory microenvironment seems to have a critical role. Design:To reproduce the inflammatory microenvironment, AMSCs were exposed to osteoarthritic synovial fluid (SF) for 48?h and the effect of their secretome on differentiation of monocytes (M0) into macrophages M1-like and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the secretome of AMSCs exposed to SF was evaluated on the T cell population in terms of T cell proliferation and expansion of T regulatory cells (T reg). Results:Our data show that the exposure of AMSCs to SF activates cells and promotes the release of immunosuppressive factors, which induce macrophage polarization of M0 into the M2-like phenotype and inhibit differentiation of monocytes into mature dendritic cells (mDCs). Only the secretome of exposed AMSCs was able to inhibit T cell proliferation and promote T reg expansion. Conclusions:Our results suggest that the microenvironment plays a fundamental role for the development of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of AMSCs.
Project description:Therapeutic applications of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted considerable attention because of their immunomodulatory properties against immune-mediated, inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrated enhanced immunomodulatory properties of EVs secreted from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer thapsigargin (TSG)-primed human Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs). EVs from TSG-primed WJ-MSCs (TSG-EV) showed increased yield and expression of immunomodulatory factors, such as transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF?), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and especially indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), compared to control EVs. TSG-EV showed a significantly enhanced immunosuppressive effect on human peripheral blood-derived T cell proliferation and Th1 and Th17 differentiation, whereas Treg and M2-type macrophage were enriched compared to a control EV-treated group. Furthermore, TSG-EV substantially mitigated mouse experimental colitis by reducing the inflammatory response and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity. A significant increase of Tregs and M2-type macrophages in colitic colons of a TSG-EV-treated mouse suggests an anti-inflammatory effect of TSG-EV in colitis model, possibly mediated by Treg and macrophage polarization. These data indicate that TSG treatment promoted immunomodulatory properties of EVs from WJ-MSCs, and TSG-EV may provide a new therapeutic approach for treatment of colitis.
Project description:Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer (NK) cells differentiate after short-term preactivation with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 and display enhanced effector function in response to cytokines or tumor targets for weeks after the initial preactivation. Conventional NK cell function depends on a licensing signal, classically delivered by an inhibitory receptor engaging its cognate MHC class I ligand. How licensing status integrates with cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses is unknown. We investigated this interaction using killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor- and HLA-genotyped primary human NK cells. Memory-like differentiation resulted in enhanced IFN-? production triggered by leukemia targets or Fc?RIIIa ligation within licensed NK cells, which exhibited the highest functionality of the NK cell subsets interrogated. IFN-? production by unlicensed memory-like NK cells was also enhanced to a level comparable with that of licensed control NK cells. Mechanistically, differences in responses to Fc?RIIIa-based triggering were not explained by alterations in key signaling intermediates, indicating that the underlying biology of memory-like NK cells is distinct from that of adaptive NK cells in human cytomegalovirus-positive individuals. Additionally, memory-like NK cells responded robustly to cytokine receptor restimulation with no impact of licensing status. These results demonstrate that both licensed and unlicensed memory-like NK cell populations have enhanced functionality, which may be translated to improve leukemia immunotherapy.