Fine mapping of genome-wide association study signals to identify genetic markers of the plasma triglyceride response to an omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.
ABSTRACT: Background:Using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach, our group previously computed a genetic risk score (GRS) from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 loci that affect the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. Objectives:The objective was to compute a novel and more refined GRS using fine mapping to include a large number of genetic variants. Methods:A total of 208 participants of the Fatty Acid Sensor (FAS) Study received 5 g fish oil/d, containing 1.9-2.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexanoic acid, for 6 wk. Plasma TG concentrations were measured before and after supplementation. Dense genotyping and genotype imputation were used to refine mapping around GWAS hits. A GRS was computed by summing the number of at-risk alleles of tagging SNPs. Analyses were replicated in samples of the FINGEN study. Results:A total of 31 tagging SNPs associated with the TG response were used for GRS calculation in the FAS study. In a general linear model adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, the GRS explained 49.73% of TG response variance (P < 0.0001). Nonresponders to the n-3 FA supplementation had a higher GRS than did responders. In the FINGEN replication study, the GRS explained 3.67% of TG response variance (P = 0.0006). Conclusions:Fine mapping proved to be effective to refine the previous GRS. Carrying increasing numbers of at-risk alleles of 31 SNPs confers a higher risk of being nonresponsive to n-3 FAs. The genetic profile therefore appears to be an important determinant of the plasma TG response to an n-3 FA supplementation and could be used to target those most likely to gain clinical benefit. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01343342.
Project description:Our group built a genetic risk score (GRS) of the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation in Caucasian Canadians that explained 21.53% of the TG variance. The objective was to refine the GRS by fine mapping and to test its association with the TG response in young Mexican adults. A total of 191 participants underwent a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation providing 2.7g/day of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 103 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. A stepwise regression adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) was used to select the strongest SNPs to include in the genetic risk model. A GRS was calculated from the sum of at-risk alleles. The contribution of the GRS to the TG response was assessed by ANCOVA with age, sex, and BMI included in the model. Several differences in allele frequency were observed between Canadians and Mexicans. Five lead SNPs were included in the genetic risk model, in which the GRS accounted for 11.01% of the variance of the TG response (p < 0.0001). These findings highlight the important contribution of genetic factors to the heterogeneity of the TG response to an n-3 FA supplementation among Mexicans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously built a genetic risk score (GRS) highly predictive of the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation from marine sources. The objective of the present study was to test the potential of this GRS to predict the plasma TG responsiveness to supplementation with either eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study. METHODS:The ComparED Study is a double-blind, controlled, crossover trial, with participants randomized to three supplemented phases of 10?weeks each: (1) 2.7?g/day of DHA, (2) 2.7?g/day of EPA, and (3) 3?g/day of corn oil (control), separated by 9-week washouts. The 31 SNPs used to build the previous GRS were genotyped in 122 participants of the ComparED Study using TaqMan technology. The GRS for each participant was computed by summing the number of rare alleles. Ordinal and binary logistic models, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, were used to calculate the ability of the GRS to predict TG responsiveness. RESULTS:The GRS predicted TG responsiveness to EPA supplementation (p = 0.006), and a trend was observed for DHA supplementation (p = 0.08). The exclusion of participants with neutral TG responsiveness clarified the association patterns and the predictive capability of the GRS (EPA, p = 0.0003, DHA p = 0.01). CONCLUSION:Results of the present study suggest that the constructed GRS is a good predictor of the plasma TG response to supplementation with either DHA or EPA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01810003. The study protocol was registered on March 4, 2013.
Project description:Studies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ?0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ?0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9-2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10(-5)), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond.
Project description:A genome-wide association study (GWAS) by our group identified loci associated with the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to ?-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation in IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB. Our aim is to investigate potential mechanisms underlying the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes and TG levels following ?-3 FA supplementation. 208 subjects received 3 g/day of ?-3 FA (1.9-2.2 g of EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for six weeks. Plasma TG were measured before and after the intervention. 67 SNPs were selected to increase the density of markers near GWAS hits. Genome-wide expression and methylation analyses were conducted on respectively 30 and 35 participants' blood sample together with in silico analyses. Two SNPs of IQCJ showed different affinities to splice sites depending on alleles. Expression levels were influenced by genotype for one SNP in NXPH1 and one in MYB. Associations between 12 tagged SNPs of IQCJ, 26 of NXPH1, seven of PHF17 and four of MYB and gene-specific CpG site methylation levels were found. The response of plasma TG to ?-3 FA supplementation may be modulated by the effect of DNA methylation on expression levels of genes revealed by GWAS.
Project description:The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) (1.9-2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology. Transcript expression levels were measured for 30 participants in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. DNA methylation levels were measured for 35 participants in leukocytes. In silico analyses were also performed. Four gene-diet interactions on fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values were found. rs17108973 explained a significant proportion of the variance of insulin levels (3.0%) and HOMA-IR (2.03%) index values. Splice site prediction was different depending on the allele for rs11187527. rs17108973 and rs17484310 had different affinity for transcription factors depending on the allele. n-3 FAs effectively improve insulin-related traits for major allele homozygotes of four FFAR4 SNPs as opposed to carriers of the minor alleles.
Project description:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) known to influence cardiometabolic markers of health. Evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2) gene cluster may influence an individual's response to n-3 FAs. This study examined the impact of a moderate daily dose of EPA and DHA fish oil supplements on cardiometabolic markers, FA levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC), and whether these endpoints were influenced by SNPs in FADS1/2. Young adults consumed fish oil supplements (1.8 g total EPA/DHA per day) for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week washout period. Serum and RBC FA profiles were analyzed every two weeks by gas chromatography. Two SNPs were genotyped: rs174537 in FADS1 and rs174576 in FADS2. Participants had significantly reduced levels of blood triglycerides (-13%) and glucose (-11%) by week 12; however, these benefits were lost during the washout period. EPA and DHA levels increased significantly in serum (+250% and +51%, respectively) and RBCs (+132% and +18%, respectively) within the first two weeks of supplementation and remained elevated throughout the 12-week period. EPA and DHA levels in RBCs only (not serum) remained significantly elevated (+37% and +24%, respectively) after the washout period. Minor allele carriers for both SNPs experienced greater increases in RBC EPA levels during supplementation; suggesting that genetic variation at this locus can influence an individual's response to fish oil supplements.
Project description:Hepatic acyl-CoA thioesterase 1 (ACOT1) catalyzes the conversion of acyl-CoAs to fatty acids (FAs) and CoA. We sought to determine the role of ACOT1 in hepatic lipid metabolism in C57Bl/6J male mice 1 week after adenovirus-mediated Acot1 knockdown. Acot1 knockdown reduced liver triglyceride (TG) as a result of enhanced TG hydrolysis and subsequent FA oxidation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that Acot1 knockdown led to greater TG turnover and FA oxidation, suggesting that ACOT1 is important for controlling the rate of FA oxidation. Despite increased FA oxidation, Acot1 knockdown reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) target genes, whereas overexpression increased PPAR? reporter activity, suggesting ACOT1 regulates PPAR? by producing FA ligands. Moreover, ACOT1 exhibited partial nuclear localization during fasting and cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling, suggesting local regulation of PPAR?. As a consequence of increased FA oxidation and reduced PPAR? activity, Acot1 knockdown enhanced hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation. The effects of Acot1 knockdown on PPAR? activity, oxidative stress, and inflammation were rescued by supplementation with Wy-14643, a synthetic PPAR? ligand. We demonstrate through these results that ACOT1 regulates fasting hepatic FA metabolism by balancing oxidative flux and capacity.
Project description:Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9-2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p < 0.0001), whereas the index of δ-6 desaturase activity decreased by 17.7 ± 18.2 % (p < 0.0001) post-supplementation. Index of elongase activity decreased by 39.5 ± 27.9 % (p < 0.0001). Some gene-diet interactions potentially modulating the enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases involved in the FA metabolism post-supplementation were found. SNPs within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism.
Project description:Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability.
Project description:Exercise and supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are used to reduce body weight and to improve health. Applied together, they may exert a synergistic effect. However, the effects of exercise and CLA supplementation on liver metabolism are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exercise and CLA supplementation on fatty acids (FA) composition in mouse liver. We analyzed 44 of known FAs of this organ by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrated that exercise contributed to a decrease in odd-chain FA and an increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA contents. In turn, CLA stimulated an increase in branched-chain FAs and n-3 polyunsaturated FAs. Exercise combined with CLA supplementation caused a substantial increase in branched-chain FA content and a slight increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FAs. The elevated liver content of branched-chain FAs after the exercise combined with CLA supplementation, as well as the increase in n-3 polyunsaturated FAs after CLA may be favorable since both these FA groups were previously shown to produce health benefits. However, the expression pattern of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis did not match the changes in FA composition. Thus, the mechanism of exercise- and CLA-induced changes in liver FA profile is yet to be established. Also, the consequences of CLA- and/or exercise-induced changes in the composition of liver FAs need to be elucidated.