Molecular hydrophobicity at a macroscopically hydrophilic surface.
ABSTRACT: Interfaces between water and silicates are ubiquitous and relevant for, among others, geochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, and chromatography. The molecular-level details of water organization at silica surfaces are important for a fundamental understanding of this interface. While silica is hydrophilic, weakly hydrogen-bonded OH groups have been identified at the surface of silica, characterized by a high O-H stretch vibrational frequency. Here, through a combination of experimental and theoretical surface-selective vibrational spectroscopy, we demonstrate that these OH groups originate from very weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules at the nominally hydrophilic silica interface. The properties of these OH groups are very similar to those typically observed at hydrophobic surfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations illustrate that these weakly hydrogen-bonded water OH groups are pointing with their hydrogen atom toward local hydrophobic sites consisting of oxygen bridges of the silica. An increased density of these molecular hydrophobic sites, evident from an increase in weakly hydrogen-bonded water OH groups, correlates with an increased macroscopic contact angle.
Project description:Interfaces of liquid water play a critical role in a wide variety of processes that occur in biology, a variety of technologies, and the environment. Many macroscopic observations clarify that the properties of liquid water interfaces significantly differ from those of the bulk liquid. In addition to interfacial molecular structure, knowledge of the rates and mechanisms of the relaxation of excess vibrational energy is indispensable to fully understand physical and chemical processes of water and aqueous solutions, such as chemical reaction rates and pathways, proton transfer, and hydrogen bond dynamics. Here we elucidate the rate and mechanism of vibrational energy dissipation of water molecules at the air-water interface using femtosecond two-color IR-pump/vibrational sum-frequency probe spectroscopy. Vibrational relaxation of nonhydrogen-bonded OH groups occurs at a subpicosecond timescale in a manner fundamentally different from hydrogen-bonded OH groups in bulk, through two competing mechanisms: intramolecular energy transfer and ultrafast reorientational motion that leads to free OH groups becoming hydrogen bonded. Both pathways effectively lead to the transfer of the excited vibrational modes from free to hydrogen-bonded OH groups, from which relaxation readily occurs. Of the overall relaxation rate of interfacial free OH groups at the air-H2O interface, two-thirds are accounted for by intramolecular energy transfer, whereas the remaining one-third is dominated by the reorientational motion. These findings not only shed light on vibrational energy dynamics of interfacial water, but also contribute to our understanding of the impact of structural and vibrational dynamics on the vibrational sum-frequency line shapes of aqueous interfaces.
Project description:Water molecules at interfaces of materials exhibit enigmatic properties. A variety of spectroscopic studies have observed a high-frequency motion in these water molecules, represented by a blueshift, at both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces. However, the molecular mechanism behind this blueshift has remained unclear. Using Raman spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal the molecular mechanism of the blueshift of water molecules around six monosaccharide isomers. In the first hydration shell, we found weak hydrogen-bonded water molecules that cannot have a stable tetrahedral water network. In the water molecules, the vibrational state of the OH bond oriented toward the bulk solvent strongly contributes to the observed blueshift. Our work suggests that the blueshift in various solutions originates from the vibrational motions of these observed water molecules.
Project description:Insights into energy flow dynamics at ice surfaces are essential for understanding chemical dynamics relevant to atmospheric and geographical sciences. Here, employing ultrafast surface-specific spectroscopy, we report the interfacial vibrational dynamics of ice Ih. A comparison to liquid water surfaces reveals accelerated vibrational energy relaxation and dissipation at the ice surface for hydrogen-bonded OH groups. In contrast, free-OH groups sticking into the vapor phase exhibit substantially slower vibrational dynamics on ice. The acceleration and deceleration of vibrational dynamics of these different OH groups at the ice surface are attributed to enhanced intermolecular coupling and reduced rotational mobility, respectively. Our results highlight the unique properties of free-OH groups on ice, putatively linked to the high catalytic activities of ice surfaces.
Project description:The uniqueness of water originates from its three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network, but this hydrogen-bond network is suddenly truncated at the interface and non-hydrogen-bonded OH (free OH) appears. Although this free OH is the most characteristic feature of interfacial water, the molecular-level understanding of its dynamic property is still limited due to the technical difficulty. We study ultrafast vibrational relaxation dynamics of the free OH at the air/water interface using time-resolved heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (TR-HD-VSFG) spectroscopy. With the use of singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis, the vibrational relaxation (T1) times of the free OH at the neat H2O and isotopically-diluted water interfaces are determined to be 0.87?±?0.06?ps (neat H2O), 0.84?±?0.09?ps (H2O/HOD/D2O?=?1/2/1), and 0.88?±?0.16?ps (H2O/HOD/D2O?=?1/8/16). The absence of the isotope effect on the T1 time indicates that the main mechanism of the vibrational relaxation of the free OH is reorientation of the topmost water molecules. The determined sub-picosecond T1 time also suggests that the free OH reorients diffusively without the switching of the hydrogen-bond partner by the topmost water molecule.
Project description:Interfacial water in the vicinity of lipids plays an important role in many biological processes, such as drug delivery, ion transportation, and lipid fusion. Hence, molecular-level elucidation of the properties of water at lipid interfaces is of the utmost importance. We report the two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) study of the OH stretch of HOD at charged lipid interfaces, which shows that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water differ drastically, depending on the lipids. The data indicate that the spectral diffusion of the OH stretch at a positively charged lipid interface is dominated by the ultrafast (<?100?fs) component, followed by the minor sub-picosecond slow dynamics, while the dynamics at a negatively charged lipid interface exhibit sub-picosecond dynamics almost exclusively, implying that fast hydrogen bond fluctuation is prohibited. These results reveal that the ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at the positively charged lipid-water interface are attributable to the bulk-like property of interfacial water, whereas the slow dynamics at the negatively charged lipid interface are due to bound water, which is hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic head group.
Project description:We investigate the dynamics of water in contact with solid calcium fluoride, where at low pH, localized charges can develop upon fluorite dissolution. We use 2D surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy to quantify the heterogeneity of the interfacial water (D2 O) molecules and provide information about the sub-picosecond vibrational-energy-relaxation dynamics at the buried solid/liquid interface. We find that strongly H-bonded OD groups, with a vibrational frequency below 2500?cm-1 , display very rapid spectral diffusion and vibrational relaxation; for weakly H-bonded OD groups, above 2500?cm-1 , the dynamics slows down substantially. Atomistic simulations based on electronic-structure theory reveal the molecular origin of energy transport through the local H-bond network. We conclude that strongly oriented H-bonded water molecules in the adsorbed layer, whose orientation is pinned by the localized charge defects, can exchange vibrational energy very rapidly due to the strong collective dipole, compensating for a partially missing solvation shell.
Project description:Epoxy resin adhesives are widely used for joining metal alloys in various industrial fields. To elucidate the adhesion mechanism microscopically, we investigated the interfacial interactions of epoxy resin with hydroxylated silica (0 0 1) and ?-alumina (0 0 1) surfaces using periodic density functional theory calculations as well as density of states (DOS) and crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analyses. To better understand the interfacial interactions, we employed and analyzed water and benzene molecules as hydrophilic and hydrophobic adsorbates, respectively. Structural features and calculated adhesion energies reveal that these small adsorbates have a higher affinity for the ?-alumina surface than that for the silica surface, while a fragmentary model for the epoxy resin exhibits a strong interaction with the silica surface. This discrepancy suggests that the structural features of the hydroxylated silica surface dictate its affinity to a specific species. Partial DOS and COHP curves provide evidence for the presence of OH-? interactions between the OH groups on the surfaces and the benzene rings of the epoxy resin fragments. The orbital interaction energies of the H-bonding and OH-? interactions evaluated from the integrated COHP indicate that the OH-? interaction is a nonnegligible origin of the adhesion interaction, even when polymers with hydrophobic benzene rings are adsorbed on hydroxylated surfaces.
Project description:The interfacial structure of water in contact with TiO2 is the key to understand the mechanism of photocatalytic water dissociation as well as photoinduced superhydrophilicity. We investigate the interfacial molecular structure of water at the surface of anatase TiO2, using phase-sensitive sum frequency generation spectroscopy together with spectra simulation using ab initio molecular dynamic trajectories. We identify two oppositely oriented, weakly and strongly hydrogen-bonded subensembles of O-H groups at the superhydrophilic UV irradiated TiO2 surface. The water molecules with weakly hydrogen-bonded O-H groups are chemisorbed, i.e. form hydroxyl groups, at the TiO2 surface with their hydrogen atoms pointing toward bulk water. The strongly hydrogen-bonded O-H groups interact with the oxygen atom of the chemisorbed water. Their hydrogen atoms point toward the TiO2. This strong interaction between physisorbed and chemisorbed water molecules causes superhydrophilicity.
Project description:Because of strong hydrogen bonding in liquid water, intermolecular interactions between water molecules are highly delocalized. Previous two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy experiments have indicated that this delocalization smears out the structural heterogeneity of neat H2O. Here we report on a systematic investigation of the ultrafast vibrational relaxation of bulk and interfacial water using time-resolved infrared and sum-frequency generation spectroscopies. These experiments reveal a remarkably strong dependence of the vibrational relaxation time on the frequency of the OH stretching vibration of liquid water in the bulk and at the air/water interface. For bulk water, the vibrational relaxation time increases continuously from 250 to 550?fs when the frequency is increased from 3,100 to 3,700?cm(-1). For hydrogen-bonded water at the air/water interface, the frequency dependence is even stronger. These results directly demonstrate that liquid water possesses substantial structural heterogeneity, both in the bulk and at the surface.
Project description:Reactive mineral-water interfaces exert control on the bioavailability of contaminant arsenic species in natural aqueous systems. However, the ability to accurately predict As surface complexation is limited by the lack of molecular-level understanding of As-water-mineral interactions. In the present study, we report the structures and properties of the adsorption complexes of arsenous acid (As(OH)<sub>3</sub>) on hydrated mackinawite (FeS) surfaces, obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fundamental aspects of the adsorption, including the registries of the adsorption complexes, adsorption energies, and structural parameters are presented. The FeS surfaces are shown to be stabilized by hydration, as is perhaps to be expected because the adsorbed water molecules stabilize the low-coordinated surface atoms. As(OH)<sub>3</sub> adsorbs weakly at the water-FeS(001) interface through a network of hydrogen-bonded interactions with water molecules on the surface, with the lowest-energy structure calculated to be an As-up outer-sphere complex. Compared to the water-FeS(001) interface, stronger adsorption was calculated for As(OH)<sub>3</sub> on the water-FeS(011) and water-FeS(111) interfaces, characterized by strong hybridization between the S-p and O-p states of As(OH)<sub>3</sub> and the surface Fe-d states. The As(OH)<sub>3</sub> molecule displayed a variety of chemisorption geometries on the water-FeS(011) and water-FeS(111) interfaces, where the most stable configuration at the water-FeS(011) interface is a bidentate Fe-AsO-Fe complex, but on the water-FeS(111) interface, a monodentate Fe-O-Fe complex was found. Detailed information regarding the adsorption mechanisms has been obtained via projected density of states (PDOS) and electron density difference iso-surface analyses and vibrational frequency assignments of the adsorbed As(OH)<sub>3</sub> molecule.