Combining Non-Uniform Time Slice and Finite Difference to Improve 3D Ghost Imaging.
ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional ghost imaging (3DGI) using a detector is widely used in many applications. The performance of 3DGI based on a uniform time slice is difficult to improve because obtaining an accurate time-slice position remains a challenge. This paper reports a novel structure based on non-uniform time slice combined with finite difference. In this approach, finite difference is beneficial to improving sensitivity of zero crossing to accurately obtain the position of the target in the field of view. Simultaneously, non-uniform time slice is used to quickly obtain 3DGI on an interesting target. Results show that better performances of 3DGI are obtained by our proposed method compared to the traditional method. Moreover, the relation between time slice and the signal-noise-ratio of 3DGI is discussed, and the optimal differential distance is obtained, thus motivating the development of a high-performance 3DGI.
Project description:PURPOSE:A ghost correction strategy for Simultaneous Multi-Slice (SMS) EPI methods that provides improved ghosting artifact reduction compared to conventional methods is presented. Conventional Nyquist ghost correction methods for SMS-EPI rely on navigator data that contain phase errors from all slices in the simultaneously acquired slice-group. These navigator data may contain spatially nonlinear phase differences near regions of B0 inhomogeneity, which violates the linear model employed by most EPI ghost correction algorithms, resulting in poor reconstructions. METHODS:Dual-Polarity GRAPPA (DPG) was previously shown to accurately model and correct both spatially nonlinear and 2D phase errors in conventional single-slice EPI data. Here, an extension we call Dual-Polarity slice-GRAPPA (DPsG) is adapted to the slice-GRAPPA method and applied to SMS-EPI data for slice separation and ghost correction concurrently-eliminating the need for a separate ghost correction step while also providing improved slice-specific EPI phase error correction. RESULTS:Images from in vivo SMS-EPI data reconstructed using DPsG in place of conventional Nyquist ghost correction and slice-GRAPPA are presented. DPsG is shown to reduce ghosting artifacts and provide improved temporal SNR compared to the conventional reconstruction. CONCLUSION:The proposed use of DPsG for SMS-EPI reconstruction can provide images with lower artifact levels, higher image fidelity, and improved time-series stability compared to conventional reconstruction methods.
Project description:Observed rises in taxic diversity could reflect bias of the fossil record or a genuine diversification. Here we outline a new method that attempts to differentiate between these two possible explanations. The method is based on the calculations of average ghost lineage duration through successive intervals of time. Biases due to variation in preservational conditions affect taxa independently from their position in the tree of life. A genuine radiation event will affect some parts of the tree of life more than others. During periods of rapid diversification, there will be a high proportion of new taxa showing short ghost lineages and therefore the average ghost lineage duration will drop as diversity rises, allowing us to distinguish such events from preservational bias during which ghost lineage duration remains unchanged. We test the method on Aptian-Maastrichtian (Cretaceous) ray-finned fish diversity. The result shows that a peak of diversity in the Cenomanian is associated with a drop in average ghost lineage duration, indicating that a genuine biological radiation occurred at that time.
Project description:PURPOSE:The Dixon techniques provide uniform water-fat separation but require multiple image sets, which extend the overall acquisition time. Here, an alternative rapid single acquisition method, lipid elimination with an echo-shifting N/2-ghost acquisition (LEENA), was introduced. METHODS:The LEENA method utilized a fast imaging with steady-state free precession sequence to obtain a single k-space dataset in which successive k-space lines are acquired to allow the fat magnetization to precess 180°. The LEENA data were then unghosted using either image-domain (LEENA-S) or k-space domain (LEENA-G) parallel imaging techniques to reconstruct water-only and fat-only images. An off-resonance correction technique was incorporated to improve the uniformity of the water-fat separation. RESULTS:Uniform water-fat separation was achieved for both the LEENA-S and LEENA-G methods for phantom and human body and leg imaging applications at 1.5T and 3T. The resultant water and fat images were qualitatively similar to conventional 2-point Dixon and fat-suppressed images. CONCLUSION:The LEENA-S and LEENA-G methods provide uniform water and fat images from a single MRI acquisition. These straightforward methods can be adapted to 1.5T and 3T clinical MRI scanners and provide comparable fat/water separation with conventional 2-point Dixon and fat-suppression techniques.
Project description:This paper presents a simple method to measure tissue slice thicknesses using an ohmmeter. The circuit described here is composed of a metal probe, an ohmmeter, a counter electrode, culture medium or physiological buffer, and tissue slice. The probe and the electrode are on opposite interfaces of an organotypic hippocampal slice culture. The circuit closes when the metal probe makes contact with the surface of the tissue slice. The probe position is recorded and compared to its position when it makes contact with the insert membrane on which the tissue grows, thus yielding a thickness measurement. The method does not reduce the viability of slice cultures. Thicknesses of the slice cultures were measured under a number of culturing protocols. An initial drop in thickness occurred between 0 and 4 days in culture. Thicknesses are rather constant thereafter. The type of culture medium and the initial thickness of the tissue explant influence the thickness. Slice thicknesses were compared to a known technique by using optical measurements of slice cross-sections to obtain thicknesses. In contrast to this known technique, the proposed method does not sacrifice the slice culture for measurement purposes. The proposed measurement technique described is straightforward and rapid, about 1 min per culture.
Project description:Since the first quantum ghost imaging (QGI) experiment in 1995, many QGI schemes have been put forward. However, the position-position or momentum-momentum correlation required in these QGI schemes cannot be distributed over optical fibers, which limits their large-scale geographical applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a scheme for long-distance QGI utilizing frequency correlated photon pairs. In this scheme, the frequency correlation is transformed to the correlation between the illuminating position of one photon and the arrival time of the other photon, by which QGI can be realized in the time domain. Since frequency correlation can be preserved when the photon pairs are distributed over optical fibers, this scheme provides a way to realize long-distance QGI over large geographical scale. In the experiment, long-distance QGI over 50?km optical fibers has been demonstrated.
Project description:Ghost imaging is usually based on the optoelectronic process and electronic computing. A new ghost imaging approach is put forward in the paper that avoids any optoelectronic or electronic process. Instead, the proposed scheme exploits all-optical correlation and the vision persistence effect to generate images observed by naked eyes. To realize high contrast naked-eye ghost imaging, a special pattern-scanning architecture on a low-speed light-modulation disk is designed, which also enables high-resolution imaging with lower-order Hadamard vectors and boosts the imaging speed. With this approach, we realize high-contrast real-time naked-eye ghost imaging for moving colored objects.
Project description:Ragy and Adesso argue that quantum discord is involved in the formation of a pseudothermal ghost image. We show that quantum discord plays no role in spatial light modulator ghost imaging, i.e., ghost-image formation based on structured illumination realized with laser light that has undergone spatial light modulation by the output from a pseudorandom number generator. Our analysis thus casts doubt on the degree to which quantum discord is necessary for ghost imaging.
Project description:Terahertz (THz) imaging is a rapidly emerging field, thanks to many potential applications in diagnostics, manufacturing, medicine and material characterisation. However, the relatively coarse resolution stemming from the large wavelength limits the deployment of THz imaging in micro- and nano-technologies, keeping its potential benefits out-of-reach in many practical scenarios and devices. In this context, single-pixel techniques are a promising alternative to imaging arrays, in particular when targeting subwavelength resolutions. In this work, we discuss the key advantages and practical challenges in the implementation of time-resolved nonlinear ghost imaging (TIMING), an imaging technique combining nonlinear THz generation with time-resolved time-domain spectroscopy detection. We numerically demonstrate the high-resolution reconstruction of semi-transparent samples, and we show how the Walsh-Hadamard reconstruction scheme can be optimised to significantly reduce the reconstruction time. We also discuss how, in sharp contrast with traditional intensity-based ghost imaging, the field detection at the heart of TIMING enables high-fidelity image reconstruction via low numerical-aperture detection. Even more striking-and to the best of our knowledge, an issue never tackled before-the general concept of "resolution" of the imaging system as the "smallest feature discernible" appears to be not well suited to describing the fidelity limits of nonlinear ghost-imaging systems. Our results suggest that the drop in reconstruction accuracy stemming from non-ideal detection conditions is complex and not driven by the attenuation of high-frequency spatial components (i.e., blurring) as in standard imaging. On the technological side, we further show how achieving efficient optical-to-terahertz conversion in extremely short propagation lengths is crucial regarding imaging performance, and we propose low-bandgap semiconductors as a practical framework to obtain THz emission from quasi-2D structures, i.e., structure in which the interaction occurs on a deeply subwavelength scale. Our results establish a comprehensive theoretical and experimental framework for the development of a new generation of terahertz hyperspectral imaging devices.
Project description:In this paper, we look for non-uniform Rayleigh beams isospectral to a given uniform Rayleigh beam. Isospectral systems are those that have the same spectral properties, i.e. the same free vibration natural frequencies for a given boundary condition. A transformation is proposed that converts the fourth-order governing differential equation of non-uniform Rayleigh beam into a uniform Rayleigh beam. If the coefficients of the transformed equation match with those of the uniform beam equation, then the non-uniform beam is isospectral to the given uniform beam. The boundary-condition configuration should be preserved under this transformation. We present the constraints under which the boundary configurations will remain unchanged. Frequency equivalence of the non-uniform beams and the uniform beam is confirmed by the finite-element method. For the considered cases, examples of beams having a rectangular cross section are presented to show the application of our analysis.
Project description:Sarcomere lengths and their changes are key determinants of muscle active force production. Recent studies indicate inhomogeneity of sarcomere lengths within the muscle. Studies utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses for quantifying local muscle tissue strains and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses allowing for determination of their components along muscle fascicles show that those length changes can be non-uniform. Specifically, two questions arise regarding the muscle's length change heterogeneities along the muscle fiber direction: (1) How can a passively lengthened muscle show shortened regions? (2) How can an isometric contracting muscle show lengthened parts? Using finite element modeling and studying principles of the mechanism of strain heterogeneity along the muscle fiber direction, the aim was to test the following hypothesis: epimuscular myofascial loads can lead locally to strains opposing those elsewhere within the muscle that are determined by the globally imposed conditions. The geometry of the model was defined by the contour of a longitudinal slice of the rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle belly. Three models were studied: (1) isolated muscle (muscle modeled fully isolated from its surroundings) and models aiming at representing the principles of a muscle in its in vivo context including (2) extramuscularly connected muscle (muscle's connections to non-muscular structures are modeled exclusively) and (3) epimuscularly connected muscle (additionally muscle's connections to neighboring muscle are modeled). Three cases were studied: passive isometric muscle with imposed relative position change (Case I), passive lengthened muscle (Case II), and active isometric muscle with imposed relative position change (Case III). The findings indicated non-uniform strains for all models except for zero strain in model (1) in Case I, but models (2) and (3) also showed strains opposing the imposed effect. Case I: model (3) showed shortened and lengthened sections (up to 35.3%), caused exclusively by imposed relative position change. Case II: models (2) and (3) showed shortened sections (up to 12.7 and 19.5%, respectively) in addition to lengthened sections. Case III: models (2) and (3) showed lengthened sections (up to 5 and 23.4%, respectively) in addition to shortened sections. These effects get more pronounced with stiffer epimuscular connections. Assessments of forces exerted on the muscle by the epimuscular connections showed that such strain heterogeneities are ascribed to epimuscular myofascial loads determined by muscle relative position changes.