Genetic Variations of DAOA (rs947267 and rs3918342) and COMT Genes (rs165599 and rs4680) in Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Many reports confirm that several common genes are connected with these two psychotic disorders. Several neurotransmitters may be involved in the molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to estimate the role of two talent genes: DAOA in neurotransmission of glutamate and COMT in neurotransmission of dopamine to guide the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Methods:Blood samples (n=100 for schizophrenia, n=100 for bipolar I disorder and n=127 for case control) were collected from individuals unrelated in the southwest of Iran. The SNPs (rs947267 and rs3918342 for DAOA gene/rs165599 and rs4680 for COMT gene) were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. Our finding was studied by logistic regression and Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square tests. Results:We observed an association in rs3918342, rs165599 and rs4680 single nucleotide polymorphisms and schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. In addition, our data demonstrated that the rs947267 was related to bipolar I disorder but there was no association between this SNP and schizophrenia. Conclusion:In conclusion, this result supports the hypothesis that variations in DAOA and COMT genes may play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Project description:Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are hypothesized to share some genetic background.In a two-phase study, we evaluated the effect of five promising candidate genes for psychotic disorders, DAOA, COMT, DTNBP1, NRG1, and AKT1, on bipolar spectrum disorder, psychotic disorder, and related cognitive endophenotypes in a Finnish family-based sample ascertained for bipolar disorder.In initial screening of 362 individuals from 63 families, we found only marginal evidence for association with the diagnosis-based dichotomous classification. Those associations did not strengthen when we genotyped the complete sample of 723 individuals from 180 families. We observed a significant association of DAOA variants rs3916966 and rs2391191 with visuospatial ability (Quantitative Transmission Disequilibrium Test [QTDT]; p = 4 x 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-6), respectively) (n = 159) with the two variants in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. The COMT variant rs165599 also associated with visuospatial ability, and in our dataset, we saw an additive effect of DAOA and COMT variants on this neuropsychological trait.The ancestral allele (Arg) of the nonsynonymous common DAOA variant rs2391191 (Arg30Lys) was found to predispose to impaired performance. The DAOA gene may play a role in predisposing individuals to a mixed phenotype of psychosis and mania and to impairments in related neuropsychological traits.
Project description:Previous linkage and association studies have implicated the D-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA)/G30 locus or neighbouring region of chromosome 13q33.2 in the genetic susceptibility to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) gene located at 12q24.11 have also been found to show allelic association with schizophrenia.We used the case control method to test for genetic association with variants at these loci in a sample of 431 patients with schizophrenia, 303 patients with bipolar disorder and 442 ancestrally matched supernormal controls all selected from the UK population.Ten SNPs spanning the DAOA locus were genotyped in these samples. In addition three SNPs were genotyped at the DAO locus in the schizophrenia sample. Allelic association was detected between the marker rs3918342 (M23), 3' to the DAOA gene and both schizophrenia (chi2 = 5.824 p = 0.016) and bipolar disorder (chi2 = 4.293 p = 0.038). A trend towards association with schizophrenia was observed for two other DAOA markers rs3916967 (M14, chi2 = 3.675 p = 0.055) and rs1421292 (M24; chi2 = 3.499 p = 0.062). A test of association between a three marker haplotype comprising of the SNPs rs778293 (M22), rs3918342 (M23) and rs1421292 (M24) and schizophrenia gave a global empirical significance of p = 0.015. No evidence was found to confirm the association of genetic markers at the DAO gene with schizophrenia.Our results provide some support for a role for DAOA in susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Project description:Schizophrenia, a severe psychiatric condition, is characterized by disturbances of cognition, emotion, and social functioning. The disease affects almost 1% of world population. Recent studies evaluating the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme (COMT) polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have resulted in ambiguous findings. The current study examined the association of schizophrenia with three COMT polymorphisms, namely, rs737865, rs4680, and rs165599 in a Greek population. There was no significant association between schizophrenia and any of the three SNPs examined. However, haplotype analysis showed that cases have higher frequency of the T-A-A haplotype, and participants with that haplotype were at increased risk for developing schizophrenia (OR = 1.52; CL : 1.12-2.08; P = 0.008). Furthermore, patients with schizophrenia displayed an excess of TC/AA/AA and the TT/AA/GA genotypes. Similarly a protective effect of TT/GG/GG and TT/GA/GG was suggested by our results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role. METHODS:We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680) in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks. For genetic association analyses, 212 individuals with schizophrenia and 257 healthy controls (HCs) were selected. The Visual Working Memory (VWM) Task, Keep Track Task, and Letter Memory Task were administered to 133 schizophrenics and 93 HCs. RESULTS:We found a significant association of rs737865, with the GG genotype exerting a protective effect and the GA haplotype (rs4680/rs165599) exerting a risk effect for schizophrenia. COMT rs4680 AA carriers and rs737865 AA carriers scored lowest on the Keep Track Task. When the genotype*group interaction effect was evaluated, rs165599 exerted opposite effects for VWM and Keep Track task performance in patients and controls, with AA carriers scoring lowest on both tests among controls, but highest among patients. CONCLUSION:These data support the hypothesis that COMT polymorphisms may be associated with schizophrenia and modulate cognition in patients and controls.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are many studies with different results that examine the association between Catechol-O-MethylTransferase (COMT) gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizophrenia. In this study, the aim was to conduct a meta-analysis to achieve a pooled effect size of the association between COMT gene rs165599 SNP and schizophrenia. METHODS:Odds ratio (OR) was used as an effect size to determine the association between schizophrenia and the SNP. The pooled ORs were achieved under four different genetic models. When the heterogeneity among studies was high the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model, otherwise the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects model was used. Publication bias was evaluated by Egger's test. RESULTS:Under different genetic models no statistically significant association was found between rs165599 SNP and schizophrenia by meta-analyses consist of 20 independent studies. There was high heterogeneity among studies, for the possible reason the population differences, although the subgroup analyzes reduced the heterogeneity, no association was obtained. However, the sex-specific estimation of the females showed that to be a G allele carrier is a risk factor for schizophrenia (OR = 1.366 [95% confidence interval = 1.094-1.706]) compared to AA homozygous. CONCLUSION:The COMT gene rs165599 SNP does not appear to be a single-risk factor for schizophrenia.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the modulation of the chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) in breast cancer patients. Eighty triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 165 non-triple negative breast cancer (NTNBC) patients were selected, and subjected to a number of neuropsychological tests, including memory questionnaires, before and after chemotherapy. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including COMT (rs165599, rs4680, rs737865), APOE (rs429358, rs7412), and BDNF (rs6265), were evaluated. The scores of breast cancer patients after chemotherapy were poorer in comparison to those before chemotherapy (t = -5.317, z = -3.372, respectively, P < 0.01), and the scores of TNBC patients were poorer than those of NTNBC patients were after chemotherapy (t = -5.997, z = -5.284, respectively, P < 0.01). Patients with the COMT (rs165599) genotype had a significantly lower chance of developing cognitive decline than the patients with the G/G genotype, and this was linear with the retrospective memory (RM) questionnaires (? = -1.441, CI (95%) = -2.781~-0.101). However, there was no significant difference between the memory scores of APOE (rs429358, rs7412) and BDNF (rs6265) carriers before or after chemotherapy. This study suggests that CICI in TNBC patients was more prominent than that in NTNBC patients after chemotherapy, and the COMT (rs165599) polymorphism was linear to the retrospective memory (RM) questionnaires, and may be a potential genetic marker for increased vulnerability to CICI in TNBC patients.
Project description:The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyses the degradation of dopamine and norepinephrine, is posited to participate in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. In support of this notion, rich evidence has documented that the severity of various BD and schizophrenia symptoms is moderated by rs4680, a single nucleotide polymorphism of the COMT gene featuring a valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution that results in lower catalytic activity. Nevertheless, the specific relevance of COMT enzymatic activity in the pathophysiology of BD and schizophrenia dimensions remains elusive.We measured COMT catalytic activity in post-mortem prefrontal cortices, striata and cerebella of schizophrenia and BD patients, as well as non-affected controls. These values were then correlated with rs4680 genotypes and psychopathology scores in the last week of life.No direct correlation between COMT activity and rs4680 genotypes was found; however, the severity of manic symptoms was highly correlated with COMT activity in the striatum, irrespective of the diagnostic group.These results suggest that COMT striatal activity, but not rs4680 genotype, may serve as a biomarker for manic symptoms. Future studies are warranted to confirm these findings and assess the neurobiological links between COMT striatal activity and manic symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The COMT gene is located on chromosome 22q11, a region strongly implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Previous research has suggested that activity and expression of COMT is altered in schizophrenia, and is mediated by one or more polymorphisms within the gene, including the functional Val158Met polymorphism. METHOD: In this study we examined the expression levels of COMT mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR in 60 post mortem cerebellum samples derived from individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and no history of psychopathology. Furthermore, we have examined the methylation status of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the gene. RESULTS: We found no evidence of altered COMT expression or methylation in any of the psychiatric diagnoses examined. We did, however, find evidence to suggest that genotype is related to COMT gene expression, replicating the findings of two previous studies. Specifically, val158met (rs165688; Val allele) rs737865 (G allele) and rs165599 (G allele) all showed reduced expression (P < 0.05). Finally, we observe a strong sexual dimorphism in COMT expression, with females exhibiting significantly greater levels of COMT mRNA. CONCLUSION: The expression of COMT does not appear to be altered in the cerebellum of individuals suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression, but does appear to be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Bipolar disorder is characterized by severe mood symptoms including major depressive and manic episodes. During manic episodes, many patients show cognitive dysfunction. Dopamine and glutamate are important for cognitive processing, thus the COMT and DAOA genes that modulate the expression of these neurotransmitters are of interest for studies of cognitive function.<h4>Methodology</h4>Focusing on the most severe episode of mania, a factor was found with the combined symptoms of talkativeness, distractibility, and thought disorder, considered a cognitive manic symptoms (CMS) factor. 488 patients were genotyped, out of which 373 (76%) had talkativeness, 269 (55%) distractibility, and 372 (76%) thought disorder. 215 (44%) patients were positive for all three symptoms, thus showing CMS (Table 1). As population controls, 1,044 anonymous blood donors (ABD) were used. Case-case and case-control design models were used to investigate genetic associations between cognitive manic symptoms in bipolar 1 disorder and SNPs in the COMT and DAOA genes. [Table: see text].<h4>Results</h4>The finding of this study was that cognitive manic symptoms in patients with bipolar 1 disorder was associated with genetic variants in the DAOA and COMT genes. Nominal association for DAOA SNPs and COMT SNPs to cognitive symptoms factor in bipolar 1 disorder was found in both allelic (Table 2) and haplotypic (Table 3) analyses. Genotypic association analyses also supported our findings. However, only one association, when CMS patients were compared to ABD controls, survived correction for multiple testing by max (T) permutation. Data also suggested interaction between SNPs rs2391191 in DAOA and rs5993883 in COMT in the case-control model. [Table: see text] [Table: see text].<h4>Conclusion</h4>Identifying genes associated with cognitive functioning has clinical implications for assessment of prognosis and progression. Our finding are consistent with other studies showing genetic associations between the COMT and DAOA genes and impaired cognition both in psychiatric disorders and in the general population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603]) in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196), schizoaffective disorder (n = 62), bipolar disorder (n = 82), major depression (n = 30), and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24). RESULTS:SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035) with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599), which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033) and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. CONCLUSION:Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.