Improved production of succinic acid from Basfia succiniciproducens growing on A. donax and process evaluation through material flow analysis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Due to its wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical fields, microbial synthesis of succinic acid is receiving growing attention, generating already relevant industrial results, as well as fueling constant research for improvements. In order to develop a sustainable process, a special focus is now set on the exploitation and conversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into platform chemicals. Results:In the present work we used Basfia succiniciproducens BPP7 in separated hydrolysis and fermentation experiments with Arundo donax as starting material. Fed-batch strategies showed a maximal production of about 37 g/L of succinic acid after 43 h of growth and a productivity of 0.9 g/L h on the pilot scale. Global mass balance calculations demonstrated a hydrolysis and fermentation efficiency of about 75%. Moreover, the application of a material flow analysis showed the obtainment of 88.5 and 52 % of succinic acid, per kg of virgin biomass and on the total generated output, respectively. Conclusions:The use of fed-batch strategies for the growth of B. succiniciproducens on A. donax improved the titer and productivity of succinic acid on pre-pilot scale. Process evaluation through material flow analysis showed successful results and predicted a yield of succinic acid of about 30% in a fed-batch process that uses A. donax as only carbon source also in the feed. Preliminary considerations on the possibility to achieve an energetic valorization of the residual solid coming from the fermentation process were also carried out.
Project description:Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid produced as one of the fermentation products of anaerobic metabolism. Based on the complete genome sequence of a capnophilic succinic acid-producing rumen bacterium, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, gene knockout studies were carried out to understand its anaerobic fermentative metabolism and consequently to develop a metabolically engineered strain capable of producing succinic acid without by-product formation. Among three different CO2-fixing metabolic reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, PEP carboxylase, and malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase was the most important for the anaerobic growth of M. succiniciproducens and succinic acid production. Oxaloacetate formed by carboxylation of PEP was found to be converted to succinic acid by three sequential reactions catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and fumarate reductase. Major metabolic pathways leading to by-product formation were successfully removed by disrupting the ldhA, pflB, pta, and ackA genes. This metabolically engineered LPK7 strain was able to produce 13.4 g/liter of succinic acid from 20 g/liter glucose with little or no formation of acetic, formic, and lactic acids, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 0.97 mol succinic acid per mol glucose. Fed-batch culture of M. succiniciproducens LPK7 with intermittent glucose feeding allowed the production of 52.4 g/liter of succinic acid, with a succinic acid yield of 1.16 mol succinic acid per mol glucose and a succinic acid productivity of 1.8 g/liter/h, which should be useful for industrial production of succinic acid.
Project description:The succinic acid producer Mannheimia succiniciproducens can efficiently utilize sucrose as a carbon source, but its metabolism has not been understood. This study revealed that M. succiniciproducens uses a sucrose phosphotransferase system (PTS), sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase, and a fructose PTS for the transport and utilization of sucrose.
Project description:Succinic acid (SA), a dicarboxylic acid of industrial importance, can be efficiently produced by metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is one of the key enzymes for SA production, but has not been well characterized. Here we report biochemical and structural analyses of various MDHs and development of hyper-SA producing M. succiniciproducens by introducing the best MDH. Corynebacterium glutamicum MDH (CgMDH) shows the highest specific activity and least substrate inhibition, whereas M. succiniciproducens MDH (MsMDH) shows low specific activity at physiological pH and strong uncompetitive inhibition toward oxaloacetate (ki of 67.4 and 588.9??M for MsMDH and CgMDH, respectively). Structural comparison of the two MDHs reveals a key residue influencing the specific activity and susceptibility to substrate inhibition. A high-inoculum fed-batch fermentation of the final strain expressing cgmdh produces 134.25?g?L-1 of SA with the maximum productivity of 21.3?g?L-1?h-1, demonstrating the importance of enzyme optimization in strain development.
Project description:Microscale fermentation systems are important high throughput tools in clone selection, and bioprocess set up and optimization, since they provide several parallel experiments in controlled conditions of pH, temperature, agitation, and gas flow rate. In this work we evaluated the performance of biotechnologically relevant strains with different respiratory requirements in the micro-Matrix microbioreactor. In particular Escherichia coli K4 requires well aerated fermentation conditions to improve its native production of chondroitin-like capsular polysaccharide, a biomedically attractive polymer. Results from batch and fed-batch experiments demonstrated high reproducibility with those obtained on 2 L reactors, although highlighting a pronounced volume loss for longer-term experiments. Basfia succiniciproducens and Actinobacillus succinogenes need CO<sub>2</sub> addition for the production of succinic acid, a building block with several industrial applications. Different CO<sub>2</sub> supply modes were tested for the two strains in 24 h batch experiments and results well compared with those obtained on lab-scale bioreactors. Overall, it was demonstrated that the micro-Matrix is a useful scale-down tool that is suitable for growing metabolically different strains in simple batch process, however, a series of issues should still be addressed in order to fully exploit its potential.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Integrating waste management with fuels and chemical production is considered to address the food waste problem and oil crisis. Approximately, 600 million tonnes crude glycerol is produced from the biodiesel industry annually, which is a top renewable feedstock for succinic acid production. To meet the increasing demand for succinic acid production, the development of more efficient and cost-effective production methods is urgently needed. Herein, we have proposed a new strategy for integration of both biodiesel and SA production in a biorefinery unit by construction of an aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica with a deletion in the gene coding succinate dehydrogenase subunit 5. RESULTS:Robust succinic acid production by an engineered yeast Y. lipolytica from crude glycerol without pre-treatment was demonstrated. Diversion of metabolic flow from tricarboxylic acid cycle led to the success in generating a succinic acid producer Y. lipolytica PGC01003. The fermentation media and conditions were optimized, which resulted in 43 g L(-1) succinic acid production from crude glycerol. Using the fed-batch strategy in 2.5 L fermenter, up to 160 g L(-1) SA was yielded, indicating the great industrial potential. CONCLUSIONS:Inactivation of SDH5 in Y. lipolytica Po1f led to succinic acid accumulation and secretion significantly. To our best knowledge, this is the highest titer obtained in fermentation on succinic acid production. In addition, the performance of batch and fed-batch fermentation showed high tolerance and yield on biodiesel by-product crude glycerol. All these results indicated that PGC01003 is a promising microbial factorial cell for the highly efficient strategy solving the environmental problem in connection with the production of value-added product.
Project description:Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens belongs to the normal flora of cats and dogs and can rarely infect humans. Here, we report the first case of an A. succiniciproducens prosthetic joint infection.
Project description:This study focuses on succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch fermentation from whey and lactose widely encountered in dairy effluents. The effects of initial whey and lactose concentration, CO2 rate on succinic acid production were investigated. The optimal succinic acid production was obtained with 25?g?L-1 of lactose and 35?g?L-1 of whey with yields and productivities respectively of 65% and 0.9?g?L-1?h-1 for lactose and 62.1%, 0.81?g?L-1?h-1 for whey. The maximum yield and productivity of succinic acid was obtained with lactose in comparison with whey. Productivity and yield decreased when the amount of initial lactose was increased. Biomass, acetic acid and formic acid increased when whey was used as a substrate compared to lactose. Succinic acid production by anaerobic fermentation is a green biotechnology alternative to valorize whey and lactose from dairy effluent and to reduce their impact on the environment.
Project description:Oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a prospective host for production of succinic acid. The interruption of tricarboxylic acid cycle through succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDH) deletion was reported to result in strains incapable of glucose utilization and this ability had to be restored by chemical mutation or long adaptive laboratory evolution. In this study, a succinate producing strain of Y. lipolytica was engineered by truncating the promoter of SDH1 gene, which resulted in 77% reduction in SDH activity but did not impair the ability of the strain to grow on glucose. The flux toward succinic acid was further improved by overexpressing the genes in the glyoxylate pathway and the oxidative TCA branch, and expressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Actinobacillus succinogenes. A short adaptation on glucose reduced the lag phase of the strain and increased its tolerance to high glucose concentrations. The resulting strain produced 7.8 ± 0.0 g/L succinic acid with a yield of 0.105 g/g glucose in shake flasks without pH control, while mannitol (11.8 ± 0.8 g/L) was the main by-product. Further investigations showed that mannitol accumulation was caused by low pH stress and buffering the fermentation medium eliminated mannitol formation. In a fed-batch bioreactor in mineral medium at pH 5, at which point according to Ka values of succinic acid, the major fraction of product was in acidic form rather than dissociated form, the strain produced 35.3 ± 1.5 g/L succinic acid with 0.26 ± 0.00 g/g glucose yield.
Project description:Mannheimia succiniciproducens, a rumen bacterium belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae, has two putative ?-galactosidase genes, bgaA and bgaB, encoding polypeptides whose deduced amino acid sequences share 56% identity with each other and show approximately 30% identity to the Escherichia coli gene for LacZ. The M. succiniciproducens bgaA (MsbgaA) gene-deletion mutant was not able to grow on lactose as the sole carbon source, suggesting its essential role in lactose metabolism, whereas the MsbgaB gene-deletion mutant did not show any growth defect on a lactose medium. Furthermore, the expression of the MsbgaA gene was induced by the addition of lactose in the growth medium, whereas the MsbgaB gene was constitutively expressed independently of a carbon source. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant proteins revealed that MsBgaA is more efficient than MsBgaB in hydrolyzing o-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside. MsBgaA was highly specific for the hydrolysis of lactose, with a catalytic efficiency of 46.9 s(-1) mM(-1). However, MsBgaB was more efficient for the hydrolysis of lactulose than lactose, and the catalytic efficiency was 10.0 s(-1) mM(-1). Taken together, our results suggest that the ?-galactosidase paralogues of M. succiniciproducens BgaA and BgaB play a critical role in lactose metabolism and in an unknown but likely specific function for rumen bacteria, respectively.