Dissimilar patterns of tumor-infiltrating immune cells at the invasive tumor front and tumor center are associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are described as an important immune modulator in the tumor microenvironment and are associated with breast cancer (BC) outcome. The spatial analysis of TILs and TIL subtype distribution at the invasive tumor front (ITF) and the tumor center (TC) might provide further insights into tumor progression. METHODS:We analyzed core biopsies from 87 pre-therapeutic BC patients for total TILs and the following subtypes: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and CD68+ cells in correlation to clinicopathological parameters and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow. RESULTS:TILs and TIL subtypes showed significantly different spatial distribution among both tumor areas. TILs, especially CD3+ T cells were associated with the tumor status and tumor grading. BC patients responding to neoadjuvant chemotherapy had significantly more TILs and CD3+ T cells at the TC. The presence of DTCs after NACT was related to CD4+ infiltration at the TC. CONCLUSION:The dissimilar spatial association of TILs and TIL subtypes with clinicopathological parameters, NACT response and minimal residual disease underlines the necessity of detailed TIL analysis for a better understanding of immune modulatory processes.
Project description:PURPOSE:In colorectal cancer (CRC), whether the immune score can be used to predict the clinical prognosis of the patient has not been completely established. Besides, the prognostic values of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in different anatomical locations, counting sites, and subtypes have been controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to analyze and determine the prognostic value of TILs indices including TIL subsets, infiltrating sites, and anatomical sites. METHODS:Relevant literature was obtained by searching PubMed and Google Scholar. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was computed to investigate the prognostic significance of CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO+, and FOXP3+ T cells. RESULTS:A total of 22 studies involving 5108 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In CC, based on T cell subtypes analysis, the final results indicated that CD8+ and FOXP3+ infiltrating cells, but not CD3+ T cells were prognostic markers for DFS and OS. In addition, with regard to the counting location of TILs, subgroup analysis revealed that only high FOXP3+ infiltrates in the tumor stroma (ST) were significantly associated with OS (HR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.67, P = 0.0007), whereas in invasive margin (IM), high density of CD3+ infiltrating cells indicated increased DFS (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.93, P = 0.008). At the tumor center (TC), high CD8+ T cells infiltration was associated with improved DFS (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.38-0.65, P < 0.00001). In RC, whether CSS or OS, high-density TIL was associated with improved prognosis. CONCLUSION:In a single counting site, high-density TILs reflect favorable prognostic value in CC or RC. For CC, more prospective studies are needed to verify whether different anatomical sites affect the distribution of TILs and thus the prognosis of patients. For RC, further studies should analyze the prognostic value of the immune score.
Project description:Patients with breast cancer (BC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) may experience metastatic relapse despite achieving a pathologic complete response. We analyzed patients with BC before and after NACT for disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow(BM); comprehensively characterized circulating tumor cells (CTCs), including stem cell-like CTCs (slCTCs), in blood to prove the effectiveness of treatment on these cells; and correlated these findings with response to therapy, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).CTCs (n?=?135) and slCTCs (n?=?91) before and after NACT were analyzed using the AdnaTest BreastCancer, AdnaTest TumorStemCell, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (QIAGEN Hannover GmbH Germany). The expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and the resistance marker excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 1 (ERCC1), nuclease were studied in separate single-plex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments. DTCs were evaluated in 142 patients before and 165 patients after NACT using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3 for immunocytochemistry.The positivity rates for DTCs, CTCs, and slCTCs were 27 %, 24 %, and 51 % before and 20 %, 8 %, and 20 % after NACT, respectively. Interestingly, 72 % of CTCs present after therapy were positive for ERCC1, and CTCs before (p?=?0.005) and after NACT (p?=?0.05) were significantly associated with the presence of slCTCs. Whereas no significant associations with clinical parameters were found for CTCs and slCTCs, DTCs were significantly associated with nodal status (p?=?0.03) and histology (0.046) before NACT and with the immunohistochemical subtype (p?=?0.02) after NACT. Univariable Cox regression analysis revealed that age (p?=?0.0065), tumor size before NACT (p?=?0.0473), nodal status after NACT (p?=?0.0137), and response to NACT (p?=?0.0136) were significantly correlated with PFS, whereas age (p?=?0.0162) and nodal status after NACT (p?=?0.0243) were significantly associated with OS. No significant correlations were found for DTCs or any CTCs before and after therapy with regard to PFS and OS.Although CTCs were eradicated more effectively than DTCs, CTCs detected after treatment seemed to be associated with tumor cells showing tumor stem cell characteristics as well as with resistant tumor cell populations that might indicate a worse outcome in the future. Thus, these patients might benefit from additional second-line treatment protocols including bisphosphonates for the eradication of DTCs.
Project description:One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are usually measured using subjective methods. Studies suggest that TIL subtypes have independent roles in cancer and that they could support the use of novel immunostimulatory therapies. We simultaneously measured TIL subtypes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples using objective methods and determined their relationship with clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival.Using multiplexed quantitative fluorescence (QIF), we measured the levels of CD3, CD8, and CD20 in 552 NSCLC from two independent collections represented in tissue microarrays (YTMA79, n = 202 and YTMA140, n = 350). The level of TILs was obtained in different tumor compartments using cytokeratin stain to define tumor cells and 4',6-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole. Association of TILs with clinical parameters was determined using univariate and multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided.In both NSCLC collections there was a low correlation between the three TIL markers (linear regression coefficients (R(2)) = 0.19-0.22, P < .001 for YTMA79 and R(2) = 0.23-0.32, P < .001 for YTMA140). No consistent association between the level of TIL subtypes and age, sex, smoking history, tumor size, stage, and histology type was found. In univariate analysis, an elevated CD3 or CD8 signal was statistically significantly associated with longer survival in both collections. However, only CD8 was independent from age, tumor size, histology, and stage in multivariable analysis. High CD20 was associated with longer survival in the YTMA79 cohort.Increased levels of CD3 and CD8 + TILs are associated with better outcome in NSCLC, but only CD8 is independent from other prognostic variables. Objective measurement of TIL subpopulations could be useful to predict response or evaluate the local immune effect of anticancer immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to investigate if there were differences in associations of stromal versus intratumoral tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with pathology complete response (pCR) among breast cancer (BC) subtypes treated with neoadjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The hematoxylin and eosin slides of BC-core biopsy consecutive cases (n=331) were reviewed from a single institution between 2000 and 2014. TIL-stroma (TIL-str) was scored from 0% to 100%. Intratumoral lymphocytes (iTu-Ly) were scored semiquantitatively incorporating the infiltrate grade (0 to 3) and the corresponding percentage resulting in a score ranging from 0 to 300. pCR was defined as no residual infiltrating tumor in the tumor bed and the lymph nodes. RESULTS:pCR was achieved in 29 of 95 (30.9%) triple negative cases, 25 of 77 (32.5%) HER2+, and 9 of 159 (5.6%) luminal tumors. In univariate analysis, invasive nonlobular carcinoma, higher Nottingham grade, nonluminal subtypes, trastuzumab therapy, nonadvanced clinical T stage (T1 and T2), TIL-str, and iTu-Ly-predicted pCR. In luminal subtype, iTu-Ly but not TIL-str was an independent predictor for pCR [odds ratio (OR)=1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.9, P=0.013]. In triple negative subtype, both TIL-str and iTu-Ly were independent predictors for pCR (OR=1.68, 95% CI, 1.29-2.18, P=0.001; OR=1.31, 95% CI, 1.05-1.63, P=0.017, respectively). In HER2+ subtype, neither TIL-str nor iTu-Ly predicted pCR. CONCLUSIONS:TILs are variably correlated with better neoadjuvant chemotherapy response depending on their location and clinical subtype of BC. It could indicate that TILs might be functionally heterogeneous with regard to their role in mediating antitumor immune response, depending on their location and BC subtypes.
Project description:In a recent report, [Zhang et al. (2003) N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 203-213], the presence of CD3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was found to correlate with improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. We performed immunohistochemical analysis for TILs and cancer testis antigens in 117 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. The interrelationship between subpopulations of TILs and expression of cancer testis antigens was investigated, as well as between TILs and overall survival. The median follow-up of the patients was 31 months. Patients with higher frequencies of intraepithelial CD8+ T cells demonstrated improved survival compared with patients with lower frequencies [median = 55 versus 26 months; hazard ratio = 0.33; confidence interval (C.I.) = 0.18-0.60; P = 0.0003]. No association was found for CD3+ TILs or other subtypes of intraepithelial or stromal TILs. However, the subgroups with high versus low intraepithelial CD8+/CD4+ TIL ratios had median survival of 74 and 25 months, respectively (hazard ratio = 0.30; C.I. = 0.16-0.55; P = 0.0001). These results indicate that CD4+ TILs influence the beneficial effects of CD8+ TIL. This unfavorable effect of CD4+ T cells on prognosis was found to be due to CD25+ forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)+ regulatory T cells (Treg; suppressor T cells), as indicated by survival of patients with high versus low CD8+/Treg ratios (median = 58 versus 23 months; hazard ratio = 0.31; C.I. = 0.17-0.58; P = 0.0002). The favorable prognostic effect of intraepithelial CD8+ TILs did not correlate with concurrent expression of NY-ESO-1 or MAGE antigens. We conclude that intraepithelial CD8+ TILs and a high CD8+/Treg ratio are associated with favorable prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Project description:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may represent a viable source of T cells for the biological treatment of patients with gliomas. Glioma tissue was obtained from 16 patients, tumor cell lines were established, and TILs were expanded in 16/16 cases using a combination of IL-2/IL-15/IL-21. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS, IL-2, IL-17, TNF? and IFN? production) as well as a cytotoxicity assay was used to detect TIL reactivity against autologous tumor cells or shared tumor-associated antigens (TAAs; i.e., NY-ESO-1, Survivin or EGFRvIII). TILs were analyzed by flow cytometry, including T-cell receptor (TCR) V? family composition, exhaustion/activation and T-cell differentiation markers (CD45RA/CCR7). IL-2/IL-15/IL-21 expanded TILs exhibited a mixture of CD4+, CD8+, as well as CD3+ CD4-CD8- T cells with a predominant central memory CD45RA-CCR7+ phenotype. TIL showed low frequencies of T cells testing positive for PD-1, TIM-3 and CTLA-4. LAG3 tested positive in up to 30% of CD8+ TIL, with low (1.25%) frequencies in CD4+ T cells. TIL cultures exhibited preferential usage of V? families and recognition of autologous tumor cells defined by cytokine production and cytotoxicity. IL-2/IL-15/IL-21 expanded TILs represent a viable source for the cellular therapy of patients with gliomas.
Project description:The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8(+) TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8(+) (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and defects in homologous recombination (HR) are each important prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma (OC). We characterized the association between HR deficiency (HRD) and the presence of TILs in a cohort of OC patients and the relative contribution to overall survival. METHODS:Patients with carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum were prospectively enrolled. Malignant neoplasm and serum samples were collected. Immunohistochemistry for CD3+ T cells and CD68+ tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) was performed on specimens collected at primary surgery. Damaging germline and somatic mutations in genes in the HR-mediated repair (HRR) pathway were identified using BROCA sequencing. HRD was defined as a damaging mutation in one of 12 genes in the HRR pathway or promoter hypermethylation in BRCA1 or RAD51C. RESULTS:Ninety-eight of 250 patients included in the analysis had HRD OC (39.2%). HRD OC were enriched for CD3+ TILs and CD68+ TAMs. High CD3+ TIL was present in 65.3% of HRD OC compared to 43.4% of non-HRD OC (P?=?0.001). High CD68+ TAM was present in 66.3% of HRD OC compared to 50.7% of non-HRD OC (P?=?0.015). Patients with HRD OC and high CD3+ TILs had the longest median overall survival compared to non-HRD OC with low CD3+ TILs (70.9 vs. 35.8?months, adjusted HR 0.38, 95% CI (0.25-0.59)). CONCLUSIONS:Patients that have both CD3+ TILs and HRD OC are afforded the greatest improvement in overall survival. This finding may have therapeutic implications for OC patients treated with emerging immunotherapies.
Project description:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have potential value for stratifying the treatment of breast cancer (BC), though their precise use remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the utility of TILs using an alternative approach in different settings. We reviewed patients with triple-negative (TN) or human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive invasive ductal carcinomas from a single institutional cohort and classified archived hematoxylin-eosin-stained samples in terms of TIL score as low (<10 %), intermediate, and high (>50 %). The prognostic and predictive values of TILs were analyzed retrospectively in both adjuvant and neo-adjuvant settings. In the adjuvant setting, the presence of TILs at primary surgery was a significant favorable prognostic factor among 154 TNBCs [relapse-free survival (RFS): p = 0.015], but not among 183 HER2+ BCs (RFS: p = 0.097). The TNBC low-TIL group tended to relapse earlier. In the neo-adjuvant setting, detection of TILs on biopsy before primary systemic therapy was associated with the ratio of patients achieving pathological complete response among 48 TNBCs (p = 0.024), but not among 58 HER2+ BCs (p = 0.30). The presence of TILs in surgical specimens after systemic therapy had prognostic value in HER2+ BC (RFS: p = 0.007). The impact of TILs differs between patients with TN and HER2+ BC treated with standard therapies. Our three-grade scale for TILs may contribute to our understanding of the importance of the tumor microenvironment in routine practice. TILs after primary systemic therapy may be useful for the further stratification of treatment of HER2+ BC.