RhoA regulates Drp1 mediated mitochondrial fission through ROCK to protect cardiomyocytes.
ABSTRACT: Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, loss of blood flow and its subsequent restoration, causes damage to the heart. Oxidative stress from ischemia/reperfusion leads to dysfunction and death of cardiomyocytes, increasing the risk of progression to heart failure. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, in particular mitochondrial fission, have been suggested to play a role in cardioprotection from oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that activation of RhoA regulates mitochondrial fission in cardiomyocytes. Our studies show that expression of constitutively active RhoA in cardiomyocytes increases phosphorylation of Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) at serine-616, and leads to localization of Drp1 at mitochondria. Both responses are blocked by inhibition of Rho-associated Protein Kinase (ROCK). Endogenous RhoA activation by the GPCR agonist sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) also increases Drp1 phosphorylation and its mitochondrial translocation in a RhoA and ROCK dependent manner. Consistent with the role of mitochondrial Drp1 in fission, RhoA activation in cardiomyocytes leads to formation of smaller mitochondria and this is attenuated by inhibition of ROCK, by siRNA knockdown of Drp1 or by expression of a phosphorylation-deficient Drp1 S616A mutant. In addition, activation of RhoA prevents cell death in cardiomyocytes challenged by oxidative stress and this protection is blocked by siRNA knockdown of Drp1 or by Drp1 S616A expression. Taken together our findings demonstrate that RhoA activation can regulate Drp1 to induce mitochondrial fission and subsequent cellular protection, implicating regulation of fission as a novel mechanism contributing to RhoA-mediated cardioprotection.
Project description:Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase RhoA can promote cell survival in cultured cardiomyocytes and in the heart. We showed that the circulating lysophospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist, signaled through RhoA and phospholipase C? (PLC?) to increase the phosphorylation and activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1). Genetic deletion of either PKD1 or its upstream regulator PLC? inhibited S1P-mediated cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cardioprotection involved PKD1-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of the cofilin phosphatase Slingshot 1L (SSH1L). Cofilin 2 translocates to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress or ischemia/reperfusion injury, and both S1P pretreatment and SSH1L knockdown attenuated translocation of cofilin 2 to mitochondria. Cofilin 2 associates with the proapoptotic protein Bax, and the mitochondrial translocation of Bax in response to oxidative stress was also attenuated by S1P treatment in isolated hearts or by knockdown of SSH1L or cofilin 2 in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, SSH1L knockdown, like S1P treatment, increased cardiomyocyte survival and preserved mitochondrial integrity after oxidative stress. These findings reveal a pathway initiated by GPCR agonist-induced RhoA activation, in which PLC? signals to PKD1-mediated phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins to prevent the mitochondrial translocation and proapoptotic function of cofilin 2 and Bax and thereby promote cell survival.
Project description:Our previous studies showed that Astragaloside IV derivative (LS-102) exhibited potent protective function against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, but little is known about the mechanisms. Mitochondrial fission regulated by dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) is a newly recognized determinant of mitochondrial function. This study aimed to investigate the protection of LS-102 on mitochondrial structure and function by regulating the activity of Drp1 using models of H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury induced by hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R), and rat heart injury induced by I/R. The results showed that LS-102 significantly decreased apoptosis, levels of ROS, CK, LDH, and calcium, upregulating MMP, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cardiomyocytes during I/R injury. Furthermore, LS-102 prevented I/R-induced mitochondrial fission by decreasing Drp1’s mitochondrial localization through decreasing the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser616 (Drp1Ser616) and increasing the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637 (Drp1Ser637) in H9c2 cells. Importantly, we also robustly confirmed Drp1Ser616 as a novel GSK-3? phosphorylation site. GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation at Drp1Ser616 may be associated with mitochondrial fission during I/R of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, LS-102 exerts cardio protection against I/R-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial fission via blocking GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation at Ser616 of Drp1.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key contributor to septic cardiomyopathy. Although recent literature implicates dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) and its mitochondrial adaptor fission 1 (Fis1) in the development of pathologic fission and mitochondrial failure in neurodegenerative disease, little is known about the role of Drp1/Fis1 interaction in the context of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy. Our study tests the hypothesis that Drp1/Fis1 interaction is a major driver of sepsis-mediated pathologic fission, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in the heart. METHODS:H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, cellular respiration, and mitochondrial morphology. Balb/c mice were treated with LPS, cardiac function was measured by echocardiogaphy, and mitochondrial morphology determined by electron microscopy (EM). Drp1/Fis1 interaction was inhibited by P110 to determine whether limiting mitochondrial fission can reduce LPS-induced oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction. RESULTS:LPS-treated H9C2 cardiomyocytes demonstrated a decrease in mitochondrial respiration followed by an increase in mitochondrial oxidative stress and a reduction in membrane potential. Inhibition of Drp1/Fis1 interaction with P110 attenuated LPS-mediated cellular oxidative stress and preserved membrane potential. In vivo, cardiac dysfunction in LPS-treated mice was associated with increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Treatment with P110 reduced cardiac mitochondrial fragmentation, prevented decline in cardiac function, and reduced mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Sepsis decreases cardiac mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential while increasing oxidative stress and inducing pathologic fission. Treatment with P110 was protective in both in vitro and in vivo models of septic cardiomyopathy, suggesting a key role of Drp1/Fis1 interaction, and a potential target to reduce its morbidity and mortality.
Project description:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most common causes of heart failure, and the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. Here we investigated whether NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis contributes to non-ischemic DCM and dissected the underlying mechanism. We found that hyper activated NLRP3 inflammasome with pyroptotic cell death of cardiomyocytes were presented in the myocardial tissues of DCM patients, which were negatively correlated with cardiac function. Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced DCM characterization disclosed that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis occurred in Dox-treated heart tissues, but were very marginal in either NLRP3-/- or caspase-1-/- mice. Mechanistically, Dox enhanced expressions of NOX1 and NOX4 and induced mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) activation, leading to NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in cardiomyocytes via caspase-1-dependent manner. Conversely, both inhibitions of NOX1 and NOX4 and Drp1 suppressed Dox-induced NLPR3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis. The alterations of NOX1 and NOX4 expression, Drp1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial fission were validated in DCM patients and mice. Importantly, Dox-induced Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and the consequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis were reversed by NOX1 and NOX4 inhibition in mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that cardiomyocyte pyroptosis triggered by NLRP3 inflammasome activation via caspase-1 causally contributes to myocardial dysfunction progression and DCM pathogenesis.
Project description:Hexokinase-II (HK-II) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) regulate mitochondrial function differently. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) with emphasis on the regulation of mitochondrial HK-II and Drp1. Saturated acid palmitate (PA) stimulation increased lactate accumulation and induced cellular acidification by impairing the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in cardiomyocytes, leading to HK-II dissociation from mitochondria. Rg5 improved PDH activity and prevented cellular acidification by combating fatty-acid oxidation, contributing to protecting mitochondrial HK-II. HK-II binding to mitochondria prevented mitochondrial Drp1 recruitment, whereas Drp1 activation decreased the content of mitochondrial HK-II, demonstrating the reciprocal control for binding to mitochondria. Rg5 promoted Akt translocation to mitochondria and increased HK-II binding to mitochondria while coordinately suppressing Drp1 recruitment and mitochondrial fission. Akt inhibitor triciribine or knockdown of Akt with small interfering RNA diminished the effects of Rg5, indicating that Rg5 inhibited Drp1 activation and promoted HK-II mitochondrial binding through Akt activation. Rg5 prevented the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and increased ATP production, resultantly increasing cardiomyocyte resistance to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Meanwhile, Rg5 prevented cell apoptosis with increased HK-II binding and reduced Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria in isoproterenol-induced ischemic heart of mice. Taken together, these findings not only established a previously unrecognized role of ginsenosides in cardioprotection but also suggest that mitochondrial HK-II binding and Drp1 recruitment could be targeted therapeutically to prevent ischemic injury in the heart.
Project description:Anesthetic postconditioning is a cellular protective approach whereby exposure to a volatile anesthetic renders a tissue more resistant to subsequent ischemic/reperfusion event. Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) has been shown to exert cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that SPostC protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury by maintaining/restoring mitochondrial morphological integrity, a critical determinant of cell fate.Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCMs) were subjected to H/R injury (3 h of hypoxia followed by 3 h reoxygenation). Intervention with SPostC (2.4% sevoflurane) was administered for 15 min upon the onset of reoxygenation. Cell viability, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, cell death, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were assessed after intervention. Mitochondrial fusion and fission regulating proteins (Drp1, Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) were assessed by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting was performed to determine the level of protein expression.Cardiomyocyte H/R injury resulted in significant increases in LDH release and cell death that were concomitant with reduced cell viability and reduced mitochondrial interconnectivity (mean area/perimeter ratio) and mitochondrial elongation, and with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mPTP opening. All the above changes were significantly attenuated by SPostC. Furthermore, H/R resulted in significant reductions in mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 and significant enhancement of fission proteins Drp1 and Fis1. SPostC significantly enhanced Mfn2 and Opa1 and reduced Drp1, without significant impact on Mfn1 and Fis1.Sevoflurane postconditioning attenuates cardiomyocytes hypoxia/reoxygenation injury (HRI) by restoring mitochondrial fusion/fission balance and morphology.
Project description:Neuronal cell death in a number of neurological disorders is associated with aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial degeneration. However, the triggers for this mitochondrial dysregulation are not known. Here we show excessive mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial structural disarray in brains of hypertensive rats with hypertension-induced brain injury (encephalopathy). We found that activation of protein kinase C? (PKC?) induced aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation and impaired mitochondrial function in cultured SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and in this rat model of hypertension-induced encephalopathy. Immunoprecipitation studies indicate that PKC? binds Drp1, a major mitochondrial fission protein, and phosphorylates Drp1 at Ser 579, thus increasing mitochondrial fragmentation. Further, we found that Drp1 Ser 579 phosphorylation by PKC? is associated with Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria under oxidative stress. Importantly, inhibition of PKC?, using a selective PKC? peptide inhibitor (?V1-1), reduced mitochondrial fission and fragmentation and conferred neuronal protection in vivo and in culture. Our study suggests that PKC? activation dysregulates the mitochondrial fission machinery and induces aberrant mitochondrial fission, thus contributing to neurological pathology.
Project description:Defining the mechanisms underlying the control of mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to understanding cellular adaptation to diverse physiological conditions. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia induces fission of mitochondrial membranes, dependent on availability of the mitochondrial scaffolding protein AKAP121. AKAP121 controls mitochondria dynamics through PKA-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1 and PKA-independent inhibition of Drp1-Fis1 interaction. Reduced availability of AKAP121 by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 relieves Drp1 inhibition by PKA and increases its interaction with Fis1, resulting in mitochondrial fission. High AKAP121 levels, seen in cells lacking Siah2, attenuate fission and reduce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under simulated ischemia. Infarct size and degree of cell death were reduced in Siah2(-/-) mice subjected to myocardial infarction. Inhibition of Siah2 or Drp1 in hatching C. elegans reduces their life span. Through modulating Fis1/Drp1 complex availability, our studies identify Siah2 as a key regulator of hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fission and its physiological significance in ischemic injury and nematode life span.
Project description:Sheng-Mai-San (SMS) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) complex prescription used to treat heart failure (HF) and angina in clinic. However, its potential therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. The present study evaluated the cardioprotection of extract of SMS (ESMS) on myocardial ischemia (MI)-induced HF, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that ESMS (728.0 mg/kg) significantly attenuated MI injury-induced HF by improving cardiac function and pathological changes, decreasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) activities, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels; increasing ATPase activity; and reducing intracellular Ca2+ levels in MI-induced HF mice model. It also significantly decreased the apoptotic index. In vitro, ESMS (400 ?g/mL) inhibited mitochondrial-dependent myocardial apoptosis by modulating the expression of caspase-3 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and improved mitochondrial function through increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP content. ESMS restored intracellular Ca2+ and downregulated the expression of Calcineurin A (CnA), thus inhibiting phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) at Ser616 and increasing phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637 to prevent cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fission. Above-mentioned results demonstrated ESMS suppressed mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. These findings suggested that ESMS attenuated MI-induced HF by regulating Ca2+ homeostasis and suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis through the modulation of Ca2+-calcineurin-mediated Drp1 signaling pathways. Our results provide insight into the mechanism and clinical applications of SMS and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for HF.
Project description:Although the aberrant activation of cell cycle proteins has a critical role in neuronal death, effectors or mediators of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-mediated death signal are still unknown. Here, we describe a previously unsuspected role of LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2) in programmed necrotic neuronal death. Downregulation of p27(Kip1) expression by Rho kinase (ROCK) activation induced cyclin D1/CDK4 expression levels in neurons vulnerable to status epilepticus (SE). Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex subsequently increased LIMK2 expression independent of caspase-3 and receptor interacting protein kinase 1 activity. In turn, upregulated LIMK2 impaired dynamic-related protein-1 (DRP1)-mediated mitochondrial fission without alterations in cofilin phosphorylation/expression and finally resulted in necrotic neuronal death. Inhibition of LIMK2 expression and rescue of DRP1 function attenuated this programmed necrotic neuronal death induced by SE. Therefore, we suggest that the ROCK-p27(Kip1)-cyclin D1/CDK4-LIMK2-DRP1-mediated programmed necrosis may be new therapeutic targets for neuronal death.