Construction of a High-Density Genetic Map and Identification of Loci Related to Hollow Stem Trait in Broccoli (Brassic oleracea L. italica).
ABSTRACT: A high-quality genetic map is important for mapping of compound traits. In this study, a genetic map was constructed based on the reference genome TO1000 after specific locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing in a double-haploid segregation population of broccoli, and loci controlling hollow stem trait were identified in the genetic map. The genetic map contains 4,787 SLAF markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.22 cM and the mean sequencing depths of 91.14-fold in the maternal line, 88.97-fold in the paternal line and 17.11-fold in each DH progeny. A locus controlling the hollow stem trait, QHS.C09-2, which could explain 14.1% of the phenotypic variation, was steadily detected on the linkage group nine in the indicated data of 3 years' trials and BLUE analysis. The genetic map could lay an important foundation for mapping of compound traits, and mapping of hollow stem trait would be basis to clone the genes related to hollow stems in broccoli.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italic) accessions have purple sepals and cold weather would deepen the purple color, while the sepals of other broccoli lines are always green even in cold winter. The related locus or gene is still unknown. In this study, a high-density genetic map was constructed based on specific locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing in a doubled-haploid segregation population with 127 individuals. And mapping of the purple sepal trait in flower heads based on phenotypic data collected during three seasons was performed. RESULTS:A genetic map was constructed, which contained 6694 SLAF markers with an average sequencing depth of 81.37-fold in the maternal line, 84-fold in the paternal line, and 15.76-fold in each individual population studied. In all of the annual data recorded, three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified that were all distributed within the linkage group (LG) 1. Among them, a major locus, qPH.C01-2, located at 36.393?cM LG1, was consistently detected in all analysis. Besides this locus, another two minor loci, qPH.C01-4 and qPH.C01-5, were identified near qPH.C01-2, based on the phenotypic data from spring of 2018. CONCLUSION:The purple sepal trait could be controlled by a major single locus and two minor loci. The genetic map and location of the purple sepal trait of flower heads provide an important foundation for mapping other compound traits and the identification of the genes related to purple sepal trait in broccoli.
Project description:High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>First flower node (FFN) is an important trait for evaluating fruit earliness in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The trait is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, studies have been limited on QTL mapping and genes contributing to the trait.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we developed a high density genetic map using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), a high-throughput strategy for de novo single nucleotide polymorphism discovery, based on 146 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an intraspecific cross between PM702 and FS871. The map contained 9328 SLAF markers on 12 linkage groups (LGs), and spanned a total genetic distance of 2009.69 centimorgan (cM) with an average distance of 0.22?cM. The sequencing depth for the map was 72.39-fold in the male parent, 57.04-fold in the female parent, and 15.65-fold in offspring. Using the genetic map, two major QTLs, named Ffn2.1 and Ffn2.2, identified on LG02 were strongly associated with FFN, with a phenotypic variance explanation of 28.62 and 19.56%, respectively. On the basis of the current annotation of C. annuum cv. Criollo de Morelos (CM334), 59 candidate genes were found within the Ffn2.1 and Ffn2.2 region, but only 3 of 59 genes were differentially expressed according to the RNA-seq results. Eventually we identified one gene associated with the FFN based on the function through GO, KEGG, and Swiss-prot analysis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our research showed that the construction of high-density genetic map using SLAF-seq is a valuable tool for fine QTL mapping. The map we constructed is by far the most saturated complete genetic map of pepper, and using it we conducted fine QTL mapping for the important trait, FFN. QTLs and candidate genes obtained in this study lay a good foundation for the further research on FFN-related genes and other genetic applications in pepper.
Project description:Leaf shape is an important trait that influences the utilization rate of light, and affects quality and yield of pea (Pisum sativum). In the present study, a joint method of high-density genetic mapping using specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was applied to rapidly detect loci with leaf shape traits. A total of 7,146 polymorphic SLAFs containing 12,213 SNP markers were employed to construct a high-density genetic map for pea. We conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping on an F2 population to identify QTLs associated with leaf shape traits. Moreover, SLAF-BSA was conducted on the same F2 population to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to leaf shape in pea. Two QTLs (qLeaf_or-1, qLeaf_or-2) were mapped on linkage group 7 (LG7) for pea leaf shape. Through alignment of SLAF markers with Cicer arietinum, Medicago truncatula, and Glycine max, the pea LGs were assigned to their corresponding homologous chromosomal groups. The comparative genetic analysis showed that pea is more closely related to M. truncatula. Based on the sequencing results of two pools with different leaf shape, 179 associated markers were obtained after association analysis. The joint analysis of SLAF-seq and BSA showed that the QTLs obtained from mapping on a high-density genetic map are convincing due to the closely associated map region with the BSA results, which provided more potential markers related to leaf shape. Thus, the identified QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection for pea breeding in the future. Our study revealed that joint analysis of QTL mapping on a high-density genetic map and BSA-seq is a cost-effective and accurate method to reveal genetic architecture of target traits in plant species without a reference genome.
Project description:Walnut (Juglans regia, 2n?=?32, approximately 606 Mb per 1C genome) is an economically important tree crop. Resistance to anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major objective of walnut genetic improvement in China. The recently developed specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is an efficient strategy that can obtain large numbers of markers with sufficient sequence information to construct high-density genetic maps and permits detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for molecular breeding.SLAF-seq generated 161.64 M paired-end reads. 153,820 SLAF markers were obtained, of which 49,174 were polymorphic. 13,635 polymorphic markers were sorted into five segregation types and 2,577 markers of them were used to construct genetic linkage maps: 2,395 of these fell into 16 linkage groups (LGs) for the female map, 448 markers for the male map, and 2,577 markers for the integrated map. Taking into account the size of all LGs, the marker coverage was 2,664.36 cM for the female map, 1,305.58 cM for the male map, and 2,457.82 cM for the integrated map. The average intervals between two adjacent mapped markers were 1.11 cM, 2.91 cM and 0.95 cM for three maps, respectively. 'SNP_only' markers accounted for 89.25% of the markers on the integrated map. Mapping markers contained 5,043 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) loci, which corresponded to two SNP loci per SLAF marker. According to the integrated map, we used interval mapping (Logarithm of odds, LOD?>?3.0) to detect our quantitative trait. One QTL was detected for anthracnose resistance. The interval of this QTL ranged from 165.51 cM to 176.33 cM on LG14, and ten markers in this interval that were above the threshold value were considered to be linked markers to the anthracnose resistance trait. The phenotypic variance explained by each marker ranged from 16.2 to 19.9%, and their LOD scores varied from 3.22 to 4.04.High-density genetic maps for walnut containing 16 LGs were constructed using the SLAF-seq method with an F1 population. One QTL for walnut anthracnose resistance was identified based on the map. The results will aid molecular marker-assisted breeding and walnut resistance genes identification.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Undaria pinnatifida is an important economic brown alga in East Asian countries. However, its genetic and genomic information is very scarce, which hinders further research in this species. A high-density genetic map is a basic tool for fundamental and applied research such as discovery of functional genes and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study the recently developed specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology was employed to construct a high-density genetic linkage map and locate a sex determining locus for U. pinnatifida. RESULTS:A total of 28.06 Gb data including 140.31 M pair-end reads was obtained. After linkage analysis 4626 SLAF markers were mapped onto the genetic map. After adding the sex linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker [GenBank:AY738602.1], the final genetic map was 1816.28 cM long, consisting of 30 linkage groups with an average distance of 0.39 cM between adjacent markers. The length of LGs ranged from 20.12 to 106.95 cM. A major sex associated QTL was mapped to LG22 within a window starting at 29.01 cM and ending at 68.81 cM with a total of 68 SLAF markers. The SSR marker and five SLAF markers (Marker6556, 19020, 43089, 60771 and 26359) were identified as tightly sex-linked markers, as indicated by the absence of recombination between them and the sex phenotype. These markers were located at the position of 59.50 cM, which was supposed to be the sex determining region. CONCLUSIONS:A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using SLAF-seq technique and F1 gametophyte population for the first time in the economically important brown alga U. pinnatifida. For the first time, a major sex associated QTL suggesting a sex determining region was mapped to a single LG. This map will facilitate the further fundamental and applied research such as QTL mapping and map-based gene clone in U. pinnatifida and provide a reference for studies in other kelp species.
Project description:Genetic maps are a prerequisite for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, marker-assisted selection (MAS), fine gene mapping, and assembly of genome sequences. So far, several asparagus bean linkage maps have been established using various kinds of molecular markers. However, these maps were all constructed by gel- or array-based markers. No maps based on sequencing method have been reported. In this study, an NGS-based strategy, SLAF-seq, was applied to create a high-density genetic map for asparagus bean. Through SLAF library construction and Illumina sequencing of two parents and 100 F2 individuals, a total of 55,437 polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and mined for SNP markers. The map consisted of 5,225 SNP markers in 11 LGs, spanning a total distance of 1,850.81?cM, with an average distance between markers of 0.35?cM. Comparative genome analysis with four other legume species, soybean, common bean, mung bean and adzuki bean showed that asparagus bean is genetically more related to adzuki bean. The results will provide a foundation for future genomic research, such as QTL fine mapping, comparative mapping in pulses, and offer support for assembling asparagus bean genome sequence.
Project description:Flax is an important crop for oil and fiber, however, no high-density genetic maps have been reported for this species. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a high-resolution strategy for large scale de novo discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, SLAF-seq was employed to develop SNP markers in an F2 population to construct a high-density genetic map for flax. In total, 196.29 million paired-end reads were obtained. The average sequencing depth was 25.08 in male parent, 32.17 in the female parent, and 9.64 in each F2 progeny. In total, 389,288 polymorphic SLAFs were detected, from which 260,380 polymorphic SNPs were developed. After filtering, 4,638 SNPs were found suitable for genetic map construction. The final genetic map included 4,145 SNP markers on 15 linkage groups and was 2,632.94 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.64 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map is the densest SNP-based genetic map for flax. The SNP markers and genetic map reported in here will serve as a foundation for the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), map-based gene cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) for flax.
Project description:Pepper (Capsicum) is one of the most important vegetable and spice crops. Aphid-transmitted cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes significant damage to pepper crops across the world. The genetic basis of CMV resistance in pepper is complex, and the mechanisms underlying resistance remain largely unknown. Here, we employed a SLAF-seq approach to generate a high-density genetic map of pepper. The map spanned 1,785.46 cM, containing 12,727 markers on 12 chromosomes, with a mean marker distance of 0.16 cM between adjacent markers. We used this map and the interval mapping (IM) and multiple QTL mapping (MQM) procedures to detect genetic regions associated with quantitative trait for CMV resistance. Three QTLs, qcmv11.1, qcmv11.2 and qcmv12.1, conferred resistance to CMV and showed trait variation of 10.2%, 19.2% and 7.3% respectively. Our results will help to develop markers linked to CMV-resistant QTLs to improve pepper resistance to CMV.
Project description:Cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most widely cultivated types of leafy vegetable in the world, and it has a high nutritional value. Spinach is also an ideal plant for investigating the mechanism of sex determination because it is a dioecious species with separate male and female plants. Some reports on the sex labeling and localization of spinach in the study of molecular markers have surfaced. However, there have only been two reports completed on the genetic map of spinach. The lack of rich and reliable molecular markers and the shortage of high-density linkage maps are important constraints in spinach research work. In this study, a high-density genetic map of spinach based on the Specific-locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) technique was constructed; the sex-determining gene was also finely mapped.Through bio-information analysis, 50.75 Gb of data in total was obtained, including 207.58 million paired-end reads. Finally, 145,456 high-quality SLAF markers were obtained, with 27,800 polymorphic markers and 4080 SLAF markers were finally mapped onto the genetic map after linkage analysis. The map spanned 1,125.97 cM with an average distance of 0.31 cM between the adjacent marker loci. It was divided into 6 linkage groups corresponding to the number of spinach chromosomes. Besides, the combination of Bulked Segregation Analysis (BSA) with SLAF-seq technology(super-BSA) was employed to generate the linkage markers with the sex-determining gene. Combined with the high-density genetic map of spinach, the sex-determining gene X/Y was located at the position of the linkage group (LG) 4 (66.98 cM-69.72 cM and 75.48 cM-92.96 cM), which may be the ideal region for the sex-determining gene.A high-density genetic map of spinach based on the SLAF-seq technique was constructed with a backcross (BC1) population (which is the highest density genetic map of spinach reported at present). At the same time, the sex-determining gene X/Y was mapped to LG4 with super-BSA. This map will offer a suitable basis for further study of spinach, such as gene mapping, map-based cloning of Specific genes, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS). It will also provide an efficient reference for studies on the mechanism of sex determination in other dioecious plants.