An Interstitial 17q11.2 de novo Deletion Involving the CDK5R1 Gene in a High-Functioning Autistic Patient.
ABSTRACT: We describe a 32-year-old male patient diagnosed with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder carrying a de novo 196-kb interstitial deletion at chromosome 17q11.2. The deletion was detected by array CGH (180K Agilent) and confirmed by quantitative PCR on genomic DNA. The deleted region spans the entire PSMD11 and CDK5R1 genes and partially the MYO1D gene. The CDK5R1 gene encodes for a regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 responsible for its brain-specific activation. This gene has been previously associated with intellectual disability in humans. A reduction in CDK5R1 transcript was detected, consistent with the genomic deletion. Based on the functional role of CDK5R1, this gene appears as the best candidate to explain the clinical phenotype of our patient, whose neuropsychological profile has more resemblance with some of the higher brain function anomalies recently described in the CreER-p35 conditional knockout mouse model than previously described patients with intellectual disability.
Project description:Interstitial deletion of 6q21-22 has been previously reported in 11 individuals, who presented with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, cardiac abnormality, cerebellar hypoplasia and dysplasia of the corpus callosum. Here, we report the first instance of a patient with 6q21-22 deletion presenting with interrupted aortic arch in addition to the previously described clinical signs. Array analysis using Agilent Human genome CGH 180K identified a 13.3-Mb deletion at 6q21-q22.31 (nt. 109885195-123209593).
Project description:Mutations in early B cell factor 3 (EBF3) were recently described in patients with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) that includes developmental delay/intellectual disability, ataxia, hypotonia, speech impairment, strabismus, genitourinary abnormalities, and mild facial dysmorphisms. Several large 10q terminal and interstitial deletions affecting many genes and including EBF3 have been described in the literature. However, small deletions (<1 MB) affecting almost exclusively EBF3 are not commonly reported. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) (Agilent 180K) and quantitative PCR analysis in a female patient with intellectual disability. A clinical comparison between our patient and overlapping cases reported in the literature was also made. The patient carries a de novo 600 Kb deletion at 10q26.3 affecting the MGMT, EBF3, and GLRX genes. The patient has severe intellectual disability, language impairment, conductive hearing loss, hypotonia, vision alterations, triangular face, short stature, and behavior problems. This presentation overlaps that reported for patients carrying EBF3 heterozygous point mutations, as well as literature reports of patients carrying large 10qter deletions. Our results and the literature review suggest that EBF3 haploinsufficiency is a key contributor to the common aspects of the phenotype presented by patients bearing point mutations and indels in this gene, given that deletions affecting the entire gene (alone or in addition to other genes) are causative of a similar syndrome, including intellectual disability (ID) with associated neurological symptoms and particular facial dysmorphisms.
Project description:Homologous recombination between poorly characterized regions flanking the NF1 locus causes the constitutional loss of approximately 1.5 Mb from 17q11.2 covering > or =11 genes in 5%-20% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). To elucidate the extent of microheterogeneity at the deletion boundaries, we used single-copy DNA fragments from the extreme ends of the deleted segment to perform FISH on metaphase chromosomes from eight patients with NF1 who had large deletions. In six patients, these probes were deleted, suggesting that breakage and fusions occurred within the adjacent highly homologous sequences. Reexamination of the deleted region revealed two novel functional genes FLJ12735 (AK022797) and KIAA0653-related (WI-12393 and AJ314647), the latter of which is located closest to the distal boundary and is partially duplicated. We defined the complete reading frames for these genes and two expressed-sequence tag (EST) clusters that were reported elsewhere and are associated with the markers SHGC-2390 and WI-9521. Hybrid cell lines carrying only the deleted chromosome 17 were generated from two patients and used to identify the fusion sequences by junction-specific PCRs. The proximal breakpoints were found between positions 125279 and 125479 in one patient and within 4 kb of position 143000 on BAC R-271K11 (AC005562) in three patients, and the distal breakpoints were found at the precise homologous position on R-640N20 (AC023278). The interstitial 17q11.2 microdeletion arises from unequal crossover between two highly homologous WI-12393-derived 60-kb duplicons separated by approximately 1.5 Mb. Since patients with the NF1 large-deletion syndrome have a significantly increased risk of neurofibroma development and mental retardation, hemizygosity for genes from the deleted region around the neurofibromin locus (CYTOR4, FLJ12735, FLJ22729, HSA272195 (centaurin-alpha2), NF1, OMGP, EVI2A, EVI2B, WI-9521, HSA272196, HCA66, KIAA0160, and WI-12393) may contribute to the severe phenotype of these patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A sense-antisense gene pair (SAGP) is a gene pair where two oppositely transcribed genes share a common nucleotide sequence region. In eukaryotic genomes, SAGPs can be organized in complex sense-antisense architectures (CSAGAs) in which at least one sense gene shares loci with two or more antisense partners. As shown in several case studies, SAGPs may be involved in cancers, neurological diseases and complex syndromes. However, CSAGAs have not yet been characterized in the context of human disease or cancer. RESULTS: We characterize five genes (TMEM97, IFT20, TNFAIP1, POLDIP2 and TMEM199) organized in a CSAGA on 17q11.2 (we term this the TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA) and demonstrate their strong and reproducible co-regulatory transcription pattern in breast cancer tumours. Genes of the TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA are located inside the smallest region of recurrent amplification on 17q11.2 and their expression profile correlates with the DNA copy number of the region. Survival analysis of a group of 410 breast cancer patients revealed significant survival-associated individual genes and gene pairs in the TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA. Moreover, several of the gene pairs associated with survival, demonstrated synergistic effects. Expression of genes-members of the TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA also strongly correlated with expression of genes of ERBB2 core region of recurrent amplification on 17q12. We clearly demonstrate that the observed co-regulatory transcription profile of the TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA is maintained not only by a DNA amplification mechanism, but also by chromatin remodelling and local transcription activation. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA and characterized its co-regulatory transcription profile in cancerous breast tissues. We suggest that the TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA represents a clinically significant transcriptional structural-functional gene module associated with amplification of the genomic region on 17q11.2 and correlated with expression ERBB2 amplicon core genes in breast cancer. Co-expression pattern of this module correlates with histological grades and a poor prognosis in breast cancer when over-expressed. TNFAIP1/POLDIP2 CSAGA maps the risks of breast cancer relapse onto the complex genomic locus on 17q11.2.
Project description:Background. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a tumor suppressor gene (NF1) which codifies the protein neurofibromin. The frequent genetic alterations that modify neurofibromin function are deletions and insertions. Duplications are rare and phenotype in patients bearing duplication of NF1 gene is thought to be restricted to developmental abnormalities, with no reference to cancer susceptibility in these patients. We evaluated a patient who presented with few clinical signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 and a conspicuous personal and familiar history of different types of cancer, especially lymphoproliferative malignancies. The coding region of the NF-1 gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect the number of mutant copies. The NF1 gene analysis showed the following alterations: mosaic duplication of NF1, TRAF4, and MYO1D. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes (RP5-1002G3 and RP5-92689) flanking NF1 gene in 17q11.2 and CEP17 for 17q11.11.1 was performed. There were three signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in the interphases analyzed and two signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in 93% of cells. These findings show a tandem duplication of 17q11.2. Conclusion. The case suggests the possibility that NF1 gene duplication may be associated with a phenotype characterized by lymphoproliferative disorders.
Project description:Obesity is a highly heritable but genetically heterogeneous disorder. Various well-known microdeletion syndromes (e.g. 1p36, 2q37, 6q16, 9q34, 17p11.2) can cause this phenotype along with intellectual disability (ID) and other findings. Chromosomal microarrays have identified 'new' microdeletion/duplication syndromes often associated with obesity. We report on 2 unrelated patients with an overlapping region of deletion at 1p21.3p21.2, and a third patient with a de novo recurrent unbalanced translocation der(8)t(8;12)(p23.1;p13.31), detected by 180K array CGH in a prospective cohort of syndromic obesity patients. Deletion of 1p21.3 is a rare condition, and there have been only 11 cases of the same recurrent translocation between chromosomes 8 and 12 [t(8;12)] reported to date. The former has been associated with ID, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and mild dysmorphic features, and in 4 patients who were obese or had a tendency to obesity, a minimal overlapping region of 2 genes, DPYD and MIR137, was detected; t(8;12) has recently been recognized to cause a childhood obesity syndrome due to duplication of the GNB3 gene. Thus, our findings add to the existing literature on the clinical description of these new syndromes, providing additional support that these loci are associated with syndromic obesity. We suggest that heterozygous loss of MIR137 may contribute to obesity as well as ID and ASD.
Project description:Interstitial deletion of 12q21 has been reported in four cases, which share several common clinical features, including intellectual disability (ID), low-set ears, and minor cardiac abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180K array was performed with the genomic DNA from a two-year-old Japanese boy with these symptoms, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Consequently, a 14 Mb deletion at 12q21.2-q21.33 (nt. 77 203 574-91 264 613 bp), which includes 72 genes, was detected. Of these, we focused on LIN7A, which encodes a scaffold protein that is important for synaptic function, as a possible responsible gene for ID, and we analyzed its role in cerebral cortex development. Western blotting analyses revealed that Lin-7A is expressed on embryonic day (E) 13.5, and gradually increases in the mouse brain during the embryonic stage. Biochemical fractionation resulted in the enrichment of Lin-7A in the presynaptic fraction. Suppression of Lin-7A expression by RNAi, using in utero electroporation on E14.5, delayed neuronal migration on postnatal day (P) 2, and Lin-7A-deficient neurons remained in the lower zone of the cortical plate and the intermediate zone. In addition, when Lin-7A was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed; development of these neurons was disrupted such that one half did not extend into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Taken together, LIN7A is a candidate gene responsible for 12q21-deletion syndrome, and abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to ID and corpus callosum hypoplasia, respectively.
Project description:Mandibulofacial dysostosis is part of a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of craniofacial development, which lead to malar and mandibular hypoplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome is the major cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis and is due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Usually patients with Treacher Collins syndrome do not present with intellectual disability. Recently, the EFTUD2 gene was identified in patients with mandibulofacial dysostosis associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability and esophageal atresia. We report on two patients presenting with mandibulofacial dysostosis characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome, but associated with unexpected intellectual disability, due to a large deletion encompassing several genes including the TCOF1 gene. We discuss the involvement of the other deleted genes such as CAMK2A or SLC6A7 in the cognitive development delay of the patients reported, and we propose the systematic investigation for 5q32 deletion when intellectual disability is associated with Treacher Collins syndrome.
Project description:Most microdeletions involving chromosome sub-bands 9q33.3-9q34.11 to this point have been detected by analyses focused on STXBP1, a gene known to cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 4 and other seizure phenotypes. Loss-of-function mutations of STXBP1 have also been identified in some patients with intellectual disability without epilepsy. Consequently, STXBP1 is widely assumed to be the gene causing both seizures and intellectual disability in patients with 9q33.3-q34.11 microdeletions.We report five patients with overlapping microdeletions of chromosome 9q33.3-q34.11, four of them previously unreported. Their common clinical features include intellectual disability, psychomotor developmental delay with delayed or absent speech, muscular hypotonia, and strabismus. Microcephaly and short stature are each present in four of the patients. Two of the patients had seizures. De novo deletions range from 1.23 to 4.13 Mb, whereas the smallest deletion of 432 kb in patient 3 was inherited from her mother who is reported to have mild intellectual disability. The smallest region of overlap (SRO) of these deletions in 9q33.3 does not encompass STXBP1, but includes two genes that have not been previously associated with disease, RALGPS1 and GARNL3. Sequencing of the two SRO genes RALGPS1 and GARNL3 in at least 156 unrelated patients with mild to severe idiopathic intellectual disability detected no causative mutations. Gene expression analyses in our patients demonstrated significantly reduced expression levels of GARNL3, RALGPS1 and STXBP1 only in patients with deletions of the corresponding genes. Thus, reduced expression of STXBP1 was ruled out as a cause for seizures in our patient whose deletion did not encompass STXBP1.We suggest that microdeletions of this region on chromosome 9q cause a clinical spectrum including intellectual disability, developmental delay especially concerning speech, microcephaly, short stature, mild dysmorphisms, strabismus, and seizures of incomplete penetrance, and may constitute a new contiguous gene deletion syndrome which cannot completely be explained by deletion of STXBP1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Houge type of X-linked syndromic mental retardation is an X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) recently recorded in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and only 8 cases have been reported in literature thus far. CASE PRESENTATION:We present two brothers with intractable seizures and syndromic intellectual disability with symptoms consisting of delayed development, intellectual disability, and speech and language delay. The mother was a symptomatic carrier with milder clinical phenotype. Whole exome sequencing identified a small fragment deletion spanning four exons, about 9.5 kilobases (kb) in length in the CNKSR2 gene in the patients. The mutation co-segregation revealed that exon deletions occurred de novo in the proband's mother. CONCLUSION:Although large deletions have been reported, no small deletions have yet been identified. In this case report, we identified a small deletion in the CNKSR2 gene. This study enhances our knowledge of the CNKSR2 gene mutation spectrum and provides further information about the phenotypic characteristics of X-linked syndromic intellectual disability.