Alternative splicing and translation play important roles in hypoxic germination in rice.
ABSTRACT: Post-transcriptional mechanisms (PTMs), including alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI), may explain the diversity of proteins involved in plant development and stress responses. Transcriptional regulation is important during the hypoxic germination of rice seeds, but the potential roles of PTMs in this process have not been characterized. We used a combination of proteomics and RNA sequencing to discover how AS and ATI contribute to plant responses to hypoxia. In total, 10 253 intron-containing genes were identified. Of these, ~1741 differentially expressed AS (DAS) events from 811 genes were identified in hypoxia-treated seeds compared with controls. Over 95% of these were not present in the list of differentially expressed genes. In particular, regulatory pathways such as the spliceosome, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum protein processing and export, proteasome, phagosome, oxidative phosphorylation, and mRNA surveillance showed substantial AS changes under hypoxia, suggesting that AS responses are largely independent of transcriptional regulation. Considerable AS changes were identified, including the preferential usage of some non-conventional splice sites and enrichment of splicing factors in the DAS data sets. Taken together, these results not only demonstrate that AS and ATI function during hypoxic germination but they have also allowed the identification of numerous novel proteins/peptides produced via ATI.
Project description:Post-transcriptional mechanisms, including alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI), have been used to explain the protein diversity involved in plant developmental processes and stress responses. Rice germination under hypoxia conditions is a classical model system for the study of low oxygen stress. It is known that there is transcriptional regulation during rice hypoxic germination, but the potential roles of AS and ATI in this process are not well understood. In this study, a proteogenomic approach was used to integrate the data from RNA sequencing, qualitative and quantitative proteomics to discover new players or pathways in the response to hypoxia stress. The improved analytical pipeline of proteogenomics led to the identification of 10,253 intron-containing genes, 1,729 of which were not present in the current annotation. Approximately 1,741 differentially expressed AS (DAS) events from 811 genes were identified in hypoxia-treated seeds in comparison to controls. Over 95% of these were not present in the list of differentially expressed genes (DEG). In particular, regulatory pathways such as spliceosome, ribosome, ER protein processing and export, proteasome, phagosome, oxidative phosphorylation and mRNA surveillance showed substantial AS changes under hypoxia, suggesting that AS responses are largely independent of traditional transcriptional regulation. Massive AS changes were identified, including the preference usage of certain non-conventional splice sites and enrichment of splicing factors in the DAS datasets. In addition, using self-constructed protein libraries by 6-frame translation, thousands of novel proteins/peptides contributed by ATI were identified. In summary, these results provide deeper insights towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of AS and ATI during rice hypoxic germination.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the involvement of antifreeze proteins (AFPs; type I and III) in the germination mechanism of tomato seeds under low temperature stress. Germination of the seeds grown at a room temperature (25°C) was observed on 5 days after sowing (DAS), while all seeds exposed to a low temperature started to germinate at 16 days after sowing (DAS). However, in comparison with control seeds (0 µg/l), seeds treated with AFP I (100, 300, or 500 µg/l) germinated earlier and at a higher percentage until 20 DAS, and seeds treated with 100 µg/l AFP I showed the highest percentage of germination. Surprisingly, AFP III did not significantly increase germination, and the rate was lower among 500 µg/l AFP III-treated seeds compared with control seeds (0 µg/l). The transcription levels of the plasma membrane-associated H+-ATPase gene and antioxidant-related superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase 1 (CAT1) genes were analyzed, and the transcription levels of the genes in the seeds grown at 25°C were relatively low. For low temperature-treated seeds, H+-ATPase in control seeds (0 µg/l) was higher compared with that in AFP I-treated seeds and was lower compared with that in AFP III-treated seeds. The expression levels of the antioxidant-related genes (SOD and CAT1) were lower in AFP I-treated seeds than in control seeds (0 µg/l); however, they were higher in AFP III-treated seeds than in control seeds (0 µg/l). Overall, compared with AFP III, AFP I may potentially function as a cold-protective agent by modulating the genes associated with seed germination.
Project description:Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNAs in plants is an important mechanism of gene regulation in environmental stress tolerance but plant signals involved are essentially unknown. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases and the majority of PTI defense genes are regulated by MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. These responses have been mainly analyzed at the transcriptional level, however many splicing factors are direct targets of MAPKs. Here, we studied alternative splicing induced by the PAMP flagellin in Arabidopsis. We identified 506 PAMP-induced differentially alternatively spliced (DAS) genes. Importantly, of the 506 PAMP-induced DAS genes, only 89 overlap with the set of 1950 PAMP-induced differentially expressed genes (DEG), indicating that transcriptome analysis does not identify most DAS events. Global DAS analysis of mpk3, mpk4, and mpk6 mutants in the absence of PAMP treatment showed no major splicing changes. However, in contrast to MPK3 and MPK6, MPK4 was found to be a key regulator of PAMP-induced DAS events as the AS of a number of splicing factors and immunity-related protein kinases is affected, such as the calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28, the cysteine-rich receptor like kinases CRK13 and CRK29 or the FLS2 co-receptor SERK4/BKK1. Although MPK4 is guarded by SUMM2 and consequently, the mpk4 dwarf and DEG phenotypes are suppressed in mpk4 summ2 mutants, MPK4-dependent DAS is not suppressed by SUMM2, supporting the notion that PAMP-triggered MPK4 activation mediates regulation of alternative splicing.
Project description:Hypoxia is a common characteristic of many solid tumors. The hypoxic microenvironment stabilizes hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1? (HIF1?) and 2? (HIF2?/EPAS1) to activate gene transcription, which promotes tumor cell survival. The majority of human genes are alternatively spliced, producing RNA isoforms that code for functionally distinct proteins. Thus, an effective hypoxia response requires increased HIF target gene expression as well as proper RNA splicing of these HIF-dependent transcripts. However, it is unclear if and how hypoxia regulates RNA splicing of HIF targets. This study determined the effects of hypoxia on alternative splicing (AS) of HIF and non-HIF target genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and characterized the role of HIF in regulating AS of HIF-induced genes. The results indicate that hypoxia generally promotes exon inclusion for hypoxia-induced, but reduces exon inclusion for hypoxia-reduced genes. Mechanistically, HIF activity, but not hypoxia per se is found to be necessary and sufficient to increase exon inclusion of several HIF targets, including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). PDK1 splicing reporters confirm that transcriptional activation by HIF is sufficient to increase exon inclusion of PDK1 splicing reporter. In contrast, transcriptional activation of a PDK1 minigene by other transcription factors in the absence of endogenous HIF target gene activation fails to alter PDK1 RNA splicing.This study demonstrates a novel function of HIF in regulating RNA splicing of HIF target genes.
Project description:Alternative splicing of RNA is an underexplored area of transcriptional response. We expect that early changes in alternatively spliced genes may be important for responses to cardiac injury. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a key transcription factor that rapidly responds to loss of oxygen through alteration of metabolism and angiogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response after myocardial infarction (MI) and to identify novel, hypoxia-driven changes, including alternative splicing. After ligation of the left anterior descending artery in mice, we observed an abrupt loss of cardiac contractility and upregulation of hypoxic signaling. We then performed RNA sequencing on ischemic heart tissue 1 and 3 days after infarct to assess early transcriptional changes and identified 89 transcripts with altered splicing. Of particular interest was the switch in Pkm isoform expression (pyruvate kinase, muscle). The usually predominant Pkm1 isoform was less abundant in ischemic hearts, while Pkm2 and associated splicing factors (hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2B1, Ptbp1) rapidly increased. Despite increased Pkm2 expression, total pyruvate kinase activity remained reduced in ischemic myocardial tissue. We also demonstrated HIF1 binding to PKM by chromatin immunoprecipitation, indicating a direct role for HIF1 in mediating this isoform switch. Our study provides a new, detailed characterization of the early transcriptome after MI. From this analysis, we identified an HIF1-mediated alternative splicing event in the PKM gene. Pkm1 and Pkm2 play distinct roles in glycolytic metabolism and the upregulation of Pkm2 is likely to have important consequences for ATP synthesis in infarcted cardiac muscle.
Project description:The liver is the primary source of a large number of plasma proteins and plays a critical role in multiple biological processes. Inadequate oxygen supply characterizing various clinical settings such as liver transplantation exposes the liver to hypoxic conditions. Studies assessing hypoxia-induced global translational changes in liver are lacking. Here, we employed a recently developed ribosome-profiling technique to assess global translational responses of human primary hepatocytes exposed to acute hypoxic stress (1% O2) for the short term. In parallel, transcriptome profiling was performed to assess mRNA expression changes. We found that translational responses appeared earlier and were predominant over transcriptional responses. A significant decrease in translational efficiency of several ribosome genes indicated translational inhibition of new ribosome protein synthesis in hypoxia. Pathway enrichment analysis highlighted altered translational regulation of MAPK signaling, drug metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathways. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed terms related to translation, metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and response to stress. Transcriptional induction of genes encoding heat shock proteins was observed within 30 min of hypoxia. Induction of genes encoding stress response mediators, metabolism regulators, and proangiogenic proteins was observed at 240 min. Despite the liver being the primary source of coagulation proteins and the implicated role of hypoxia in thrombosis, limited differences were observed in genes encoding coagulation-associated proteins. Overall, our study demonstrates the predominance of translational regulation over transcription and highlights differentially regulated pathways or biological processes in short-term hypoxic stress responses of human primary hepatocytes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The novelty of this study lies in applying parallel ribosome- and transcriptome-profiling analyses to human primary hepatocytes in hypoxia. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess global translational responses using ribosome profiling in hypoxic hepatocytes. Our results demonstrate the predominance of translational responses over transcriptional responses in early hepatic hypoxic stress responses. Furthermore, our study reveals multiple pathways and specific genes showing altered regulation in hypoxic hepatocytes.
Project description:In higher plants under low oxygen or hypoxic conditions, the phytohormone ethylene and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved in complex regulatory mechanisms in hypoxia signaling pathways. The respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RbohD), an NADPH oxidase, is involved in the primary stages of hypoxia signaling, modulating the expression of downstream hypoxia-inducible genes under hypoxic stress. In this study, our data revealed that under normoxic conditions, seed germination was delayed in the rbohD/ein2-5 double mutant, whereas postgermination stage root growth was promoted. Under submergence, the rbohD/ein2-5 double mutant line had an inhibited root growth phenotype. Furthermore, chlorophyll content and leaf survival were reduced in the rbohD/ein2-5 double mutant compared with wild-type plants under submerged conditions. In quantitative RT-PCR analysis, the induction of Ethylene-responsive factor 73/hypoxia responsive 1 (AtERF73/HRE1) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (AtADH1) transcripts was lower in the rbohD/ein2-5 double mutant during hypoxic stress than in wild-type plants and in rbohD and ein2-5 mutant lines. Taken together, our results indicate that an interplay of ethylene and RbohD is involved in regulating seed germination and post-germination stages under normoxic conditions. Moreover, ethylene and RbohD are involved in modulating seedling root growth, leaf chlorophyll content, and hypoxia-inducible gene expression under hypoxic conditions.
Project description:Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.
Project description:Low-oxygen tolerance is supported by an adaptive response that includes a coordinate shift in metabolism and the activation of a transcriptional program that is driven by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. The precise contribution of HIF-1a in the adaptive response, however, has not been determined. Here, we investigate how HIF influences hypoxic adaptation throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We find that hypoxic-induced transcriptional changes are comprised of HIF-dependent and HIF-independent pathways that are distinct and separable. We show that normoxic set-points of carbohydrate metabolites are significantly altered in sima mutants and that these animals are unable to mobilize glycogen in hypoxia. Furthermore, we find that the estrogen-related receptor (dERR), which is a global regulator of aerobic glycolysis in larvae, is required for a competent hypoxic response. dERR binds to dHIFa and participates in the HIF-dependent transcriptional program in hypoxia. In addition, dERR acts in the absence of dHIFa in hypoxia and a significant portion of HIF-independent transcriptional responses can be attributed to dERR actions, including upregulation of glycolytic transcripts. These results indicate that competent hypoxic responses arise from complex interactions between HIF-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and that dERR plays a central role in both of these programs.
Project description:Numerous studies have focused on the regulation of gene expression in response to salt stress at the transcriptional level; however, little is known about this process at the post-transcriptional level.Using a diploid D genome wild salinity-tolerant cotton species, Gossypium davidsonii, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) of genes related to salt stress by comparing high-throughput transcriptomes from salt-treated and well-watered roots and leaves. A total of 14,172 AS events were identified involving 6798 genes, of which intron retention (35.73%) was the most frequent, being detected in 3492 genes. Under salt stress, 1287 and 1228 differential alternative splicing (DAS) events were identified in roots and leaves, respectively. These DAS genes were associated with specific functional pathways, such as "responses to stress", "metabolic process" and "RNA splicing", implying that AS represents an important pathway of gene regulation in response to salt stress. Several salt response genes, such as pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), K+ channel outward (KCO1), plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) and WRKY33 which were involved in osmotic balance, ion homeostasis, water transportation and transcriptional regulation, respectively, were identified with differential alternative splicing under salt stress. Moreover, we revealed that 13 genes encoding Ser/Arg-rich (SR) proteins related to AS regulation were differentially alternatively spliced under salt stress.This study first provide a comprehensive view of AS in G. davidsonii, and highlight novel insights into the potential roles of AS in plant responses to salt stress.