Butyrate stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in mouse primary hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT: Butyrate is a major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyrate is also a well-known broad-spectrum histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Butyrate has been reported to improve energy metabolism in rodents, which is associated with its beneficial effects on skeletal muscle, brown fat tissue and pancreatic ?-cells. The present study investigated the direct effect of butyrate on hepatic gluconeogenesis in mouse primary hepatocytes and the underlying mechanism. Isolated mouse primary hepatocytes were incubated with sodium butyrate, other HDAC inhibitors and other SCFAs. Hepatic glucose production was measured and gluconeogenic gene expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) was assessed by western blot analysis. The results revealed that sodium butyrate dose-dependently increased hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression in isolated mouse primary hepatocytes. Trichostatin A, a potent broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor, had the opposite effect. Similar to sodium butyrate, propionate, which is another SCFA, promoted hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression in the presence or absence of gluconeogenic substrates, which were further enhanced by cAMP. Furthermore, sodium butyrate also increased the accumulation of intracellular ATP and induced the phosphorylation of CREB in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, the present study suggested that butyrate stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and induces gluconeogenic gene expression as a substrate and cAMP/CREB signaling activator.
Project description:Dysregulated glucagon drives hyperfunction in hepatic glucose output, which is the main cause of persistent hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Berberine (Zhang et al., 2010) has been used as a hypoglycemic agent, yet the mechanism by which BBR inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains incompletely understood. In this study, we treated diabetic mice with BBR, tested blood glucose levels, and then performed insulin, glucose lactate, and glucagon tolerance tests. Intracellular cAMP levels in hepatocytes were determined by ELISA, hepatic gluconeogenetic genes were assayed by RT-qPCR, and the phosphorylation of CREB, which is the transcriptional factor controlling the expression of gluconeogenetic genes, was detected by western blot. BBR reduced blood glucose levels, improved insulin and glucose tolerance, and suppressed lactate- and glucagon-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis in ob/ob and STZ-induced diabetic mice. Importantly, BBR blunted glucagon-induced glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression in hepatocytes, presumably through reducing cAMP, which resulted in the phosphorylation of CREB. By utilizing a cAMP analogue, adenylate cyclase (AC), to activate cAMP synthetase, and an inhibitor of the cAMP degradative enzyme, phosphodiesterase (PDE), we revealed that BBR accelerates intracellular cAMP degradation. BBR reduces the intracellular cAMP level by activating PDE, thus blocking activation of downstream CREB and eventually downregulating gluconeogenic genes to restrain hepatic glucose production.
Project description:During periods in which glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is insufficient to meet body requirements, hepatic gluconeogenesis plays a key role to maintain normal blood glucose levels. The current studies investigated the role in this process played by vasodilatory-associated phosphoprotein (VASP), a protein that is phosphorylated in hepatocytes by cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA), a key mediator of the action of glucagon. We report that following stimulation of hepatocytes with 8Br-cAMP, phosphorylation of VASP preceded induction of genes encoding key gluconeogenic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6p) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1), and that VASP overexpression enhanced this gene induction. Conversely, hepatocytes from mice lacking VASP (Vasp-/-) displayed blunted induction of gluconeogenic enzymes in response to cAMP, and Vasp-/- mice exhibited both greater fasting hypoglycemia and blunted hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression in response to fasting in vivo. These effects of VASP deficiency were associated with reduced phosphorylation of both CREB (a key transcription factor for gluconeogenesis that lies downstream of PKA) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a combination of effects that inhibit transcription of gluconeogenic genes. These data support a model in which VASP functions as a molecular bridge linking the two key signal transduction pathways governing hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression.
Project description:Increases in circulating glucagon during fasting maintain glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute ethanol intoxication promotes fasting hypoglycemia through an increase in hepatic NADH, which inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Here we show that acute ethanol exposure also lowers fasting blood glucose concentrations by inhibiting the CREB-mediated activation of the gluconeogenic program in response to glucagon. Ethanol exposure blocked the recruitment of CREB and its coactivator CRTC2 to gluconeogenic promoters by up-regulating ATF3, a transcriptional repressor that also binds to cAMP-responsive elements and thereby down-regulates gluconeogenic genes. Targeted disruption of ATF3 decreased the effects of ethanol in fasted mice and in cultured hepatocytes. These results illustrate how the induction of transcription factors with overlapping specificity can lead to cross-coupling between stress and hormone-sensitive pathways.
Project description:Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain blood glucose levels, and its abnormal activation leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis remain to be fully defined. In this study, using murine hepatocytes and a liver-specific knockout mouse model, we explored the physiological role of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. We found that NF-Y targets the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver. Hepatic NF-Y expression was effectively induced by cAMP, glucagon, and fasting <i>in vivo</i> Lentivirus-mediated NF-Y overexpression in Hepa1-6 hepatocytes markedly raised the gluconeogenic gene expression and cellular glucose production compared with empty vector control cells. Conversely, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockdown of NF-Y subunit A (NF-YA) attenuated gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production. We also provide evidence indicating that CRE-loxP-mediated, liver-specific NF-YA knockout compromises hepatic glucose production. Mechanistically, luciferase reporter gene assays and ChIP analysis indicated that NF-Y activates transcription of the gluconeogenic genes <i>Pck1</i> and <i>G6pc</i>, by encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6Pase), respectively, via directly binding to the CCAAT regulatory sequence motif in their promoters. Of note, NF-Y enhanced gluconeogenesis by interacting with cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). Overall, our results reveal a previously unrecognized physiological function of NF-Y in controlling glucose metabolism by up-regulating the gluconeogenic genes <i>Pck1</i> and <i>G6pc</i> Modulation of hepatic NF-Y expression may therefore offer an attractive therapeutic approach to manage type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) plays a key role in transcriptional repression of gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression. Here, we show that SHP inhibited protein kinase A-mediated transcriptional activity of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), a major regulator of glucose metabolism, to modulate hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression. Deletion analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter demonstrated that SHP inhibited forskolin-mediated induction of PEPCK gene transcription via inhibition of CREB transcriptional activity. In vivo imaging demonstrated that SHP inhibited CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2)-mediated cAMP-response element-driven promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of SHP using adenovirus SHP decreased CRTC2-dependent elevations in blood glucose levels and PEPCK or glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) expression in mice. SHP and CREB physically interacted and were co-localized in vivo. Importantly, SHP inhibited both wild type CRTC2 and S171A (constitutively active form of CRTC2) coactivator activity and disrupted CRTC2 recruitment on the PEPCK gene promoter. In addition, metformin or overexpression of a constitutively active form of AMPK (Ad-CA-AMPK) inhibited S171A-mediated PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression, and hepatic glucose production and knockdown of SHP partially relieved the metformin- and Ad-CA-AMPK-mediated repression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression in primary rat hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that a delayed effect of metformin-mediated induction of SHP gene expression inhibits CREB-dependent hepatic gluconeogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate into mitochondria. This study investigated the involvement of MPC1 in hepatic glucagon response, in order to identify a possible pharmacological intervention. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The correlation between hepatic glucagon response and MPC1 induction was investigated in fasted mice and primary hepatocytes. The effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on MPC1 function were observed. KEY RESULTS:Glucagon challenge raised blood glucose with hepatic MPC1 induction, and inhibition of MPC induction coincided with a reduced rise in blood glucose. cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) knockdown blocked glucagon-induced MPC1 expression, while CREB overexpression increased MPC1 expression. Luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and promoter mutation confirmed that CREB increased MPC1 transcription through gene promoter induction. CREB regulated transcription co-activator 2 nuclear translocation was also required for CREB to promote MPC1 induction. Glucagon shifted mitochondrial pyruvate towards carboxylation for gluconeogenesis via the opposite regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and carboxylase with respect to MPC1 induction. MPC1 induction was necessary for glucagon to promote pyruvate-driven hepatic glucose production (HGP), but glucagon failed to influence HGP from other gluconeogenic substrates routed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, independent of MPC. Rb1 blocked cAMP signalling by inhibiting AC activity and deactivated CREB by dephosphorylation, possibly contributing to inhibiting MPC1 induction to reduce HGP. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:CREB transcriptionally up-regulates MPC1 to provide pyruvate for gluconeogenesis. Rb1 reduced cAMP formation which consequently reduced CREB-mediated MPC1 induction and thereby might contribute to limiting pyruvate-dependent HGP. These results suggest a therapeutic strategy to reduce hyperglycaemia in diabetes.
Project description:Increased hepatic gluconeogenesis is one of the main contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been reported that growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 beta (GADD45?) is induced under both fasting and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions that stimulate hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, this study aimed to establish the molecular mechanisms underlying the novel role of GADD45? in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Both whole-body knockout (KO) mice and adenovirus-mediated knockdown (KD) mice of GADD45? exhibited decreased hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression concomitant with reduced blood glucose levels under fasting and HFD conditions, but showed a more pronounced effect in GADD45? KD mice. Further, in primary hepatocytes, GADD45? KD reduced glucose output, whereas GADD45? overexpression increased it. Mechanistically, GADD45? did not affect Akt-mediated forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) phosphorylation and forskolin-induced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rather it increased FoxO1 transcriptional activity via enhanced protein stability of FoxO1. Further, GADD45? colocalized and physically interacted with FoxO1. Additionally, GADD45? deficiency potentiated insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes, and it were impeded by the restoration of GADD45? expression. Our finding demonstrates GADD45? as a novel and essential regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. It will provide a deeper understanding of the FoxO1-mediated gluconeogenesis.
Project description:Under fasting conditions, increases in circulating glucagon maintain glucose balance by promoting hepatic gluconeogenesis. Triggering of the cAMP pathway stimulates gluconeogenic gene expression through the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein and via the dephosphorylation of the latent cytoplasmic CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC2). CREB and CRTC2 activities are increased in insulin resistance, in which they promote hyperglycemia because of constitutive induction of the gluconeogenic program. The extent to which CREB and CRTC2 are coordinately up-regulated in response to glucagon, however, remains unclear. Here we show that, following its activation, CRTC2 enhances CREB phosphorylation through an association with the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). In turn, PRMT5 was found to stimulate CREB phosphorylation via increases in histone H3 Arg2 methylation that enhanced chromatin accessibility at gluconeogenic promoters. Because depletion of PRMT5 lowers hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression, these results demonstrate how a chromatin-modifying enzyme regulates a metabolic program through epigenetic changes that impact the phosphorylation of a transcription factor in response to hormonal stimuli.
Project description:During fasting, increases in circulating pancreatic glucagon maintain glucose balance by up-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Triggering of the cAMP pathway stimulates the gluconeogenic program through the phosphorylation of CREB and via the de-phosphorylation of the CREB coactivator CRTC2. Hormonal and nutrient signals are also thought to modulate gluconeogenic genes by promoting epigenetic changes that facilitate assembly of the transcriptional machinery, although the nature of these modifications is unclear. Here we show that histone H3 acetylation at Lys 9 (H3K9Ac) is elevated over gluconeogenic genes during fasting and in diabetes, where it contributes to increases in hepatic glucose production. Following its dephosphorylation, CRTC2 promoted increases in H3K9Ac by mediating the recruitment of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B) and WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a core subunit of histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. In turn, KAT2B and WDR5 stimulated the gluconeogenic program through a self-reinforcing cycle whereby increases in H3K9Ac further potentiated CRTC2 occupancy at CREB binding sites. Breaking this cycle, by depletion of KAT2B or WDR5, decreased gluconeogenic gene expression. As administration of a small molecule KAT2B antagonist lowered circulating blood glucose concentrations in insulin resistance, our results demonstrate how this enzyme may be a useful target for diabetes treatment. A subset of cAMP responsive genes depend on specific recruitment of KAT2B (pcaf), which in concert with WDR5 acetylates H3K9. By selectively depleting hepatocytes for KAT2B or WDR5 prior to glucagon stimulation we explore, which genes rely on KAT2B and WDR5 activity. mKAT2B or mWDR5 were knocked down in primary mouse hepatocytes using adenoviral transduction with appropriate shRNAs. Control cells were transduced with a non-specific (NS) shRNA. 72 hours post transduction some cells were stimulated for 90 minutes with 100nM glucagon and others with PBS. Total RNA was purified and subjected to micro-RNA analysis. All samples are pools of RNA from three sepearate dishes. One replicate is included for most samples.
Project description:Circulating pancreatic glucagon is increased during fasting and maintains glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucagon triggering of the cAMP pathway upregulates the gluconeogenic program through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the dephosphorylation of the CREB coactivator CRTC2. Hormonal and nutrient signals are also thought to modulate gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting epigenetic changes that facilitate assembly of the transcriptional machinery. However, the nature of these modifications is unclear. Using mouse models and in vitro assays, we show that histone H3 acetylation at Lys 9 (H3K9Ac) was elevated over gluconeogenic genes and contributed to increased hepatic glucose production during fasting and in diabetes. Dephosphorylation of CRTC2 promoted increased H3K9Ac through recruitment of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B) and WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a core subunit of histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. KAT2B and WDR5 stimulated the gluconeogenic program through a self-reinforcing cycle, whereby increases in H3K9Ac further potentiated CRTC2 occupancy at CREB binding sites. Depletion of KAT2B or WDR5 decreased gluconeogenic gene expression, consequently breaking the cycle. Administration of a small-molecule KAT2B antagonist lowered circulating blood glucose concentrations in insulin resistance, suggesting that this enzyme may be a useful target for diabetes treatment.