Controlled clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of a mindfulness and self-compassion 4-session programme versus an 8-session programme to reduce work stress and burnout in family and community medicine physicians and nurses: MINDUUDD study protocol.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Health personnel are susceptible to high levels of work stress and burnout due to the psychological and emotional demands of their work, as well as to other aspects related to the organisation of that work. This paper describes the rationale and design of the MINDUUDD study, the aim of which is to evaluate the effectiveness of a mindfulness and self-compassion 4-session programme versus the standard 8-session programme to reduce work stress and burnout in Family and Community Medicine and Nursing tutors and residents. METHODS:The MINDUDD study is a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial with three parallel arms. Six Teaching Units will be randomised to one of the three study groups: 1) Experimental Group-8 (EG8); 2) Experimental Group-4 (EG4) Control group (CG). At least 132 subjects will participate (66 tutors/66 residents), 44 in the EG8, 44 in the EG4, and 44 in the CG. Interventions will be based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, including some self-compassion practices of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) programme. The EG8 intervention will be implemented during 8 weekly face-to-face sessions of 2.5?h each, while the EG4 intervention will consist of 4 sessions of 2.5?h each. The participants will have to practice at home for 30?min/day in the EG8 and 15?min/day in the EG4. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and Goldberg Anxiety-Depression Scale (GADS) will be administered. Measurements will be taken at baseline, at the end of the programs, and at three months after completion. The effect of the interventions will be evaluated by bivariate and multivariate analyses (Multiple Linear Regression). DISCUSSION:If the abbreviated mindfulness programme is at least as effective as the standard program, its incorporation into the curriculum and training plans will be easier and more appropriate. It will also be more easily applied and accepted by primary care professionals because of the reduced resources and means required for its implementation, and it may also extend beyond care settings to academic and teaching environments as well. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03629457 ; date of registration: 13.08.2018).
Project description:Health care professionals (HCPs) are a population at risk for high levels of burnout and compassion fatigue. The aim of the present systematic review was to give an overview on recent literature about mindfulness and compassion characteristics of HCPs, while exploring the effectiveness of techniques, involving the two aspects, such as MBSR or mindfulness intervention and compassion fatigue-related programs. A search of databases, including PubMed and PsycINFO, was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the methodological quality for this systematic review was appraised using AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews-2). The number of articles that met the inclusion criteria was 58 (4 RCTs, 24 studies with pre-post measurements, 12 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 7 qualitative studies). MBSR intervention was effective at improving, and maintaining, mindfulness and self-compassion levels and to improve burnout, depression, anxiety, stress. The most frequently employed interventional strategies were mindfulness-related trainings that were effective at improving mindfulness and self-compassion, but not compassion fatigue, levels. Compassion-related interventions have been shown to improve self-compassion, mindfulness and interpersonal conflict levels. Mindfulness was effective at improving negative affect and compassion fatigue, while compassion satisfaction may be related to cultivation of positive affect. This systematic review summarized the evidence regarding mindfulness- and compassion-related qualities of HCPs as well as potential effects of MBSR, mindfulness-related and compassion-related interventions on professionals' psychological variables like mindfulness, self-compassion and quality of life. Combining structured mindfulness and compassion cultivation trainings may enhance the effects of interventions, limit the variability of intervention protocols and improve data comparability of future research.
Project description:Burnout is highly prevalent in residents. No randomized controlled trials have been conducted measuring the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on burnout in residents.To determine the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing burnout in residents.A randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR with a waitlist control group.Residents from all medical, surgical and primary care disciplines were eligible to participate. Participants were self-referred.The MBSR consisted of eight weekly 2.5-h sessions and one 6-h silent day.The primary outcome was the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Secondary outcomes included the depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment subscales of burnout, worry, work-home interference, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, positive mental health, empathy and medical errors. Assessment took place at baseline and post-intervention approximately 3 months later.Of the 148 residents participating, 138 (93%) completed the post-intervention assessment. No significant difference in emotional exhaustion was found between the two groups. However, the MBSR group reported significantly greater improvements than the control group in personal accomplishment (p?=?0.028, d?=?0.24), worry (p?=?0.036, d?=?0.23), mindfulness skills (p?=?0.010, d?=?0.33), self-compassion (p?=?0.010, d?=?0.35) and perspective-taking (empathy) (p?=?0.025, d?=?0.33). No effects were found for the other measures. Exploratory moderation analysis showed that the intervention outcome was moderated by baseline severity of emotional exhaustion; those with greater emotional exhaustion did seem to benefit.The results of our primary outcome analysis did not support the effectiveness of MBSR for reducing emotional exhaustion in residents. However, residents with high baseline levels of emotional exhaustion did appear to benefit from MBSR. Furthermore, they demonstrated modest improvements in personal accomplishment, worry, mindfulness skills, self-compassion and perspective-taking. More research is needed to confirm these results.
Project description:Objectives:Health care professionals have elevated rates of burnout and compassion fatigue which are correlated with poorer quality of life and patient care, and inversely correlated with self-compassion. Primary studies have evaluated the extent to which mindfulness-based interventions increase self-compassion with contradictory findings. A meta-analytic review of the literature was conducted to quantitatively synthesize the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on self-compassion among health care professionals. Methods:Twenty-eight treatment outcome studies were identified eligible for inclusion. Five cumulative effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models to evaluate differences of changes in self-compassion for treatment and control groups. Within and between group comparisons were evaluated. Sub-group and moderator analyses were conducted to explore potential moderating variables. Results:Twenty-seven articles (k?=?29, N?=?1020) were utilized in the pre-post-treatment meta-analysis. Fifteen samples (52%) included health care professionals and fourteen (48%) professional health care students. Results showed a moderate effect size between pre-post-treatment comparisons (g?=?.61, 95% CI?=?.47 to .76) for self-compassion and a strong effect size for pre-treatment to follow-up (g?=?.76, 95% CI?=?.41 to 1.12). The effect size comparing post-treatment versus post-control was moderate. One exploratory moderator analysis was significant, with stronger effects for interventions with a retreat component. Conclusions:Findings suggest mindfulness-based interventions improve self-compassion in health care professionals. Additionally, a variety of mindfulness-based programs may be useful for employees and trainees. Future studies with rigorous methodology evaluating effects on self-compassion and patient care from mindfulness-based interventions are warranted to extend findings and explore moderators.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nurses vicariously exposed to the suffering of those in their care are at risk of compassion fatigue. Emerging research suggests that self-compassion interventions may provide protective factors and enhance resilience. This pilot study examined the effect of an eight-week Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) training intervention on nurses' compassion fatigue and resilience and participants' lived experience of the effect of the training. METHODS:This observational mixed research pilot study adopted an evaluation design framework. It comprised of a single group and evaluated the effects of a pilot MSC intervention by analyzing the pre- and post-change scores in self-compassion, mindfulness, secondary trauma, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and resilience. The sample of the nurses' (N = 13) written responses to the question, "How did you experience the effect of this pilot MSC training?" were also analyzed. RESULTS:The Pre- to Post- scores of secondary trauma and burnout declined significantly and were negatively associated with self-compassion (r = -.62, p = .02) (r = -.55, p = .05) and mindfulness (r = -.54, p = .05). (r = -.60, p = .03), respectively. Resilience and compassion satisfaction scores increased. All variables demonstrated a large effect size: Mean (M) Cohen's d = 1.23. The qualitative emergent themes corroborated the quantitative findings and expanded the understanding about how MSC on the job practices enhanced nurses' coping. CONCLUSION:This is the first study to examine the effect of a pilot (MSC) training program on nurses' compassion fatigue and resilience in this new area of research. It provides some preliminary empirical evidence in support of the theorized benefits of self-compassion training for nurses. However, further research, such as a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) with a larger sample size and a longitudinal study, is required to see if the benefits of self-compassion training are sustainable.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Rates of mental health illnesses and burnout are increasing internationally. Therapeutic yoga is increasingly used to improve and maintain physical, mental and emotional well-being and general health. This protocol describes a study to evaluate the effectiveness of an existing primary care group-based therapeutic yoga programme, the Yoga of Stress Resilience programme, which combines yoga and psychotherapeutic techniques, in improving mental health and decreasing burnout. Implementation factors will also be evaluated for potential scale-up. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A pragmatic before-after interventional trial design will be used to study changes in occupational participation and mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, burnout, functional impairment, insomnia, perceived stress, loneliness, self-compassion and readiness for change in adults experiencing anxiety and burnout. Repeated measures analysis of variance will be used to determine changes in outcome measures over time. Regression and multivariate analyses will be conducted to examine relationships between participant characteristics and outcomes and among various outcomes. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework will be used to guide the analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Approval from the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board has been waived: project number 7082 (full review waived). Informed consent will be obtained prior to enrolling any participant into the study. All data will be kept confidential. Peer-reviewed publications and presentations will target researchers and health professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:The ClinicalTrials.gov registry (NCT03973216).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Little is known about the applicability of mindfulness-based interventions in Spanish adults with overweight/obesity. The objective of the present study protocol is to describe the methods that will be used in a cluster randomised trial (CRT) that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a mindfulness eating (ME) programme to reduce emotional eating (EE) in adults with overweight/obesity in primary care (PC) settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A CRT will be conducted with approximately 76 adults with overweight/obesity from four PC health centres (clusters) in the city of Zaragoza, Spain. Health centres matched to the average per capita income of the assigned population will be randomly allocated into two groups: 'ME +treatment as usual (TAU)' and 'TAU alone'. The ME programme will be composed of seven sessions delivered by a clinical psychologist, and TAU will be offered by general practitioners. The primary outcome will be EE measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) at post test as primary endpoint. Other outcomes will be external and restrained eating (DEBQ), binge eating (Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh), eating disorder (Eating Attitude Test), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), mindful eating (Mindful Eating Scale), dispositional mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire) and self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale). Anthropometric measures, vital signs and blood tests will be taken. A primary intention-to-treat analysis on EE will be conducted using linear mixed models. Supplementary analyses will include secondary outcomes and 1-year follow-up measures; adjusted models controlling for sex, weight status and levels of anxiety and depression; the complier average causal effect of treatment; and the clinical significance of improvements. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Positive results of this study may have a significant impact on one of the most important current health-related problems. Approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Regional Authority. The results will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals, and reports will be sent to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03927534 (5/2019).
Project description:Work stress is a major contributor to absenteeism and reduced work productivity. A randomised and controlled study in employee-volunteers (with Perceived Stress Scale [PSS-14]>22) was performed to assess a mindfulness program based on brief integrated mindfulness practices (M-PBI) with the aim of reducing stress in the workplace. The PSS-14 of the employees before and after 8-weeks M-PBI program, as well as after a 20-week follow-up, was assessed (primary endpoint). The employees also carried the following questionnaires (secondary endpoints): Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Experiences Questionnaire-Decentering (EQ-D), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was measured during each session in a subgroup of employees (n = 10) of the interventional group randomly selected. A total of 40 employees (77.5% female median [SD] age of 36.6 [5.6] years) took part in this study: 21 and 19 in the intervention and control group, respectively. No differences in baseline characteristics were encountered between the groups. Results show a significant decrease in stress and increase in mindfulness over time in the intervention group (PSS-14 and FFMQ; p < 0.05 both). Additionally, an improvement in decentering (EQ-D), self-compassion (SCS) and burnout (MBI-GS) were also observed compared to the control group (p < 0.05 in all). HRV measurement also showed an improvement. In conclusion, a brief practices, 8-weeks M-BIP program is an effective tool to quickly reduce stress and improve well-being in a workplace.
Project description:Background: Many attempts have been made to abbreviate mindfulness programmes in order to make them more accessible for general and clinical populations while maintaining their therapeutic components and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programme and a 4-week abbreviated version for the improvement of well-being in a non-clinical population. Method: A quasi-experimental, controlled, pilot study was conducted with pre-post and 6-month follow-up measurements and three study conditions (8- and 4-session MBI programmes and a matched no-treatment control group, with a sample of 48, 46, and 47 participants in each condition, respectively). Undergraduate students were recruited, and mindfulness, positive and negative affect, self-compassion, resilience, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Mixed-effects multi-level analyses for repeated measures were performed. Results: The intervention groups showed significant improvements compared to controls in mindfulness and positive affect at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups, with no differences between 8- vs. 4-session programmes. The only difference between the abbreviated MBI vs. the standard MBI was found in self-kindness at 6 months, favoring the standard MBI. There were marginal differences in anxiety between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but there were differences between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, with higher levels in the controls. There were no differences in depression between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but differences were found between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, favoring the standard MBI. There were no differences with regard to negative affect and resilience. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly investigate the efficacy of a standard 8-week MBI and a 4-week abbreviated protocol in the same population. Based on our findings, both programmes performed better than controls, with similar effect size (ES). The efficacy of abbreviated mindfulness programmes may be similar to that of a standard MBI programme, making them potentially more accessible for a larger number of populations. Nevertheless, further studies with more powerful designs to compare the non-inferiority of the abbreviated protocol and addressing clinical populations are warranted. Clinical Trials.gov Registration ID: NCT02643927.
Project description:Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students.A total of 288 students (mean age =?23 years, 76% female) from the University of Oslo and the University of Tromsø were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The control group continued with their standard university courses and received no intervention. Participants were evaluated using self-reported measures both before and after the intervention. These were: the 'General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory Student version, Perceived Medical School Stress, Subjective Well-being, and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire' and additional indices of compliance.Following the intervention, a moderate effect on mental distress (Hedges'g 0.65, CI =?.41, .88), and a small effect on both subjective well-being (Hedges'g 0.40, CI =?.27, .63) and the mindfulness facet 'non-reacting' (Hedges'g 0.33, CI =?.10, .56) were found in the intervention group compared with the control group. A higher level of programme attendance and reported mindfulness exercises predicted these changes. Significant effects were only found for female students who additionally reported reduced study stress and an increase in the mindfulness facet 'non-judging'. Gender specific effects of participation in the MBSR programme have not previously been reported, and gender differences in the present study are discussed.Female medical and psychology students experienced significant positive improvements in mental distress, study stress, subjective well-being and mindfulness after participating in the MBSR programme.NCT00892138.
Project description:Objectives:Healthcare professionals are prone to experience burnout-a psychological syndrome resulting from chronic stressors at work. Some individual differences, like self-compassion-the non-judgmental observation of one's own pain and failure, while understanding that these are part of being human-can protect against burnout. Methods:We administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Stressful Life Events Scale to a sample of healthcare professionals (medical residents, nurses, and physicians) in Lebanon (N?=?93). Results:The sample demonstrated a high degree of Emotional Exhaustion (M?=?27, SD?=?11.79), average levels of Depersonalization (M?=?9.46, SD?=?6.35), and Personal Accomplishment (M?=?34.95, SD?=?6.58), and moderate levels of Self-compassion (M?=?3.25). All burnout components were significantly and inversely associated with self-compassion, with the strongest association found between Emotional Exhaustion and Self-compassion (r?=?-.37, p?<?.001). Self-compassion significantly explained burnout, above and beyond sociodemographic and occupational variables (Emotional Exhaustion: ?R 2?=?.11, F (1.85)?=?12.71, p?<?.01; Depersonalization: ?R 2?=?.07, F (1.85)?=?6.73, p?=?.01; Low Personal Accomplishment: ?R 2?=?.11, F (1.85)?=?11.29, p?<?.01). Conclusions:Burnout is prevalent in the sample, yet self-compassion may be a possible protective factor.