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Clinical Implications of Excessive Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Renal Autoimmune Diseases.


ABSTRACT: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular DNA structures covered with antimicrobial peptides, danger molecules, and autoantigens that can be released by neutrophils. NETs are an important first-line defense mechanism against bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections, but they can also play a role in autoimmune diseases. NETs are immunogenic and toxic structures that are recognized by the autoantibodies of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV) (i.e., against myeloperoxidase or proteinase-3) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (i.e., against double-stranded DNA, histones, or nucleosomes). There is cumulating preclinical and clinical evidence that both excessive formation and impaired degradation of NETs are involved in the pathophysiology of AAV and SLE. These autoimmune diseases give rise to 2 clinically and pathologically distinct forms of glomerulonephritis (GN), respectively, crescentic pauci-immune GN and immune complex-mediated GN. Therefore, it is relevant to understand the different roles NET formation can play in the pathophysiology of these most prevalent renal autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current concepts on the role of NET formation in the pathophysiology of AAV and SLE, and provides a translational perspective on the clinical implications of NETs, such as potential therapeutic approaches that target NET formation in these renal autoimmune diseases.

SUBMITTER: van Dam LS 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6365354 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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