Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals common regulatory mechanisms between effector- and PAMP-triggered immunity in plants.
ABSTRACT: Plant immunity consists of two arms: pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), induced by surface-localized receptors, and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), induced by intracellular receptors. Despite the little structural similarity, both receptor types activate similar responses with different dynamics. To better understand phosphorylation events during ETI, we employed a phosphoproteomic screen using an inducible expression system of the bacterial effector avrRpt2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, and identified 109 differentially phosphorylated residues of membrane-associated proteins on activation of the intracellular RPS2 receptor. Interestingly, several RPS2-regulated phosphosites overlap with sites that are regulated during PTI, suggesting that these phosphosites may be convergent points of both signaling arms. Moreover, some of these sites are residues of important defense components, including the NADPH oxidase RBOHD, ABC-transporter PEN3, calcium-ATPase ACA8, noncanonical G? protein XLG2 and H+ -ATPases. In particular, we found that S343 and S347 of RBOHD are common phosphorylation targets during PTI and ETI. Our mutational analyses showed that these sites are required for the production of reactive oxygen species during both PTI and ETI, and immunity against avirulent bacteria and a virulent necrotrophic fungus. We provide, for the first time, large-scale phosphoproteomic data of ETI, thereby suggesting crucial roles of common phosphosites in plant immunity.
Project description:The plant immune system is fundamental for plant survival in natural ecosystems and for productivity in crop fields. Substantial evidence supports the prevailing notion that plants possess a two-tiered innate immune system, called pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PTI is triggered by microbial patterns via cell surface-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), whereas ETI is activated by pathogen effector proteins via predominantly intracellularly localized receptors called nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs)<sup>1-4</sup>. PTI and ETI are initiated by distinct activation mechanisms and involve different early signalling cascades<sup>5,6</sup>. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRR and PRR co-receptor mutants-fls2 efr cerk1 and bak1 bkk1 cerk1 triple mutants-are markedly impaired in ETI responses when challenged with incompatible Pseudomonas syrinage bacteria. We further show that the production of reactive oxygen species by the NADPH oxidase RBOHD is a critical early signalling event connecting PRR- and NLR-mediated immunity, and that the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is necessary for full activation of RBOHD, gene expression and bacterial resistance during ETI. Moreover, NLR signalling rapidly augments the transcript and/or protein levels of key PTI components. Our study supports a revised model in which potentiation of PTI is an indispensable component of ETI during bacterial infection. This revised model conceptually unites two major immune signalling cascades in plants and mechanistically explains some of the long-observed similarities in downstream defence outputs between PTI and ETI.
Project description:Plants possess two distinct types of immune receptor. The first type, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognizes microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and initiates pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) on recognition. FLS2 is a PRR, which recognizes a part of bacterial flagellin. The second type, resistance (R) proteins, recognizes pathogen effectors and initiates effector-triggered immunity (ETI) on recognition. RPM1, RPS2 and RPS5 are R proteins. Here, we provide evidence that FLS2 is physically associated with all three R proteins. Our findings suggest that signalling interactions occur between PTI and ETI at very early stages and/or that FLS2 forms a PTI signalling complex, some components of which are guarded by R proteins.
Project description:Plants have evolved a two-layered immune system consisting of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PTI and ETI are functionally linked, but also have distinct characteristics. Unraveling how these immune systems coordinate plant responses against pathogens is crucial for understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant defense. Here we report integrative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of the tomato-<i>Pseudomonas syringae (Pst)</i> pathosystem with different <i>Pst</i> mutants that allow the dissection of PTI and ETI. A total of 225 proteins and 79 phosphopeptides differentially accumulated in tomato leaves during <i>Pst</i> infection. The abundances of many proteins and phosphoproteins changed during PTI or ETI, and some responses were triggered by both PTI and ETI. For most proteins, the ETI response was more robust than the PTI response. The patterns of protein abundance and phosphorylation changes revealed key regulators involved in Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, reversible protein phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis, transcription and protein turnover, transport and trafficking, cell wall remodeling, hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting their common or specific roles in PTI and/or ETI. A NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC family) domain protein and lipid particle serine esterase, two PTI-specific genes identified from previous transcriptomic work, were not detected as differentially regulated at the protein level and were not induced by PTI. Based on integrative transcriptomics and proteomics data, as well as qRT-PCR analysis, several potential PTI and ETI-specific markers are proposed. These results provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTI and ETI in the tomato-<i>Pst</i> pathosystem, and will promote future validation and application of the disease biomarkers in plant defense.
Project description:As sessile organisms, plants have developed sophisticated system to defend themselves against microbial attack. Since plants do not have specialized immune cells, all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. The plant innate immune system has two major branches: PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The ability to discriminate between self and non-self is a fundamental feature of living organisms, and it is a prerequisite for the activation of plant defenses specific to microbial infection. Arabidopsis cells express receptors that detect extracellular molecules or structures of the microbes, which are called collectively PAMPs and activate PTI. However, nucleotidebinding site leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) proteins mediated ETI is induced by direct or indirect recognition of effector molecules encoded by avr genes. In Arabidopsis, plasmamembrane localized multifunctional protein RIN4 (RPM1interacting protein 4) plays important role in both PTI and ETI. Previous studies have suggested that RIN4 functions as a negative regulator of PTI. In addition, many different bacterial effector proteins modify RIN4 to destabilize plant immunity and several NB-LRR proteins, including RPM1 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1), RPS2 (resistance to P. syringae 2) guard RIN4. This review summarizes the current studies that have described signaling mechanism of RIN4 function, modification of RIN4 by bacterial effectors and different interacting partner of RIN4 in defense related pathway. In addition, the emerging role of the RIN4 in plant physiology and intercellular signaling as it presents in exosomes will be discussed.
Project description:Microbial patterns are recognized by cell-surface receptors to initiate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants. Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs), such as BIK1, and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are engaged during PTI to activate the NADPH oxidase RBOHD for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It is unknown whether protein kinases besides CPKs and RLCKs participate in RBOHD regulation. We screened mutants in all ten Arabidopsis MAP4 kinases (MAP4Ks) and identified the conserved MAP4K SIK1 as a positive regulator of PTI. sik1 mutants were compromised in their ability to elicit the ROS burst in response to microbial features and exhibited compromised PTI to bacterial infection. SIK1 directly interacts with, phosphorylates, and stabilizes BIK1 in a kinase activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, SIK1 directly interacts with and phosphorylates RBOHD upon flagellin perception. Thus, SIK1 positively regulates immunity by stabilizing BIK1 and activating RBOHD to promote the extracellular ROS burst.
Project description:Two modes of plant immunity against biotrophic pathogens, Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI), are triggered by recognition of pathogen effectors and Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), respectively. Although the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling sectors are generally antagonistic and important for immunity against necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens, respectively, their precise roles and interactions in ETI and PTI have not been clear. We constructed an Arabidopsis dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2-quadruple mutant. DDE2, EIN2, and SID2 are essential components of the JA, ET, and SA sectors, respectively. The pad4 mutation affects the SA sector and a poorly characterized sector. Although the ETI triggered by the bacterial effector AvrRpt2 (AvrRpt2-ETI) and the PTI triggered by the bacterial MAMP flg22 (flg22-PTI) were largely intact in plants with mutations in any one of these genes, they were mostly abolished in the quadruple mutant. For the purposes of this study, AvrRpt2-ETI and flg22-PTI were measured as relative growth of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria within leaves. Immunity to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola was also severely compromised in the quadruple mutant. Quantitative measurements of the immunity levels in all combinatorial mutants and wild type allowed us to estimate the effects of the wild-type genes and their interactions on the immunity by fitting a mixed general linear model. This signaling allocation analysis showed that, contrary to current ideas, each of the JA, ET, and SA signaling sectors can positively contribute to immunity against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. The analysis also revealed that while flg22-PTI and AvrRpt2-ETI use a highly overlapping signaling network, the way they use the common network is very different: synergistic relationships among the signaling sectors are evident in PTI, which may amplify the signal; compensatory relationships among the sectors dominate in ETI, explaining the robustness of ETI against genetic and pathogenic perturbations.
Project description:Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant-induced immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta These observations led us to discovery of a network-buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling. We named this mechanism the ETI-Mediating and PTI-Inhibited Sector (EMPIS). The signaling kinetics of EMPIS explain apparently different plant genetic requirements for ETI triggered by different effectors without postulating different signaling machineries. The properties of EMPIS suggest that information about efficacy of the early immune response is fed back to the immune signaling network, modulating its activity and limiting the fitness cost of unnecessary immune responses.
Project description:Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI) are well-defined modes of plant immunity triggered by recognition of pathogen effector proteins and microbe-associated molecular patterns, respectively. While ETI and PTI network extensively share signaling components, the shared components are used in different ways, resulting in distinct network properties in the model plant Arabidopsis: immunity is highly robust against network perturbations in ETI but relatively sensitive in PTI. However, the molecular mechanism how the shared network leads to the different properties is not known. Here we show that salicylic acid (SA) reponsive genes can respond in the absense of SA during ETI. A 24 DNA microarray study using total RNA from Arabidopsis wildtype Col-0 and sid2-2 mutant infected with Pto hrcC-, Pto EV, Pto AvrRpt2 or water.
Project description:Plant-pathogen interactions involve sophisticated action and counteraction strategies from both parties. Plants can recognize pathogen derived molecules, such as conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effector proteins, and subsequently activate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), respectively. However, pathogens can evade such recognitions and suppress host immunity with effectors, causing effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). The differences among PTI, ETS, and ETI have not been completely understood. Toward a better understanding of PTI, ETS, and ETI, we systematically examined various defense-related phenotypes of Arabidopsis infected with different Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 strains, using the virulence strain DG3 to induce ETS, the avirulence strain DG34 that expresses avrRpm1 (recognized by the resistance protein RPM1) to induce ETI, and HrcC(-) that lacks the type three secretion system to activate PTI. We found that plants infected with different strains displayed dynamic differences in the accumulation of the defense signaling molecule salicylic acid, expression of the defense marker gene PR1, cell death formation, and accumulation/localization of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. The differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI are dependent on the doses of the strains used. These data support the quantitative nature of PTI, ETS, and ETI and they also reveal qualitative differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI. Interestingly, we observed the induction of large cells in the infected leaves, most obviously with HrcC(-) at later infection stages. The enlarged cells have increased DNA content, suggesting a possible activation of endoreplication. Consistent with strong induction of abnormal cell growth by HrcC(-), we found that the PTI elicitor flg22 also activates abnormal cell growth, depending on a functional flg22-receptor FLS2. Thus, our study has revealed a comprehensive picture of dynamic changes of defense phenotypes and cell fate determination during Arabidopsis-P. syringae interactions, contributing to a better understanding of plant defense mechanisms.
Project description:Innate immunity in plants can be triggered by microbe- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is often suppressed by pathogen effectors delivered into the host cell. Plants can overcome pathogen suppression of PTI and reestablish pathogen resistance through effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An unanswered question is how plants might overcome pathogen-suppression of PTI during ETI. Findings described in this paper suggest a possible mechanism. During Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis, a host ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, AtMIN7, is destabilized by the pathogen effector HopM1 through the host 26S proteasome. In this study, we discovered that AtMIN7 is required for not only PTI, consistent with the notion that Pst DC3000 degrades AtMIN7 to suppress PTI, but also ETI. The AtMIN7 level in healthy plants is low, but increases posttranscriptionally in response to activation of PTI. Whereas DC3000 infection led to degradation of AtMIN7, activation of ETI by three different effectors, AvrRpt2, AvrPphB, and HopA1, in Col-0 plants blocks the ability of Pst DC3000 to destabilize AtMIN7. Further analyses of bacterial translocation of HopM1 and AtMIN7 stability in HopM1 transgenic plants show that ETI prevents HopM1-mediated degradation of AtMIN7 inside the plant cell. Both AtMIN7 and HopM1 are localized to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, a subcellular compartment that is not previously known to be associated with bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Thus, blocking pathogen degradation of trans-Golgi network/early endosome-associated AtMIN7 is a critical part of the ETI mechanism to counter bacterial suppression of PTI.