Cisplatin enhances cell stiffness and decreases invasiveness rate in prostate cancer cells by actin accumulation.
ABSTRACT: We focused on the biomechanical and morphological characteristics of prostate cancer cells and their changes resulting from the effect of docetaxel, cisplatin, and long-term zinc supplementation. Cell population surviving the treatment was characterized as follows: cell stiffness was assessed by atomic force microscopy, cell motility and invasion capacity were determined by colony forming assay, wound healing assay, coherence-controlled holographic microscopy, and real-time cell analysis. Cells of metastatic origin exhibited lower height than cells derived from the primary tumour. Cell dry mass and CAV1 gene expression followed similar trends as cell stiffness. Docetaxel- and cisplatin-surviving cells had higher stiffness, and decreased motility and invasive potential as compared to non-treated cells. This effect was not observed in zinc(II)-treated cells. We presume that cell stiffness changes may represent an important overlooked effect of cisplatin-based anti-cancer drugs. Atomic force microscopy and confocal microscopy data images used in our study are available for download in the Zenodo repository ( https://zenodo.org/ , Digital Object Identifiers:10.5281/zenodo.1494935).
Project description:We have studied in vivo responses of "spontaneous" Brca1- and p53-deficient mammary tumors arising in conditional mouse mutants to treatment with doxorubicin, docetaxel, or cisplatin. Like human tumors, the response of individual mouse tumors varies, but eventually they all become resistant to the maximum tolerable dose of doxorubicin or docetaxel. The tumors also respond well to cisplatin but do not become resistant, even after multiple treatments in which tumors appear to regrow from a small fraction of surviving cells. Classical biochemical resistance mechanisms, such as up-regulated drug transporters, appear to be responsible for doxorubicin resistance, rather than alterations in drug-damage effector pathways. Our results underline the promise of these mouse tumors for the study of tumor-initiating cells and of drug therapy of human cancer.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that the physical environment is a critical mediator of tumor behavior. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops within an altered biomechanical environment, and increasing matrix stiffness is a strong predictor of HCC development. The aim of this study was to establish whether changes in matrix stiffness, which are characteristic of inflammation and fibrosis, regulate HCC cell proliferation and chemotherapeutic response. Using an in vitro system of "mechanically tunable" matrix-coated polyacrylamide gels, matrix stiffness was modeled across a pathophysiologically relevant range, corresponding to values encountered in normal and fibrotic livers. Increasing matrix stiffness was found to promote HCC cell proliferation. The proliferative index (assessed by Ki67 staining) of Huh7 and HepG2 cells was 2.7-fold and 12.2-fold higher, respectively, when the cells were cultured on stiff (12 kPa) versus soft (1 kPa) supports. This was associated with stiffness-dependent regulation of basal and hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated mitogenic signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. ?1-Integrin and focal adhesion kinase were found to modulate stiffness-dependent HCC cell proliferation. Following treatment with cisplatin, we observed reduced apoptosis in HCC cells cultured on stiff versus soft (physiological) supports. Interestingly, however, surviving cells from soft supports had significantly higher clonogenic capacity than surviving cells from a stiff microenvironment. This was associated with enhanced expression of cancer stem cell markers, including clusters of differentiation 44 (CD44), CD133, c-kit, cysteine-X-cysteine receptor 4, octamer-4 (CXCR4), and NANOG.Increasing matrix stiffness promotes proliferation and chemotherapeutic resistance, whereas a soft environment induces reversible cellular dormancy and stem cell characteristics in HCC. This has implications for both the treatment of primary HCC and the prevention of tumor outgrowth from disseminated tumor cells. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;).
Project description:The chemotherapy drug Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) induces crosslinks within and between DNA strands, and between DNA and nearby proteins. Therefore, Cisplatin-treated cells which progress into cell division may do so with altered chromosome mechanical properties. This could have important consequences for the successful completion of mitosis. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy of live Cisplatin-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, we found that metaphase mitotic spindles have disorganized kinetochores relative to untreated cells, and also that there is increased variability in the chromosome stretching distance between sister centromeres. This suggests that chromosome stiffness may become more variable after Cisplatin treatment. We explored the effect of variable chromosome stiffness during mitosis using a stochastic model in which kinetochore microtubule dynamics were regulated by tension imparted by stretched sister chromosomes. Consistent with experimental results, increased variability of chromosome stiffness in the model led to disorganization of kinetochores in simulated metaphase mitotic spindles. Furthermore, the variability in simulated chromosome stretching tension was increased as chromosome stiffness became more variable. Because proper chromosome stretching tension may serve as a signal that is required for proper progression through mitosis, tension variability could act to impair this signal and thus prevent proper mitotic progression. Our results suggest a possible mitotic mode of action for the anti-cancer drug Cisplatin.
Project description:Calypso is an easy-to-use online software suite that allows non-expert users to mine, interpret and compare taxonomic information from metagenomic or 16S rDNA datasets. Calypso has a focus on multivariate statistical approaches that can identify complex environment-microbiome associations. The software enables quantitative visualizations, statistical testing, multivariate analysis, supervised learning, factor analysis, multivariable regression, network analysis and diversity estimates. Comprehensive help pages, tutorials and videos are provided via a wiki page.The web-interface is accessible via http://cgenome.net/calypso/ . The software is programmed in Java, PERL and R and the source code is available from Zenodo ( https://zenodo.org/record/50931 ). The software is freely available for non-commercial email@example.com.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:The biomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play an important role in cell migration, gene expression, and differentiation. Biomechanics measurements of ECM are usually performed on cryotomed tissue sections. However, studies on cell/matrix interplay are impossible to perform due to disruptions in cell viability and tissue architecture from freeze-thaw cycling. We developed a technique to map the stiffness of living cells and surrounding matrix by atomic force microscopy and use fluorescence microscopy to relate those properties to changes in matrix and cell structure in embryonic and adult tissues in situ. Stiffness mapping revealed significant differences between vibratomed (living) and cryotomed tissues. Isolated cells are softer than those in native matrix, suggesting that cell mechanics are profoundly influenced by their three-dimensional environment and processing state. Viable tissues treated by hyaluronidase and cytochalasin D displayed targeted disruption of matrix and cytoskeletal networks, respectively. While matrix stiffness affected cellular stiffness, changes in cell mechanics did not reciprocally influence matrix stiffness.
Project description:Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are often diagnosed with advanced diseases that respond poorly to chemotherapy. Here we reported that Apollon, a membrane-associated inhibitor of apoptosis protein, was overexpressed in ESCC cell lines and clinical ESCC tissues, and Apollon overexpression clinically correlated with poor response to chemotherapy (P = 0.001), and short overall survival (P = 0.021). Apollon knockdown increased cisplatin/docetaxel-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome c release in two ESCC cell lines. Apollon knockdown potentiated cisplatin/docetaxel-induced long-term cell growth inhibition, and enhanced chemosensitivity of ESCC cells to cisplatin/docetaxel in xenograft tumor models. Apollon knockdown also enhanced cisplatin/docetaxel-induced activation of caspase-8 (extrinsic pathway) and caspase-9 (intrinsic pathway) in ESCC cells and xenograft tumor models. Mechanism studies revealed that the effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity is mainly mediated by Smac. Apollon expression strongly and negatively correlated with Smac expression in clinical ESCC tissues (P = 0.001). Apollon targeted Smac for degradation in ESCC cells. The effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity was reversed by Smac knockdown in ESCC cells. Taken together, our data show association of Apollon expression with chemotherapeutic response in ESCC, and provide a strong rationale for combining Apollon antagonism with chemotherapy to treat ESCC.
Project description:This work presented the sequences of activated sludge from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in a high altitude Plateau in Tibet, China (?3650 m above the sea level). Sequencing data are the 16S rRNA gene amplicons of V4-V5 region that sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq PE250 platform. Data presented here include detail description and water quality parameters of the WWTPs as well as results of 16S rRNA gene sequences from their active sludges. The core microbial communities in the WWTPs were shown at the taxonomic level of phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The sequencing data have been deposited in NCBI BioProject PRJNA477990 with the Biosample accessions SAMN09488330-SAMN09488338. The annotation of OTU table at the genus level was assessable on Zenodo (https://zenodo.org/record/2105899#.XA0vQPZuJyw).
Project description:The goal of this study was to examine the effects of selinexor, an inhibitor of exportin-1 mediated nuclear export, on DNA damage repair and to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of selinexor in combination with DNA damaging agents (DDAs) in cancer cells.Selinexor reduced the expression of DNA damage repair (DDR) proteins. This did not induce significant DNA damage in tested cell lines. Inhibition of DDR protein expression resulted in enhanced cancer cell death when cells were pretreated with DDAs. In contrast, enhanced cell death was not detected in cells that were pretreated with selinexor then with DDAs. In vivo, single-agent selinexor, docetaxel, or cisplatin treatment resulted in 66.7%, 51.5%, and 26.6% tumor growth inhibition (TGI), respectively, in an MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Consequently, combination treatment with docetaxel or cisplatin followed by selinexor in vivo resulted in 93.9% and 103.4% TGI, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining and immunoblot analysis of tumor sections confirmed reduced expression of DDR proteins.Selinexor treatment inhibited DDR mechanisms in cancer cell lines and therefore potentiated DNA damage-based therapy. The sequential combination of DDAs followed by selinexor increased cancer cell death. This combination is superior to each individual therapy and has a mechanistic rationale as a novel anticancer strategy.Cancer cells treated with selinexor ± DDAs were analyzed using reverse phase protein arrays, immunoblots, quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumors were treated with subtherapeutic doses of selinexor, cisplatin, docetaxel and selinexor in combination with either cisplatin or docetaxel. Tumor growth was evaluated for 25 days.
Project description:T cell activation by dendritic cells (DCs) involves forces exerted by the T cell actin cytoskeleton, which are opposed by the cortical cytoskeleton of the interacting antigen-presenting cell. During an immune response, DCs undergo a maturation process that optimizes their ability to efficiently prime naïve T cells. Using atomic force microscopy, we find that during maturation, DC cortical stiffness increases via a process that involves actin polymerization. Using stimulatory hydrogels and DCs expressing mutant cytoskeletal proteins, we find that increasing stiffness lowers the agonist dose needed for T cell activation. CD4+ T cells exhibit much more profound stiffness dependency than CD8+ T cells. Finally, stiffness responses are most robust when T cells are stimulated with pMHC rather than anti-CD3?, consistent with a mechanosensing mechanism involving receptor deformation. Taken together, our data reveal that maturation-associated cytoskeletal changes alter the biophysical properties of DCs, providing mechanical cues that costimulate T cell activation.
Project description:The stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to influence cell behavior. The ability to manipulate the stiffness of ECM has important implications in understanding how cells interact mechanically with their microenvironment. This article describes an approach to manipulating the stiffness ECM, whereby magnetic beads are embedded in the ECM through bioconjugation between the streptavidin-coated beads and the collagen fibers and then manipulated by an external magnetic field. It also reports both analytical results (obtained by formal modeling and numerical simulation) and statistically meaningful experimental results (obtained by atomic force microscopy) that demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. These results clearly suggest the possibility of creating desired stiffness gradients in ECM in vitro to influence cell behavior.