Projected impact of a multigene pharmacogenetic test to optimize medication prescribing in cardiovascular patients.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To determine the projected impact of a multigene pharmacogenetic (PGx) test on medication prescribing. MATERIALS & METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted with 122 cardiac catheterization laboratory patients undergoing angiography for eligibility of potential PGx-guided interventions that could have occurred if multigene PGx information was pre-emptively available at the time of the procedure. Medication data and presence of actionable at-risk genotypes were used to determine eligibility of a PGx intervention. RESULTS:20% of the study population (n = 24) would have qualified for at least one PGx-based medication intervention per US FDA or Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines within 6 months of their cardiac catheterization procedure. Commonly encountered gene-drug pairs for these interventions included: CYP2C19 for clopidogrel and antidepressants, CYP2D6 for antidepressants and codeine, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and VKORC1/CYP2C9 for warfarin. CONCLUSION:Pre-emptive use of a multigene PGx test in the cardiac catheterization laboratory offers potential to reduce adverse medication outcomes.
Project description:Translating CYP2D6 genotype to metabolizer phenotype is not standardized across clinical laboratories offering pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing and PGx clinical practice guidelines, such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG). The genotype to phenotype translation discordance between laboratories and guidelines can cause discordant cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) phenotype assignments and, thus lead to inconsistent therapeutic recommendations and confusion among patients and clinicians. A modified-Delphi method was used to obtain consensus for a uniform system for translating CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype among a panel of international CYP2D6 experts. Experts with diverse involvement in CYP2D6 interpretation (clinicians, researchers, genetic testing laboratorians, and PGx implementers; n = 37) participated in conference calls and surveys. After completion of 7 surveys, a consensus (> 70%) was reached with 82% of the CYP2D6 experts agreeing to the final CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype translation method. Broad adoption of the proposed CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype translation method by guideline developers, such as CPIC and DPWG, and clinical laboratories as well as researchers will result in more consistent interpretation of CYP2D6 genotype.
Project description:Children with heart disease may require repeated X-Ray cardiac catheterization procedures, are more radiosensitive, and more likely to survive to experience oncologic risks of medical radiation. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is radiation-free and offers information about structure, function, and perfusion but not hemodynamics. We intend to perform complete radiation-free diagnostic right heart catheterization entirely using CMR fluoroscopy guidance in an unselected cohort of pediatric patients; we report the feasibility and safety.We performed 50 CMR fluoroscopy guided comprehensive transfemoral right heart catheterizations in 39 pediatric (12.7 ± 4.7 years) subjects referred for clinically indicated cardiac catheterization. CMR guided catheterizations were assessed by completion (success/failure), procedure time, and safety events (catheterization, anesthesia). Pre and post CMR body temperature was recorded. Concurrent invasive hemodynamic and diagnostic CMR data were collected.During a twenty-two month period (3/2015 - 12/2016), enrolled subjects had the following clinical indications: post-heart transplant 33%, shunt 28%, pulmonary hypertension 18%, cardiomyopathy 15%, valvular heart disease 3%, and other 3%. Radiation-free CMR guided right heart catheterization attempts were all successful using passive catheters. In two subjects with septal defects, right and left heart catheterization were performed. There were no complications. One subject had six such procedures. Most subjects (51%) had undergone multiple (5.5 ± 5) previous X-Ray cardiac catheterizations. Retained thoracic surgical or transcatheter implants (36%) did not preclude successful CMR fluoroscopy heart catheterization. During the procedure, two subjects were receiving vasopressor infusions at baseline because of poor cardiac function, and in ten procedures, multiple hemodynamic conditions were tested.Comprehensive CMR fluoroscopy guided right heart catheterization was feasible and safe in this small cohort of pediatric subjects. This includes subjects with previous metallic implants, those requiring continuous vasopressor medication infusions, and those requiring pharmacologic provocation. Children requiring multiple, serial X-Ray cardiac catheterizations may benefit most from radiation sparing. This is a step toward wholly CMR guided diagnostic (right and left heart) cardiac catheterization and future CMR guided cardiac intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02739087 registered February 17, 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antidepressants are used by primary care providers to treat a variety of conditions, including (but not limited to) depression and anxiety. A trial-and-error approach is typically used to identify effective therapy, as treatment efficacy and safety can vary based on the response, which is affected by certain gene types. Pharmacokinetic pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing provides phenotypic classification of individuals as poor, intermediate, extensive, and ultrarapid CYP450 metabolizers, providing information for optimal drug selection. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this pilot study is to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of PGx testing when used after starting a new antidepressant medication. METHODS:We are conducting a pilot study with physicians from 6 Department of Family Medicine clinics at the University of Michigan who are willing to use PGx test results to manage antidepressant medication use. From enrolled physicians, patients were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized, wait-list controlled trial in which patient participants newly prescribed an antidepressant had PGx testing and were randomized equally to have the results released to their primary care physician as soon as results were available or after 3 months. Patients were excluded if they had been taking the antidepressant for more than 4 weeks or if they had undergone PGx testing in the past. Physician participants completed a baseline survey to assess demographics, as well as knowledge, feasibility, and acceptability of PGx testing for this population. At the conclusion of the study, physician participants will complete a survey to assess knowledge, satisfaction, feasibility, acceptability, perceived effectiveness, and barriers to widespread adoption of PGx testing. Patient participants will complete a baseline, 3-month, and 6-month assessment, and control patient participants will have an additional 9-month assessment. Data collected will include the reason for antidepressant use, self-reported medication adherence, side effects, patient health questionnaire 8-item depression scale, generalized anxiety disorder 7-item scale, 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, work status or changes, and physician and emergency department visits. PGx knowledge and perceptions (including acceptability and feasibility) as well as demographic information will also be obtained. RESULTS:We recruited 23 physician participants between November 2017 and January 2019, and 52 patient participants between January 2018 and April 2019. Currently, all physician and patient participants have been recruited, and we expect data collection to conclude in January 2020. CONCLUSIONS:This study will examine the preliminary effectiveness of PGx testing after treatment initiation and determine the feasibility and acceptability of PGx testing for use in primary care. Through this study, we expect to demonstrate the benefit of PGx testing and lay the foundation for translating this approach into use within primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03270891; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03270891. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):RR1-10.2196/13848.
Project description:Clinical research in high-income countries is increasingly demonstrating the cost- effectiveness of clinical pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in reducing the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improving overall patient care. Medications are prescribed based on an individual's genotype (pharmacogenes), which underlies a specific phenotypic drug response. The advent of cost-effective high-throughput genotyping techniques coupled with the existence of Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) dosing guidelines for pharmacogenetic "actionable variants" have increased the clinical applicability of PGx testing. The implementation of clinical PGx testing in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries can significantly improve health care delivery, considering the high incidence of communicable diseases, the increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases, and the high degree of genetic diversity in these populations. However, the implementation of PGx testing has been sluggish in SSA, prompting this review, the aim of which is to document the existing barriers. These include under-resourced clinical care logistics, a paucity of pharmacogenetics clinical trials, scientific and technical barriers to genotyping pharmacogene variants, and socio-cultural as well as ethical issues regarding health-care stakeholders, among other barriers. Investing in large-scale SSA PGx research and governance, establishing biobanks/bio-databases coupled with clinical electronic health systems, and encouraging the uptake of PGx knowledge by health-care stakeholders, will ensure the successful implementation of pharmacogenetically guided treatment in SSA.
Project description:Pharmacogenomics (PGx) decision support and return of results is an active area of precision medicine. One challenge of implementing PGx is extracting genomic variants and assigning haplotypes in order to apply prescribing recommendations and information from the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), etc. Pharmacogenomics Clinical Annotation Tool (PharmCAT) (i) extracts variants specified in guidelines from a genetic data set derived from sequencing or genotyping technologies, (ii) infers haplotypes and diplotypes, and (iii) generates a report containing genotype/diplotype-based annotations and guideline recommendations. We describe PharmCAT and a pilot validation project comparing results for 1000 Genomes Project sequences of Coriell samples with corresponding Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (GeT-RM) sample characterization. PharmCAT was highly concordant with the GeT-RM data. PharmCAT is available in GitHub to evaluate, test, and report results back to the community. As precision medicine becomes more prevalent, our ability to consistently, accurately, and clearly define and report PGx annotations and prescribing recommendations is critical.
Project description:Procedural volume has been shown to be associated with outcome in cardiac catheterization and intervention in adults. The impact of center-level factors (such as volume) and their interaction with subject- and procedure-level factors on outcome after cardiac catheterization in children is not well described. We hypothesized that higher center catheterization volume would be associated with lower risk of catastrophic adverse events.We studied children and young adults 0 to 21 years of age undergoing one or more cardiac catheterizations at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information Systems database between 2007 and 2012. Using mixed-effects multivariable regression, we assessed the association between center catheterization volumes and the risk of a composite outcome of death and/or initiation of mechanical circulatory support within 1 day of cardiac catheterization adjusting for patient- and procedure-level factors.A total of 63,994 procedures performed on 40,612 individuals from 38 of 43 centers contributing data to the Pediatric Health Information Systems database were included. The adjusted risk of the composite outcome was 0.1%. Increasing annual catheterization laboratory volume was independently associated with reduced risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio per a 100-procedure/y increment 0.78 [95% CI 0.65-0.93], P < .006). Younger age at catheterization, previous cardiac operation in the same admission as the catheterization, preprocedural vasoactive medications, and hemodialysis were also independently associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes.Higher cardiac catheterization laboratory volume was associated with reduced risk of catastrophic adverse outcome in the immediate postcatheterization period in children. The observed benefit of catheterization at a larger volume center may be attributable to transmissible best practices or inextricable benefits of larger systems.
Project description:Cardiac catheterization is the standard of care procedure for diagnosis, choice of therapy, and longitudinal follow-up of children and adults with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the procedure is invasive and has risks associated with both the procedure and recovery period.The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for catastrophic adverse outcomes in children with PH undergoing cardiac catheterization.We studied children and young adults up to 21 years of age with PH undergoing 1 or more cardiac catheterization at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information Systems database between 2007 and 2012. Using mixed-effects multivariable regression, we assessed the association between pre-specified subject- and procedure-level covariates and the risk of the composite outcome of death or initiation of mechanical circulatory support within 1 day of cardiac catheterization after adjustment for patient- and procedure-level factors.A total of 6,339 procedures performed on 4,401 patients with a diagnosis of PH from 38 of 43 centers contributing data to the Pediatric Health Information Systems database were included. The observed risk of composite outcome was 3.5%. In multivariate modeling, the adjusted risk of the composite outcome was 3.3%. Younger age at catheterization, cardiac operation in the same admission as the catheterization, pre-procedural systemic vasodilator infusion, and hemodialysis were independently associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Pre-procedural use of pulmonary vasodilators was associated with reduced risk of composite outcome.The risk of cardiac catheterization in children and young adults with PH is high relative to previously reported risk in other pediatric populations. The risk is influenced by patient-level factors. Further research is necessary to determine whether knowledge of these factors can be translated into practices that improve outcomes for children with PH.
Project description:Introduction:Pharmacists are poised to be the health care professionals best suited to provide medication-related consults and services based on a patient's genetics. Despite its potential benefits, the implementation of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing into primary clinical settings has been slow among medically underserved populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time that PGx-driven recommendations have been incorporated into a Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM) service in a Hispanic population. Objectives:The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of adding PGx guidance into pharmacist-driven CMM. Methods:This is a pre- and post-interventional design study. Patients were recruited from a psychologist's clinic. A total of 24 patients had a face-to-face interview with a pharmacist to complete a CMM, Personal Medication Record, and Medication-Related Action Plan (MAP) blind to PGx findings. Collected buccal DNA samples were genotyped using drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMET) Plus Array. Results:The pharmacist generated new MAPs for each patient based on PGx results. Genetic variants that could potentially affect the safety and effectiveness of at least one drug in the pharmacotherapy were identified in 96% of patients, for whom the pharmacist changed the initial recommendations. Polymorphisms in genes encoding for isoenzymes CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 were identified in 83%, 52%, and 41% of patients, respectively. Pharmacists performing CMM identified 22 additional medication problems after PGx determinations. Moreover, they agreed with the clinical utility of PGx in the studied sample based on perceived value of adding PGx to traditional CMM and its utility in the decision-making process of pharmacists. Conclusions:The study confirmed the critical role to be played by pharmacists in facilitating the clinical usage of relevant genetic information to optimize drug therapy decisions as well as their involvement on many levels of these multidisciplinary implementation efforts, including championing and leading PGx-guided CMM services.
Project description:Most of the prescribing and dispensing of medicines happens in primary care. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the study and clinical application of the role of genetic variation on drug response. Mounting evidence suggests PGx can improve the safety and/or efficacy of several medications commonly prescribed in primary care. However, implementation of PGx has generally been limited to a relatively few academic hospital centres, with little adoption in primary care. Despite this, many primary healthcare providers are optimistic about the role of PGx in their future practice. The increasing prevalence of direct-to-consumer genetic testing and primary care PGx studies herald the plausible gradual introduction of PGx into primary care and highlight the changes needed for optimal translation. In this article, the potential utility of PGx in primary care will be explored and on-going barriers to implementation discussed. The evidence base of several drug-gene pairs relevant to primary care will be outlined with a focus on antidepressants, codeine and tramadol, statins, clopidogrel, warfarin, metoprolol and allopurinol. This review is intended to provide both a general introduction to PGx with a more in-depth overview of elements relevant to primary care.
Project description:Genetic determinants of drug response remain stable throughout life and offer great promise to patient-tailored drug therapy. The adoption of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in patient care requires accurate, cost effective and rapid genotyping with clear guidance on the use of the results. Hence, we evaluated a 32 SNPs panel for implementing PGx testing in clinical laboratories.We designed a 32-SNP panel for PGx testing in clinical laboratories. The variants were selected using the clinical annotations of the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) and include polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A5 and VKORC1 genes. The CYP2D6 gene allele quantification was determined simultaneously with TaqMan copy number assays targeting intron 2 and exon 9 regions. The genotyping results showed high call rate accuracy according to concordance with genotypes identified by independent analyses on Sequenome massarray and droplet digital PCR. Furthermore, 506 genomic samples across three major ethnic groups of Singapore (Malay, Indian and Chinese) were analysed on our workflow.We found that 98% of our study subjects carry one or more CPIC actionable variants. The major alleles detected include CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*36, CYP2D6*41, CYP3A5*3 and VKORC1*2. These translate into a high percentage of intermediate (IM) and poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes for these genes in our population.Genotyping may be useful to identify patients who are prone to drug toxicity with standard doses of drug therapy in our population. The simplicity and robustness of this PGx panel is highly suitable for use in a clinical laboratory.