INTEGRA study protocol: primary care intervention in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycaemic control.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The management of hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may reduce diabetes-related complications. The strategy to broaden the knowledge base of primary care professionals to improve health care has mainly been prompted by the current reality of limited resources and access to specialized care. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of comprehensive interventions focused on treatment intensification, decrease clinical inertia and reduce possible barriers to treatment adherence in patients with poorly controlled diabetes in a primary care setting. METHODS:This is a two-phase mixed method study, whose aims are the development of complex interventions and the assessment of their effectiveness. The main study outcome is a change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. The INTEGRA study is divided into two phases. Phase 1: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach using semi-structured interviews with the objective of determining the factors related to the participants and health care professionals that influence the development and implementation of a specific intervention strategy aimed at patients with poor glycaemic control of T2DM in primary care. Phase 2: Exploratory intervention study to be conducted in Primary Health Care Centres in Catalonia (Spain), including 3 specific health care areas. The intervention study has two arms: Intervention Group 1 and 2. Each intervention group will recruit 216 participants (the same as in the control group) between the ages of 30 and 80?years with deficient glycaemic control (HbA1c > 9%). The control group will be established based on a randomized selection from the large SIDIAP (Sistema d'Informació per al desenvolupament de la Investigació en Atenció Primària) database of patients with comparable socio-demographic and clinical characteristics from the three provinces. DISCUSSION:This study is a comprehensive, pragmatic intervention based on glycaemic treatment intensification and the control of other cardiovascular risk factors. It is also aimed at improving treatment adherence and reducing clinical inertia, which could lead to improved glycaemic control and could likewise be feasible for implementation in the actual clinical practice of primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov . registration number. NCT02663245; January 25, 2016.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We developed a complex intervention called DECIDE (ComputeriseD dECisIonal support for suboptimally controlleD typE 2 Diabetes mellitus in Irish General Practice) which used a clinical decision support system to address clinical inertia and support general practitioner (GP) intensification of treatment for adults with suboptimally controlled type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study explored the feasibility and potential impact of DECIDE. DESIGN:A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING:Conducted in 14 practices in Irish General Practice. PARTICIPANTS:The DECIDE intervention was targeted at GPs. They applied DECIDE to patients with suboptimally controlled T2DM, defined as a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ?70?mmol/mol and/or blood pressure ?150/95?mmHg. INTERVENTION:The intervention incorporated training and a web-based clinical decision support system which supported; (i) medication intensification actions; and (ii) non-pharmacological actions to support care. Control practices delivered usual care. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Feasibility and acceptability was determined using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with GPs, combined with data from the DECIDE website. Clinical outcomes included HbA1c, medication intensification, blood pressure and lipids. RESULTS:We recruited 14 practices and 134 patients. At 4-month follow-up, all practices and 114 patients were followed up. GPs reported finding decision support helpful navigating increasingly complex medication algorithms. However, the majority of GPs believed that the target patient group had poor engagement with GP and hospital services for a range of reasons. At follow-up, there was no difference in glycaemic control (-3.6?mmol/mol (95%?CI -11.2 to 4.0)) between intervention and control groups or in secondary outcomes including, blood pressure, total cholesterol, medication intensification or utilisation of services. Continuation criteria supported proceeding to a definitive randomised trial with some modifications. CONCLUSION:The DECIDE study was feasible and acceptable to GPs but wider impacts on glycaemic and blood pressure control need to be considered for this patient population going forward. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN69498919.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major international health problem. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of healthcare interventions, specifically targeting patients with poorly controlled T2DM, which seek to improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk in primary care settings.<h4>Design</h4>Systematic review.<h4>Setting</h4>Primary care and community settings.<h4>Included studies</h4>Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) targeting patients with poor glycaemic control were identified from Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and SCOPUS. Poor glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c over 59?mmol/mol (7.5%).<h4>Interventions</h4>Interventions were classified as organisational, patient-oriented, professional, financial or regulatory.<h4>Outcomes</h4>Primary outcomes were HbA1c, blood pressure and lipid control. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study quality. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis explored the effects of intervention type, baseline HbA1c, study quality and study duration. Meta-regression analyses were undertaken to investigate identified heterogeneity.<h4>Results</h4>Forty-two RCTs were identified, including 11?250 patients, with most undertaken in USA. In general, studies had low risk of bias. The main intervention types were patient-directed (48%) and organisational (48%). Overall, interventions reduced HbA1c by -0.34% (95% CI -0.46% to -0.22%), but meta-analyses had high statistical heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses suggested that organisational interventions and interventions on those with baseline HbA1c over 9.5% had better improvements in HbA1c. Meta-regression analyses suggested that only interventions on those with population HbA1c over 9.5% were more effective. Interventions had a modest improvement of blood pressure and lipids, although baseline levels of control were generally good.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This review suggests that interventions for T2DM, in primary care, are better targeted at individuals with very poor glycaemic control and that organisational interventions may be more effective.
Project description:Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be seen as failure to meet recommended targets for management of key risk factors including glycaemic control, blood pressure and lipids. Poor control of risk factors is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Failure to intensify medications for patients with poor control of T2DM when indicated is called clinical inertia and is one contributory factor to poor control of T2DM. We aimed to develop a theory and evidence-based complex intervention to improve appropriate prescribing and medication intensification in poorly controlled T2DM in Irish general practice.The first stage of the Medical Research Council Framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions was utilised. To identify current evidence, we performed a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled T2DM in community settings. The Behaviour Change Wheel theoretical approach was used to identify suitable intervention functions. Workshops, simulation, collaborations with academic partners and observation of physicians were utilised to operationalise the intervention functions and design the elements of the complex intervention.Our systematic review highlighted that professional-based interventions, potentially through clinical decision support systems, could address poorly controlled T2DM. Appropriate intensification of anti-glycaemic and cardiovascular medications, by general practitioners (GPs), for adults with poorly controlled T2DM was identified as the key behaviour to address clinical inertia. Psychological capability was the key driver of the behaviour, which needed to change, suggesting five key intervention functions (education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring and incentivisation) and nine key behaviour change techniques, which were operationalised into a complex intervention. The intervention has three components: (a) a training program/academic detailing of target GPs, (b) a remote finder tool to help GPs identify patients with poor control of T2DM in their practice and (c) A web-based clinical decision support system.This paper describes a multifaceted process including an exploration of current evidence and a thorough theoretical understanding of the predictors of the behaviour resulting in the design of a complex intervention to promote the implementation of evidence-based guidelines, through appropriate prescribing and medication intensification in poorly controlled T2DM.
Project description:AIMS:To identify change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for 1 year after treatment intensification in patients with HbA1c >53 mmol/mol (7.0%) while on two classes of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). MATERIAL AND METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a regional health plan claims database for the period January 1, 2010 to March 31, 2017. Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) whose treatment was intensified with insulin, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist or a third OAD within 365 days of having HbA1c ≥53 mmol/mol (7.0%) on two OADs were included. The HbA1c trajectory for 1 year after intensification was estimated using a mixed-effects regression model. RESULTS:The analysis included 1226 patients with a mean ± SD HbA1c at treatment intensification of 74.2 ± 18.7 mmol/mol (8.93 ± 1.7%). HbA1c was higher in the insulin group (74.2 mmol/mol) than in the non-insulin group (70.6 mmol/mol), as was the HbA1c decrease (P < 0.01) over the 1-year follow-up, particularly in patients with baseline HbA1c >9%. After intensification, insulin- and non-insulin-treated patients achieved an average change by month in HbA1c of -4.7 mmol/mol and -2.6 mmol/mol points, respectively. The analysis predicted HbA1c to be the lowest at 6 to 10 months post intensification, depending on intensification treatment and HbA1c at intensification; however, on average, HbA1c remained above 64.0 mmol/mol (8.0%). CONCLUSION:In patients with T2DM, intensification following an HbA1c value ≥53 mmol/mol (7.0%) while on two OADs was associated with a significant improvement in glycaemic control. Patients intensified with insulin had a higher baseline HbA1c but greater HbA1c reduction than those intensified with a non-insulin agent. However, HbA1c remained above 64 mmol/mol (8.0%) overall. Additional opportunity exists to further intensify therapy to improve glycaemic control.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The objectives of the study were to assess glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at a tertiary care diabetes centre in Ningbo, China and to determine factors that independently predict their glycaemic control. DESIGN:Retrospective cross-sectional study using an existing database, the Diabetes Information Management System. SETTING:Tertiary care diabetes centre in Ningbo, China. PARTICIPANTS:The study included adult patients with T2DM, registered and received treatment at the diabetes centre for at least six consecutive months. The study inclusion criteria were satisfied by 1387 patients, from 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2017. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Glycaemic control (poor was defined as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)>=7%?or fasting blood glucose (FBG)>7.0?mmol/L). RESULTS:In terms of HbA1c and FBG, the 5-year period prevalence of poor glycaemic control was 50.3% and 57.3%, respectively. In terms of HbA1c and FBG, the odds of poor glycaemic control increased with the duration of T2DM (>1?to 2 years: OR 1.84, 95%?CI 1.06 to 3.19; >2?to 4 years: 3.32, 1.88 to 5.85 and >4 years: 5.98, 4.09 to 8.75 and >1?to 2 years: 2.10, 1.22 to 3.62; >2?to 4 years: 2.48, 1.42 to 4.34 and >4 years: 3.34, 2.32 to 4.80) and were higher in patients residing in rural areas (1.68, 1.24 to 2.28 and 1.42, 1.06 to 1.91), with hyperlipidaemia (1.57, 1.12 to 2.19 and 1.68, 1.21 to 2.33), on diet, physical activity and oral hypoglycaemic drug (OHD) as part of their T2DM therapeutic regimen (1.80, 1.01 to 3.23 and 2.40, 1.36 to 4.26) and on diet, physical activity, OHD and insulin (2.47, 1.38 to 4.41 and 2.78, 1.58 to 4.92), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:More than half of patients with T2DM at the diabetes centre in Ningbo, China have poor glycaemic control, and the predictors of glycaemic control were identified. The study findings could be taken into consideration in future interventional studies aimed at improving glycaemic control in these patients.
Project description:<h4>Aims/introduction</h4>Treatment intensification is commonly delayed in people with type 2 diabetes, resulting in poor glycemic control for an unacceptable length of time and increased risk of complications.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>This retrospective study investigated clinical inertia in 33,320 Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) between 2009 and 2018, using data from the Computerized Diabetes Care (CoDiC<sup>®</sup> ) database.<h4>Results</h4>The median time from first reported glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ?7.0% (?53 mmol/mol) to treatment intensification was considerably longer and HbA1c levels were higher the more OADs the patient was exposed to. For patients receiving three OADs, the median times from HbA1c ?7.0% (53 mmol/mol) to intensification with OAD, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist or insulin were 8.1, 9.1 and 6.7 months, with a mean HbA1c level at the time of intensification of 8.4%, 8.9% and 9.3%, respectively. The cumulative incidence for time since the first reported HbA1c ?7.0% (?53 mmol/mol) to intensification confirmed the existence of clinical inertia, identifying patients whose treatment was not intensified despite poor glycemic control. HbA1c levels ?7.0% (?53 mmol/mol) after ?6 months on one, two or three OADs were observed in 42%, 51% and 58% of patients, respectively, showing that approximately 50% of patients are above HbA1c target regardless of how many OADs they take.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Real-world data here show clinical inertia in Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes from early diabetes stages when they are receiving OADs, and illustrate a need for earlier, more effective OADs or injectable treatment intensification and better communication around the existence of clinical inertia.
Project description:To assess the effectiveness of a coach-led motivational interviewing (MI) intervention in improving glycaemic control, as well as clinical, psychosocial and self-care outcomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with usual care.Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT).Community Health Stations (CHSs) in Fengtai district, Beijing, China.Of the 41 randomised CHSs (21 intervention and 20 control), 21 intervention CHSs (372 participants) and 18 control CHSs (296 participants) started participation.Intervention participants received telephone and face-to-face MI health coaching in addition to usual care from their CHS. Control participants received usual care only. Medical fees were waived for both groups.Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure was glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary outcomes included a suite of anthropometric, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood, psychosocial and self-care measures.At 12 months, no differential treatment effect was found for HbA1c (adjusted difference 0.02, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.44, p=0.929), with both treatment and control groups showing significant improvements. However, two secondary outcomes: psychological distress (adjusted difference -2.38, 95% CI -4.64 to -0.12, p=0.039) and systolic BP (adjusted difference -3.57, 95% CI -6.08 to -1.05, p=0.005) were robust outcomes consistent with significant differential treatment effects, as supported in sensitivity analyses. Interestingly, in addition to HbA1c, both groups displayed significant improvements in triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol.In line with the current Chinese primary healthcare reform, this study is the first large-scale cluster RCT to be implemented within real-world CHSs in China, specifically addressing T2DM. Although a differential treatment effect was not observed for HbA1c, numerous outcomes (including HbA1c) improved in both groups, supporting the establishment of regular, free clinical health checks for people with T2DM in China.ISRCTN01010526; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) disproportionately affects individuals of nonwhite ethnic origin. Timely and appropriate initiation and intensification of glucose-lowering therapy is key to reducing the risk of major vascular outcomes. Given that ethnic inequalities in outcomes may stem from differences in therapeutic management, the aim of this study was to identify ethnic differences in the timeliness of initiation and intensification of glucose-lowering therapy in individuals newly diagnosed with T2DM in the United Kingdom. METHODS AND FINDINGS:An observational cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink was conducted using 162,238 adults aged 18 and over diagnosed with T2DM between 1990 and 2017 (mean age 62.7 years, 55.2% male); 93% were of white ethnicity (n = 150,754), 5% were South Asian (n = 8,139), and 2.1% were black (n = 3,345). Ethnic differences in time to initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment were estimated at three time points (initiation of noninsulin monotherapy, intensification to noninsulin combination therapy, and intensification to insulin therapy) using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for factors a priori hypothesised to be associated with initiation and intensification: age, sex, deprivation, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, comorbidities, consultations, medications, calendar year, and clustering by practice. Odds of experiencing therapeutic inertia (failure to intensify treatment within 12 months of HbA1c >7.5% [58 mmol/mol]), were estimated using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for the same hypothesised confounders. Noninsulin monotherapy was initiated earlier in South Asian and black groups (South Asian HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08-1.36, p < 0.001; black HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59, p = 0.017). Correspondingly, no ethnic differences in therapeutic inertia were evident at initiation. Intensification with noninsulin combination therapy was slower in both nonwhite ethnic groups relative to white (South Asian HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, p < 0.001; black HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.90, p < 0.001); treatment inertia at this stage was greater in nonwhite groups relative to white (South Asian odds ratio [OR] 1.45, 95% CI 1.23-1.70, p < 0.001; black OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.87, p = 0.010). Intensification to insulin therapy was slower again for black groups relative to white groups (South Asian HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.41-0.58, p < 0.001; black HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.89, p = 0.012); correspondingly, treatment inertia was significantly higher in nonwhite groups at this stage relative to white groups (South Asian OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.89-3.80 p < 0.001; black OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.13-2.79, p = 0.013). At both stages of treatment intensification, nonwhite groups had fewer HbA1c measurements than white groups. Limitations included variable quality and completeness of routinely recorded data and a lack of information on medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS:In this large UK cohort, we found persuasive evidence that South Asian and black groups intensified to noninsulin combination therapy and insulin therapy more slowly than white groups and experienced greater therapeutic inertia following identification of uncontrolled HbA1c. Reasons for delays are multifactorial and may, in part, be related to poorer long-term monitoring of risk factors in nonwhite groups. Initiatives to improve timely and appropriate intensification of diabetes treatment are key to reducing disparities in downstream vascular outcomes in these populations.
Project description:The treatment aims for type 2 diabetes are to prevent complications and premature mortality, and improve quality of life. Glycaemic control is central to these aims; clinical guidelines have sought to achieve this with a stepwise approach starting with lifestyle measures and metformin, adding further medications once glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels rise above a predefined threshold. However, treatment intensification can be delayed when HbA1c levels increase, and HbA1c levels become inadequately controlled in many patients. Clinical inertia can result in sustained elevated levels of HbA1c; when combined with a late diagnosis, this negatively impacts patients' prognosis. Early combination therapy using medications with complementary modes of action could achieve optimal glycaemic targets and alter the course of the disease more than metformin alone. The multinational VERIFY study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01528254) provided evidence accrued over 5 years, demonstrating the potential of early combination therapy: time to loss of glycaemic control was nearly doubled, and more than twice the number of patients experienced extended glycaemic control, with a vildagliptin-metformin combination therapy versus metformin alone. The study also showed a delay in secondary treatment failure in patients receiving the combination. Early combination therapy therefore offers a different trajectory to the stepwise approach. Translating these findings into clinical practice will require early detection and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes plus a shift in disease management. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sustained and continuous disease control that early combination therapy offers represent the start of a new era in early diagnosis and intensive management, to achieve the treatment aims of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Tailored, patient-centred innovations are needed in the care for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in particular those with insufficient glycaemic control. Therefore, this study sought to assess their biopsychosocial characteristics and explore whether distinct biopsychosocial profiles exist within this subpopulation, which differ in health-related quality of life (HRQoL).<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional study based on data from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study focused on the aetiology, pathophysiology, complications, and comorbidities of T2DM. We analysed associations and clustering of glycaemic control and HRQoL with 38 independent variables (i.e. biopsychosocial characteristics) in different subgroups and using descriptive analyses, latent class analysis (LCA), and logistic regressions.<h4>Results</h4>Included were 840 persons with T2DM, mostly men (68.6%) and with a mean age of 62.6 (±7.7) years. Mean HbA1c was 7.1% (±3.2%); 308 patients (36.7%) had insufficient glycaemic control (HbA1c>7.0% [53 mmol/mol]). Compared to those with sufficient control, these patients had a significantly worse-off status on multiple biopsychosocial factors, including self-efficacy, income, education and several health-related characteristics. Two 'latent classes' were identified in the insufficient glycaemic control subgroup: with low respectively high HRQoL. Of the two, the low HRQoL class comprised about one-fourth of patients and had a significantly worse biopsychosocial profile.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Insufficient glycaemic control, particularly in combination with low HRQoL, is associated with a generally worse biopsychosocial profile. Further research is needed into the complex and multidimensional causal pathways explored in this study, so as to increase our understanding of the heterogeneous care needs and preferences of persons with T2DM, and translate this knowledge into tailored care and support arrangements.