Development and biochemical and immunological characterization of early passage and immortalized bovine intestinal epithelial cell lines from the ileum of a young calf.
ABSTRACT: The intestinal epithelium is a major site of interaction with pathogens. In bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIECs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immune responses against enteric pathogens. This study is aimed at establishing a stable bovine intestinal epithelial cell line that can be maintained by a continuous passage so that studies on innate immune responses against various enteric pathogens can be performed. The main goal was to establish pure cultures of primary and immortalized bovine intestinal epithelial cells from the ileum and then characterize them biochemically and immunologically. Mixed epithelial and fibroblast bovine ileal intestinal cultures were first established from a 2-day old calf. Limiting dilution method was used to obtain a clone of epithelial cells which was characterized using immunocytochemistry (ICC). The selected clone BIEC-c4 was cytokeratin positive and expressed low levels of vimentin, confirming the epithelial cell phenotype. Early passage BIEC-c4 cells were transfected with either simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), or human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16E6/E7 genes to establish three immortalized BIEC cell lines. The expression of SV40, hTERT and HPV E6/E7 genes in immortalized BIECs was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence assays also confirmed the expression of SV40, hTERT and HPV E6 proteins. The immortalized BIECs were cytokeratin positive and all except HPV-BIECs expressed low levels of vimentin. A growth kinetics study indicated that there were no significant differences in the doubling time of immortalized BIECs as compared to early passage BIEC-c4 cells. All four BIEC types expressed TLR 1-10 genes, with TLR 3 and 4 showing higher expression across all cell types. These newly established early passage and immortalized BIEC cell lines should serve as a good model for studying infectivity, pathogenesis and innate immune responses against enteric pathogens.
Project description:PURPOSE: To report the establishment of a human conjunctival epithelial cell line lacking the functional tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) gene to be used as an in vitro model of gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD), a rare disease in which the corneal epithelial barrier function is significantly compromized by the loss of function mutation of the TACSTD2 gene. METHODS: A small piece of conjunctival tissue was obtained from a GDLD patient. The conjunctival epithelial cells were enzymatically separated and dissociated from the tissue and immortalized by the lentiviral introduction of the SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genes. Population doubling, protein expression, and transepithelial resistance (TER) analyses were performed to assess the appropriateness of the established cell line as an in vitro model for GDLD. RESULTS: The life span of the established cell line was found to be significantly elongated compared to nontransfected conjunctival epithelial cells. The SV40 large T antigen and hTERT genes were stably expressed in the established cell line. The protein expression level of the tight junction-related proteins was significantly low compared to the immortalized normal conjunctival epithelial cell line. TER of the established cell line was found to be significantly low compared to the immortalized normal conjunctival epithelial cell line. CONCLUSIONS: Our conjunctival epithelial cell line was successfully immortalized and well mimicked several features of GDLD corneas. This cell line may be useful for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of GDLD and for the development of novel treatments for GDLD.
Project description:Fibroblasts can be transdifferentiated directly into other somatic cells such as cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic cells, and neurons. An advantage of somatic cell differentiation without first generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is that it avoids contamination of the differentiated cells with residual iPSCs, which may cause teratoma. However, since primary fibroblasts from biopsy undergo senescence during repeated culture, it may be difficult to grow transdifferentiated cells in sufficient numbers for future therapeutic purposes. To circumvent this problem, we reversibly immortalized primary fibroblasts by using the piggyBac transposon to deliver the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene hTERT plus SV40 Large T. Both approaches enabled fibroblasts to grow continuously without senescence, and neither caused teratoma formation in immunodeficient mice. However, fibroblasts immortalized with hTERT plus SV40 large T antigen accumulated chromosomal rearrangements, whereas fibroblasts immortalized with hTERT retained the normal karyotype. To transdifferentiate hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts into other somatic lineage cells, we transiently transfected them with episomal OCT4 and cultured them under neural cell growth condition with transposase to remove the transposon. Tripotent neural progenitor cells were seamlessly and efficiently generated. Thus, reversible immortalization of primary fibroblasts with hTERT will allow potential autologous cell-based therapeutics that bypass and simulate iPSC generation.
Project description:Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.
Project description:Human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) immortalized by hTERT and simian virus 40 (SV40) early region (ER) exhibit a limited degree of transformation upon the expression of activated H-RAS (H-RAS V12) compared with rat embryonic fibroblasts (REF) immortalized by SV40 ER. Here, we identified FRA1 as a determinant for this difference in RAS-induced transformation. FRA1 was not induced by H-RAS V12 in the immortalized HDF, in contrast to its marked accumulation in the immortalized REF. Ectopic expression of FRA1 significantly enhanced anchorage-independent growth of various HDF expressing hTERT, SV40 ER, and H-RAS V12. More importantly, FRA1 could induce anchorage-independent growth as well as nude mice tumor formation of the immortalized HDF in the absence of H-RAS V12. The results of an in vitro kinase assay clearly showed that the RAS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, which is responsible for FRA1 induction, was markedly attenuated in the HDF compared with that in the REF, despite no obvious differences in the phosphorylation status of ERK between the species. Our results strongly suggest that HDF negatively regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK pathway more efficiently than REF, and consequently express less malignant phenotypes in response to H-RAS V12.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is believed to develop from the ovarian surface epithelium through the accumulation of aberrations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes. However, it is unclear how the gene abnormalities are involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. To elucidate the process, we transfected genes reported to show their abnormalities in human ovarian cancers into human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Immortalization of the cells was achieved by the transfection of SV40 large T antigen (LT) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT); however, the resultant cells showed no tumorigenesis. Additional transfection of either c-erbB-2 or mutant Ha-ras into the immortalized cells showed the anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenesis in mice with the incidence of 50% and 40%, respectively. Histologically, all the tumours were undifferentiated. In association with the tumorigenesis, the cells expressing c-erbB-2 or mutant Ha-ras demonstrated increased vascular endothelial growth factor secretion under hypoxia and enhanced resistance to apoptosis compared with the immortalized cells. Collectively, the introduction of either c-erbB-2 or mutant Ha-ras in the cells, which were efficiently immortalized by the transfection of LT and hTERT, showed tumorigenicity, suggesting that c-erbB-2 or mutant Ha-ras genes might be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis.
Project description:Recent studies have suggested that some ovarian and pelvic serous carcinomas could originate from the fimbriated end of the distal fallopian tube. To test this hypothesis, we immortalized a normal human fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) cell line by using retrovirus-mediated overexpression of the early region of the SV40 T/t antigens and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT). These immortalized FTEs were then transformed by ectopic expression of oncogenic human HRAS (V12) . Tumorigenicity of the immortalized and/or transformed cells was subsequently tested by anchorage-independence growth assay and inoculation into nude mice via subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection. As expected, the HRAS (V12) -transformed FTEs produced tumors through both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections, whereas no tumor growth was observed in immortalized FTEs. Unexpectedly, histopathological examination of tumors resulting from subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal injections revealed largely poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma mixed with undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor implants invaded extensively to the liver, colon, spleen, omentum, adrenal gland and renal capsule. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells showed positive staining for the epithelial cell markers cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and Müllerian lineage marker PAX8. Our study demonstrates that FTEs can generate poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma mixed with undifferentiated carcinoma through genetic modifications. Thus, we provide the first experimental evidence that fimbrial epithelial cells of the fallopian tube could be a potential source of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma.
Project description:The gene expression of two different tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell types (HMLER and BPLER) is compared with their immortalized parental cell-of-origin (HME and BPE). Experiment Overall Design: Two different normal primary human mammary epithelial cell populations (BPECs and HMECs) were isolated based on their differing in vitro growth requirements. These cells were immortalized by hTERT giving rise to BPE and HME cells. These hTERT immortalized cells (BPE and HME) were transformed by SV40-early region (LT+st) and H-Ras giving rise to transformed tumorigenic derivatives BPLER and HMLER. Biological replicates (4 - 6 samples) for each of 4 cell types were analyzed (untransformed hTERT immortalized cell populations (BPE&HME), and transformed tumorigenic derivatives (BPLER & HMLER).
Project description:Although controversial, recent studies suggest that serous ovarian carcinomas may arise from fallopian tube fimbria rather than ovarian surface epithelium. We developed an in vitro model for serous carcinogenesis in which primary human fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTECs) were exposed to potentially oncogenic molecular alterations delivered by retroviral vectors. To more closely mirror in vivo conditions, transformation of FTECs was driven by the positive selection of growth-promoting alterations rather antibiotic selection. Injection of the transformed FTEC lines in SCID mice resulted in xenografts with histologic and immunohistochemical features indistinguishable from poorly differentiated serous carcinomas. Transcriptional profiling revealed high similarity among the transformed and control FTEC lines and patient-derived serous ovarian carcinoma cells and was used to define a malignancy-related transcriptional signature. Oncogene-treated FTEC lines were serially analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis to identify oncogenes whose expression was subject to positive selection. The combination of p53 and Rb inactivation (mediated by SV40 T antigen), hTERT expression, and oncogenic C-MYC and HRAS accumulation showed positive selection during transformation. Knockdown of each of these selected components resulted in significant growth inhibition of the transformed cell lines that correlated with p27 accumulation. The combination of SV40 T antigen and hTERT expression resulted in immortalized cells that were nontumorigenic in mice, whereas forced expression of a dominant-negative p53 isoform (p53DD) and hTERT resulted in senescence. Thus, our investigation supports the tubal origin of serous carcinoma and provides a dynamic model for studying early molecular alterations in serous carcinogenesis.
Project description:The production of new adipocytes requires the differentiation of adipocyte precursor (AP) cells residing within the adipose tissue stromal-vascular compartment. The objective was to obtain an immortalized primary adipogenic cell line derived from FACS isolated committed APs using the conditional expression of SV40 T antigen. Adipocyte precursors were isolated from white adipose tissue (WAT) using FACS to remove non-adipogenic cell populations from mice expressing a conditionally regulated SV40 T antigen. APs were maintained by continuous culture and induced to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Adipogenesis, determined by Oil Red O staining, was assessed with each passage and compared to wildtype controls. Adipogenic capability was rapidly lost with increased passage number in committed APs with concurrent reduction in cell proliferation and expression of essential late adipogenic genes, including Ppar? and C/ebp?. Thus, FACS purified committed APs have limited capability to undergo expansion and subsequent adipogenic differentiation in vitro even if they are immortalized with the SV40 T antigen.
Project description:Senescence is a highly regulated process that limits cellular replication by enforcing a G1 arrest in response to various stimuli. Replicative senescence occurs in response to telomeric DNA erosion, and telomerase expression can offset replicative senescence leading to immortalization of many human cells. Limited data exists regarding changes of microRNA (miRNA) expression during senescence in human cells and no reports correlate telomerase expression with regulation of senescence-related miRNAs. We used miRNA microarrays to provide a detailed account of miRNA profiles for early passage and senescent human foreskin (BJ) fibroblasts as well as early and late passage immortalized fibroblasts (BJ-hTERT) that stably express the human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit hTERT. Selected miRNAs that were differentially expressed in senescence were assayed for expression in quiescent cells to identify miRNAs that are specifically associated with senescence-associated growth arrest. From this group of senescence-associated miRNAs, we confirmed the ability of miR-143 to induce growth arrest after ectopic expression in young fibroblasts. Remarkably, miR-143 failed to induce growth arrest in BJ-hTERT cells. Importantly, the comparison of late passage immortalized fibroblasts to senescent wild type fibroblasts reveals that miR-146a, a miRNA with a validated role in regulating the senescence associated secretory pathway, is also regulated during extended cell culture independently of senescence. The discovery that miRNA expression is impacted by expression of ectopic hTERT as well as extended passaging in immortalized fibroblasts contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the connections between telomerase expression, senescence and processes of cellular aging.