Widely metastatic IDH1-mutant glioblastoma with oligodendroglial features and atypical molecular findings: a case report and review of current challenges in molecular diagnostics.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Gliomas with 1p/19q-codeletion as well as mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 are typically characterized as oligodendrogliomas with comparatively good response to treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION:We present the case of a 28-year-old man with an IDH1 and TP53 mutant high grade glioma with abnormalities in chromosomes 1 and 19 suggestive of anaplastic oligodendroglioma that rapidly progressed to widespread metastatic disease. Biopsy of a liver lesion confirmed metastasis of the patient's known brain primary and chemotherapy with temozolomide was initiated. The patient's rapidly growing tumor burden with fulminant liver failure and tumor lysis led to multisystem failure of which the patient died. Further molecular testing illustrated features more consistent with glioblastoma: multiple large chromosomal aberrations including loss of whole chromosome 1 and 2q; gain/amplification of MYCN, MET, and CDK4; loss of CDKN2A/B; and an ATRX mutation. CONCLUSION:This case illustrates the importance of higher level molecular diagnostic testing for patients with particularly aggressive disease progression that is not concordant with standard prognoses. Additional data on cases with atypical alterations of 1p and 19q are needed to better understand the distinct biology of these cancers so that appropriate therapies can be developed.
Project description:Oligodendrogliomas are defined by mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) (IDH)1/2 genes and chromosome 1p/19q codeletion. World Health Organisation diagnosis endorses testing for 1p/19q codeletion to distinguish IDH mutant (Mut) oligodendrogliomas from astrocytomas because these gliomas require different treatments and they have different outcomes. Several methods have been used to identify 1p/19q status; however, these techniques are not routinely available and require substantial infrastructure investment. Two recent studies reported reduced immunostaining for trimethylation at lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) in IDH Mut 1p/19q codeleted oligodendroglioma. However, the specificity of H3K27me3 immunostaining in this setting is controversial. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-implement immunohistochemical surrogate for IDH Mut glioma subclassification and evaluated a validated adult glioma cohort. We screened 145 adult glioma cases, consisting of 45 IDH Mut and 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas, 30 IDH Mut astrocytomas, 16 IDH wild-type (Wt) astrocytomas, and 54 IDH Wt glioblastomas (GBMs). We compared immunostaining with DNA sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis and assessed differences in H3K27me3 staining between oligodendroglial and astrocytic lineages and between IDH1-R132H and non-canonical (non-R132H) IDH1/2 Mut oligodendroglioma. A loss of H3K27me3 was observed in 36/40 (90%) of IDH1-R132H Mut oligodendroglioma. In contrast, loss of H3K27me3 was never seen in IDH1-R132L or IDH2-mutated 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas. IDH Mut astrocytoma, IDH Wt astrocytoma and GBM showed preserved nuclear staining in 87%, 94%, and 91% of cases, respectively. A high recursive partitioning model predicted probability score (0.9835) indicated that the loss of H3K27me3 is frequent to IDH1-R132H Mut oligodendroglioma. Our results demonstrate H3K27me3 immunohistochemical evaluation to be a cost-effective and reliable method for defining 1p/19q codeletion along with IDH1-R132H and ATRX immunostaining, even in the absence of 1p/19q testing.
Project description:Although 1p/19q codeletion is the genetic hallmark defining oligodendrogliomas, approximately 30-40% of oligodendroglial tumors have intact 1p/19q in the literature and they demonstrate a worse prognosis. This group of 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors is frequently suggested to be astrocytic in nature with TP53 and ATRX mutations but actually remains under-investigated. In the present study, we provided evidence that not all 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors are astrocytic through histologic and molecular approaches. We examined 1p/19q status by FISH in a large cohort of 337 oligodendroglial tumors and identified 39.8% lacking 1p/19q codeletion which was independently associated with poor prognosis. Among this 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumor cohort, 58 cases demonstrated classic oligodendroglial histology which showed older patient age, better prognosis, association with grade III histology, PDGFRA expression, TERTp mutation, as well as frequent IDH mutation. More than half of the 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors showed lack of astrocytic defining markers, p53 expression and ATRX loss. TP53 mutational analysis was additionally conducted in 45 cases of the 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors. Wild-type TP53 was detected in 71.1% of cases which was associated with classic oligodendroglial histology. Importantly, IDH and TERTp co-occurred in 75% of 1p/19q intact, TP53 wild-type oligodendrogliomas, highlighting the potential of the co-mutations in assisting diagnosis of oligodendrogliomas in tumors with clear cell morphology and non-codeleted 1p/19q status. In summary, our study demonstrated that not all 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors are astrocytic and co-evaluation of IDH and TERTp mutation could potentially serve as an adjunct for diagnosing 1p/19q intact oligodendrogliomas.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>A chromosomal 1p/19q codeletion was included as a required diagnostic component of oligodendrogliomas in the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. We sought to evaluate disparities in reported testing for 1p/19q codeletion among oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma patients before and after the guidelines.<h4>Methods</h4>The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for patients with histologically-confirmed WHO grade II/III oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma from 2011-2017. Adjusted odds of having a reported 1p/19q codeletion test for patient- and hospital-level factors were calculated before (2011-2015) and after (2017) the guidelines. The adjusted likelihood of receiving adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) based on reported testing was also evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 6,404 patients were identified. The reported 1p/19q codeletion testing rate increased from 45.8% in 2011 to 59.8% in 2017. From 2011-2015, lack of insurance (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.62-0.97;p=0.025), lower zip code-level educational attainment (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.49-0.78;p<0.001), and Northeast (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57-0.82;p<0.001) or Southern (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.49-0.79;p<0.001) facility geographic region were negatively associated with reported testing. In 2017, Black race (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.91;p=0.024) and Northeast (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.30-0.84;p=0.009) or Southern (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.22-0.78;p=0.007) region were negatively associated with reported testing. Patients with a reported test were more likely to receive adjuvant treatment (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.46-2.04;p<0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Despite the 2016 WHO guidelines, disparities in reported 1p/19q codeletion testing by geographic region persisted while new disparities in race/ethnicity were identified, which may influence oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma patient management.
Project description:Knowledge of 1p/19q-codeletion and IDH1/2 mutational status is necessary to interpret any investigational study of diffuse gliomas in the modern era. While DNA sequencing is the gold standard for determining IDH mutational status, genome-wide methylation arrays and gene expression profiling have been used for surrogate mutational determination. Previous studies by our group suggest that 1p/19q-codeletion and IDH mutational status can be predicted by genome-wide somatic copy number alteration (SCNA) data alone, however a rigorous model to accomplish this task has yet to be established. In this study, we used SCNA data from 786 adult diffuse gliomas in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to develop a two-stage classification system that identifies 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas and predicts the IDH mutational status of astrocytic tumors using a machine-learning model. Cross-validated results on TCGA SCNA data showed near perfect classification results. Furthermore, our astrocytic IDH mutation model validated well on four additional datasets (AUC = 0.97, AUC = 0.99, AUC = 0.95, AUC = 0.96) as did our 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendroglioma screen on the two datasets that contained oligodendrogliomas (MCC = 0.97, MCC = 0.97). We then retrained our system using data from these validation sets and applied our system to a cohort of REMBRANDT study subjects for whom SCNA data, but not IDH mutational status, is available. Overall, using genome-wide SCNAs, we successfully developed a system to robustly predict 1p/19q-codeletion and IDH mutational status in diffuse gliomas. This system can assign molecular subtype labels to tumor samples of retrospective diffuse glioma cohorts that lack 1p/19q-codeletion and IDH mutational status, such as the REMBRANDT study, recasting these datasets as validation cohorts for diffuse glioma research.
Project description:1p/19q codeletion is a favorable prognostic marker of oligodendrogliomas. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) are common methods to test for 1p/19q codeletion, it is unclear which test is better at prognostic stratification. This study analyzed outcomes of 111 oligodendrogliomas with both 1p/19q FISH and LOH done at the time of diagnosis. Overall concordance between the 2 assays was 81.1%. In grade III oligodendrogliomas, LOH was better than FISH at survival stratification (p < 0.0001 for LOH vs p = 0.02 for FISH), although increasing the stringency of FISH interpretation criteria improved concordance and prognostic power. Oligodendrogliomas that were 1p/19q-codeleted by FISH but also had 10q LOH were negative for 1p/19q codeletion by PCR analysis in more than 70% of cases, with very poor survival in the grade III subset. Thus, although PCR-based LOH is a better stratifier of 1p/19q status, FISH still has clinical and prognostic utility, especially if 10q data can be incorporated.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Oligodendroglioma has a relatively favorable prognosis, however, often undergoes malignant progression. We hypothesized that preclinical models of oligodendroglioma could facilitate identification of therapeutic targets in progressive oligodendroglioma. We established multiple oligodendroglioma xenografts to determine if the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway drives tumor progression.<h4>Experimental design</h4>Two anatomically distinct tumor samples from a patient who developed progressive anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AOD) were collected for orthotopic transplantation in mice. We additionally implanted 13 tumors to investigate the relationship between PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations and oligodendroglioma xenograft formation. Pharmacologic vulnerabilities were tested in newly developed AOD models <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>.<h4>Results</h4>A specimen from the tumor site that subsequently manifested rapid clinical progression contained a <i>PIK3CA</i> mutation E542K, and yielded propagating xenografts that retained the OD/AOD-defining genomic alterations (<i>IDH1</i> <sup>R132H</sup> and 1p/19q codeletion) and <i>PIK3CA</i> <sup>E542K</sup>, and displayed characteristic sensitivity to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. In contrast, a xenograft did not engraft from the region that was clinically stable and had wild-type <i>PIK3CA</i>. In our panel of OD/AOD xenografts, the presence of activating mutations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was consistently associated with xenograft establishment (6/6, 100%). OD/AOD that failed to generate xenografts did not have activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR alterations (0/9, <i>P</i> < 0.0001). Importantly, mutant <i>PIK3CA</i> oligodendroglioma xenografts were vulnerable to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>-evidence that mutant <i>PIK3CA</i> is a tumorigenic driver in oligodendroglioma.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an oncogenic driver and is associated with xenograft formation in oligodendrogliomas. These findings have implications for therapeutic targeting of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in progressive oligodendrogliomas.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The biological factors responsible for differential chemoresponsiveness in oligodendroglial tumours with or without the -1p/-19q genotype are unknown, but tumour vascularity may contribute. We aimed to determine whether dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could distinguish molecular subtypes of oligodendroglial tumour, and examined the relationship between relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and outcome following procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy. METHODS: Pretherapy rCBV was calculated and inter- and intraobserver variability assessed. Allelic imbalance in 1p36, 19q13, 17p13, 10p12-15, and 10q22-26 and p53 mutation (exons 5-8) were determined. rCBV was compared with genotype and clinicopathological characteristics (n=37) and outcome following PCV chemotherapy (n=33). RESULTS: 1p/19q loss was seen in 6/9 grade II oligodendrogliomas, 6/14 grade II oligoastrocytomas, 4/4 grade III oligodendrogliomas, and 3/10 grade III oligoastrocytomas. rCBV measurements had good inter- and intraobserver variability, but did not distinguish histology subtype or grade. Tumours with 1p/19q loss had higher rCBV values (Student's t-test P=0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a cut-off of 1.59 for identifying genotype (sensitivity 92%, specificity 76%). Tumours with high and low rCBV showed response to chemotherapy. The -1p/-19q genotype, but not rCBV, was strongly associated with response, progression-free and overall survival following PCV chemotherapy. Tumours with high rCBV and intact 1p/19q were associated with shorter progression-free and overall patient survival than those with intact 1p/19q and low rCBV or high rCBV and 1p/19q loss. CONCLUSION: rCBV identifies oligodendroglial tumours with 1p/19q loss, but does not predict chemosensitivity. The prognostic significance of rCBV may differ in oligodendroglial tumours with or without the -1p/-19q genotype.
Project description:Among diffuse gliomas, oligodendrogliomas show relatively better prognosis, respond well to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and seldom progress to very aggressive tumors. To elucidate the genetic and epigenetic background for such behavior and tumor evolution during tumor relapse, we comparatively analyzed 12 pairs of primary and recurrent oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q-codeletion. Initial treatment for these patients was mostly chemotherapy alone. Temozolomide was used for 3, and procarbazine, nimustine and vincristine (PAV chemotherapy) were used for 7 patients. World Health Organization histological grade at recurrence was mostly stable; it was increased in 2, the same in 9, and decreased in 1 cases. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated that the rate of shared mutation between the primary and recurrent tumors was relatively low, ranging from 3.2-57.9% (average, 33.3%), indicating a branched evolutionary pattern. The trunk alterations that existed throughout the course were restricted to IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q-codeletion, and TERT promoter mutation, and mutation of the known candidate tumor suppressor genes CIC and FUBP1 were not consistently observed between primary and recurrent tumors. Multiple sampling from different regions within a tumor showed marked intratumoral heterogeneity. Notably, in general, the number of mutations was not significantly different after recurrence, remaining under 100, and no hypermutator phenotype was observed. FUBP1 mutation, loss of chr. 9p21, and TCF12 mutation were among a few recurrent de novo alterations that were found at recurrence, indicating that these events were clonally selected at recurrence but were not enough to enhance malignancy. Genome-wide methylation status, measured by Illumina 450 K arrays, was stable between recurrence and the primary tumor. In summary, although oligodendroglioma displays marked mutational heterogeneity, histological malignant transformation accompanying events such as considerable increase in mutation number and epigenetic profile change were not observed at recurrence, indicating that noticeable temporal and spatial genetic heterogeneity in oligodendrogliomas does not result in rapid tumor progression.
Project description:IDH-mutant gliomas are classified into astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors by 1p/19q status in the WHO 2016 classification, with the latter presenting with characteristic morphology and better prognosis in general. However, the morphological and genetic features within each category are varied, and there might be distinguishable subtypes. We analyzed 170 WHO grade II-IV gliomas resected in our institution. 1p/19q status was analyzed by microsatellite analysis, and genetic mutations were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. For validation, the Brain Lower Grade Glioma dataset of The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed. Of the 42 grade III IDH-mutated gliomas, 12 were 1p-intact/19q-intact (anaplastic astrocytomas [AA]), 7 were 1p-intact/19q-loss (AA), and 23 showed 1p/19q-codeletion (anaplastic oligodendrogliomas). Of the 88 IDH-wild type glioblastomas (GBMs), 14 showed 1p-intact/19q-loss status. All of the seven 1p-intact/19q-loss AAs harbored TP53 mutation, but no TERT promotor mutation. All 19q-loss AAs had regions presenting oligodendroglioma-like morphology, and were associated with significantly longer overall survival compared to 19q-intact AAs (P = .001). This tendency was observed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Lower Grade Glioma dataset. In contrast, there was no difference in overall survival between the 19q-loss GBM and 19q-intact GBM (P = .4). In a case of 19q-loss AA, both oligodendroglial morphology and 19q-loss disappeared after recurrence, possibly indicating correlation between 19q-loss and oligodendroglial morphology. We showed that there was a subgroup, although small, of IDH-mutated astrocytomas harboring 19q-loss that present oligodendroglial morphology, and also were associated with significantly better prognosis compared to other 19q-intact astrocytomas.
Project description:Following the introduction of the molecular classification of gliomas by the WHO in 2016, molecularly-proven lineage conversion during glioma recurrence has never been reported. The reported two cases were initially diagnosed as oligodendroglioma with 1p/19q-codeletion and mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H. The recurrent tumors showed loss of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) expression, strong P53 positivity, and 1p/19q-nondeletion. Next generation sequencing analysis performed on the first case confirmed the transition of molecular traits from oligodendroglioma to astrocytoma. An IDH mutation of R132H was preserved in the episodes of recurrence, but ATRX and TP53 mutations were newly acquired and TERT promoter mutation C228T was lost at the most recent recurrence. The issue in question for the presented cases is whether the original tumors were pure oligodendrogliomas that then transdifferentiated into astrocytomas, or whether the original tumor was an oligoastrocytoma having oligodendroglioma cells that outnumbered the astrocytoma cells and where the astrocytoma cells becoming more dominant over the episodes of recurrence. With the recognition of the possibility of lineage conversion, our study suggests that molecular examination should be performed to adjust therapeutic strategies in recurrent gliomas. Indeed, our observation of lineage conversion in glioma recurrence calls into question the current distinction drawn between oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma and oligoastrocytoma, rather than simply bidding "farewell to oligoastrocytoma."