Improved genome of Agrobacterium radiobacter type strain provides new taxonomic insight into Agrobacterium genomospecies 4.
ABSTRACT: The reported Agrobacterium radiobacter DSM 30174T genome is highly fragmented, hindering robust comparative genomics and genome-based taxonomic analysis. We re-sequenced the Agrobacterium radiobacter type strain, generating a dramatically improved genome with high contiguity. In addition, we sequenced the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6T, enabling for the first time, a proper comparative genomics of these contentious Agrobacterium species. We provide concrete evidence that the previously reported Agrobacterium radiobacter type strain genome (Accession Number: ASXY01) is contaminated which explains its abnormally large genome size and fragmented assembly. We propose that Agrobacterium tumefaciens be reclassified as Agrobacterium radiobacter subsp. tumefaciens and that Agrobacterium radiobacter retains it species status with the proposed name of Agrobacterium radiobacter subsp. radiobacter. This proposal is based, first on the high pairwise genome-scale average nucleotide identity supporting the amalgamation of both Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium tumefaciens into a single species. Second, maximum likelihood tree construction based on the concatenated alignment of shared genes (core genes) among related strains indicates that Agrobacterium radiobacter NCPPB3001 is sufficiently divergent from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to propose two independent sub-clades. Third, Agrobacterium tumefaciens demonstrates the genomic potential to synthesize the L configuration of fucose in its lipid polysaccharide, fostering its ability to colonize plant cells more effectively than Agrobacterium radiobacter.
Project description:The genus Agrobacterium includes plant-associated bacteria and opportunistic human pathogens. Taxonomy and nomenclature within the genus remain controversial. In particular, isolates of human origin were all affiliated with the species Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) radiobacter, while phytopathogenic strains were designated under the synonym denomination Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In order to study the relative distribution of Agrobacterium strains according to their origins, we performed a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA) on a large collection of 89 clinical and environmental strains from various origins. We proposed an MLSA scheme based on the partial sequence of 7 housekeeping genes (atpD, zwf, trpE, groEL, dnaK, glnA, and rpoB) present on the circular chromosome of A. tumefaciens C58. Multilocus phylogeny revealed that 88% of the clinical strains belong to genovar A7, which formed a homogeneous population with linkage disequilibrium, suggesting a low rate of recombination. Comparison of genomic fingerprints obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that the strains of genovar A7 were epidemiologically unrelated. We present genetic evidence that genovar A7 may constitute a human-associated population distinct from the environmental population. Also, phenotypic characteristics, such as culture at 42°C, agree with this statement. This human-associated population might represent a potential novel species in the genus Agrobacterium.
Project description:Agrobacterium radiobacter is the only known non-phytopathogenic species in Agrobacterium genus. In this study, the whole-genome sequence of A. radiobacter type strain DSM 30147(T) was described and compared to the other available Agrobacterium genomes. This bacterium has a genome size of 7,122,065 bp distributed in 612 contigs, including 6,834 protein-coding genes and 41 RNA genes. It harbors a circular chromosome and a linear chromosome but not a tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome from the A. radiobacter species. In addition, an emended description of A. radiobacter is described. This study reveals information that enhances the current understanding of its non-phytopathogenicity and its phylogenetic position within Agrobacterium genus.
Project description:A novel Rhizobium radiobacter (synonym Agrobacterium tumefaciens)-mediated approach was developed to generate stable infectious clones of plant viruses. This method uses R. radiobacter for both cloning and inoculation of infectious clones, bypassing the requirement of cloning in E. coli to avoid the instability. Only three steps are included in this method: (i) construct viral genome-encoding plasmids in vitro by one-step Gibson assembly; (ii) transform the assembled DNA products into R. radiobacter; (iii) inoculate plants with the R. radiobacter clones containing the viral genome. Stable infectious clones were obtained from two potyviruses papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) using this method, whereas attempts utilizing "classical" E. coli cloning system failed repeatedly. This method is simple and efficient, and is promising for a wide application in generation of infectious clones of plant virus, especially for those which are instable in E. coli.
Project description:Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, syn. "Agrobacterium fabrum") is an endofungal bacterium of the fungal mutualist Piriformospora (syn. Serendipita) indica (Basidiomycota), which together form a tripartite Sebacinalean symbiosis with a broad range of plants. R. radiobacter strain F4 (RrF4), isolated from P. indica DSM 11827, induces growth promotion and systemic resistance in cereal crops, including barley and wheat, suggesting that R. radiobacter contributes to a successful symbiosis. Here, we studied the impact of endobacteria on the morphology and the beneficial activity of P. indica during interactions with plants. Low numbers of endobacteria were detected in the axenically grown P. indica (long term lab-cultured, lcPiri) whereas mycelia colonizing the plant root contained increased numbers of bacteria. Higher numbers of endobacteria were also found in axenic cultures of P. indica that was freshly re-isolated (riPiri) from plant roots, though numbers dropped during repeated axenic re-cultivation. Prolonged treatments of P. indica cultures with various antibiotics could not completely eliminate the bacterium, though the number of detectable endobacteria decreased significantly, resulting in partial-cured P. indica (pcPiri). pcPiri showed reduced growth in axenic cultures and poor sporulation. Consistent with this, pcPiri also showed reduced plant growth promotion and reduced systemic resistance against powdery mildew infection as compared with riPiri and lcPiri. These results are consistent with the assumption that the endobacterium R. radiobacter improves P. indica's fitness and thus contributes to the success of the tripartite Sebacinalean symbiosis.
Project description:The genes for two different protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenases (P34Os) were cloned from the 4-sulfocatechol-degrading bacterium Agrobacterium radiobacter strain S2 (DSMZ 5681). The pcaH1G1 genes encoded a P34O (P34O-I) which oxidized protocatechuate but not 4-sulfocatechol. These genes were part of a protocatechuate-degradative operon which strongly resembled the isofunctional operon from the protocatechuate-degrading strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens A348 described previously by D. Parke (FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 146:3-12, 1997). The second P34O (P34O-II), encoded by the pcaH2G2 genes, was functionally expressed and shown to convert protocatechuate and 4-sulfocatechol. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of PcaH-I and PcaH-II, and of PcaG-I and PcaG-II, with each other and with the corresponding sequences from the P34Os, from other bacterial genera suggested that the genes for the P34O-II were obtained by strain S2 by lateral gene transfer. The genes encoding the P34O-II were found in a putative operon together with two genes which, according to sequence alignments, encoded transport proteins. Further downstream from this putative operon, two open reading frames which code for a putative regulator protein of the IclR family and a putative 3-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase were identified.
Project description:The Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium radiobacter F4 (RrF4) was originally characterized as an endofungal bacterium in the beneficial endophytic Sebacinalean fungus Piriformospora indica. Although attempts to cure P. indica from RrF4 repeatedly failed, the bacterium can easily be grown in pure culture. Here, we report on RrF4's genome and the beneficial impact the free-living bacterium has on plants. In contrast to other endofungal bacteria, the genome size of RrF4 is not reduced. Instead, it shows a high degree of similarity to the plant pathogenic R. radiobacter (formerly: Agrobacterium tumefaciens) C58, except vibrant differences in both the tumor-inducing (pTi) and the accessor (pAt) plasmids, which can explain the loss of RrF4's pathogenicity. Similar to its fungal host, RrF4 colonizes plant roots without host preference and forms aggregates of attached cells and dense biofilms at the root surface of maturation zones. RrF4-colonized plants show increased biomass and enhanced resistance against bacterial leaf pathogens. Mutational analysis showed that, similar to P. indica, resistance mediated by RrF4 was dependent on the plant's jasmonate-based induced systemic resistance (ISR) pathway. Consistent with this, RrF4- and P. indica-induced pattern of defense gene expression were similar. In clear contrast to P. indica, but similar to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, RrF4 colonized not only the root outer cortex but also spread beyond the endodermis into the stele. On the basis of our findings, RrF4 is an efficient plant growth-promoting bacterium.