Oncogenic KSHV-encoded interferon regulatory factor upregulates HMGB2 and CMPK1 expression to promote cell invasion by disrupting a complex lncRNA-OIP5-AS1/miR-218-5p network.
ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a highly disseminated tumor of hyperproliferative spindle endothelial cells, is the most common AIDS-associated malignancy caused by infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1) is a viral oncogene but its role in KSHV-induced tumor invasiveness and motility remains unknown. Here, we report that vIRF1 promotes endothelial cell migration, invasion and proliferation by down-regulating miR-218-5p to relieve its suppression of downstream targets high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) and cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 1 (CMPK1). Mechanistically, vIRF1 inhibits p53 function to increase the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNA methylation of the promoter of pre-miR-218-1, a precursor of miR-218-5p, and increases the expression of a long non-coding RNA OIP5 antisense RNA 1 (lnc-OIP5-AS1), which acts as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-218-5p to inhibit its function and reduce its stability. Moreover, lnc-OIP5-AS1 increases DNA methylation of the pre-miR-218-1 promoter. Finally, deletion of vIRF1 from the KSHV genome reduces the level of lnc-OIP5-AS1, increases the level of miR-218-5p, and inhibits KSHV-induced invasion. Together, these results define a novel complex lnc-OIP5-AS1/miR-218-5p network hijacked by vIRF1 to promote invasiveness and motility of KSHV-induced tumors.
Project description:Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are novel single-stranded noncoding RNAs that can decoy other RNAs to inhibit their functions. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), caused by oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a highly angiogenic and invasive vascular tumor of endothelial origin commonly found in AIDS patients. We have recently shown that KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1) induces cell invasion, angiogenesis and cellular transformation; however, the role of circRNAs is largely unknown in the context of KSHV vIRF1. Herein, transcriptome analysis identified 22 differentially expressed cellular circRNAs regulated by vIRF1 in an endothelial cell line. Among them, circARFGEF1 was the highest upregulated circRNA. Mechanistically, vIRF1 induced circARFGEF1 transcription by binding to transcription factor lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (Lef1). Importantly, upregulation of circARFGEF1 was required for vIRF1-induced cell motility, proliferation and in vivo angiogenesis. circARFGEF1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) by binding to and inducing degradation of miR-125a-3p. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that glutaredoxin 3 (GLRX3) was a direct target of miR-125a-3p. Knockdown of GLRX3 impaired cell motility, proliferation and angiogenesis induced by vIRF1. Taken together, vIRF1 transcriptionally activates circARFGEF1, potentially by binding to Lef1, to promote cell oncogenic phenotypes via inhibiting miR-125a-3p and inducing GLRX3. These findings define a novel mechanism responsible for vIRF1-induced oncogenesis and establish the scientific basis for targeting these molecules for treating KSHV-associated cancers.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs have been reported to be involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression. However, whether Opa-interacting protein 5 antisense RNA 1 (OIP5-AS1) serves a role in NSCLC remains unclear. Bioinformatics analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets showed clinical significance and relevance of OIP5-AS1 in NSCLC. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed protein and RNA expression levels of the genes [including OIP5-AS1, microRNA (miR)-140-5p, histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)]. Direct associations between the genes (miR-140-5p and OIP5-AS1, or miR-140-5p and HDAC7) were confirmed using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Lymphatic vessel formation and invasion ability were detected using a lymphatic vessel formation assay and Transwell invasion assay. OIP5-AS1 knockdown attenuated lymphatic vessel length and invasion. The role of OIP5-AS1 was reverted by miR-140-5p. HDAC7 and VEGFA are downstream effectors of miR-140-5p-mediated NSCLC metastasis. OIP5-AS1, miR-140-5p, HDAC7 and VEGFA were all dysregulated in human clinical NSCLC tumor tissues. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated a novel mechanism for OIP5-AS1-induced metastatic phenotypes of NSCLC via the miR-140-5p/HDAC7/VEGFA axis.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is often associated with the infection of Epstein-Barr virus in nasopharynx and is mainly happened in South China and Southeast Asia. Recently, noncoding RNAs have been reported to regulate NPC carcinogenesis. LncRNA OIP5-AS1 participates in tumorigenesis and progression; however, the inherent mechanism of OIP5-AS1-mediated progression of NPC is unclear. In the current study, we aimed to explore the role of OIP5-AS1 in NPC progression. We measured the cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in NPC cells after OIP5-AS1 modulation. Moreover, we determined whether OIP5-AS1 exerts its oncogenic functions <i>via</i> sponging miR-183-5p in NPC. Furthermore, we determined whether glutamate ammonia ligase (GLUL) was a downstream target of miR-183-5p. We found that OIP5-AS1 downregulation inhibited the viability, migration and invasion of NPC <i>via</i> targeting miR-183-5p. We also identified that GLUL might be a potential downstream target of miR-183-5p in NPC cells. Mechanistically, OIP5-AS1 promotes cell motility <i>via</i> regulating miR-183-5p and GLUL in NPC cells. We concluded that OIP5-AS1 performed its biological functions <i>via</i> targeting miR-183-5p and GLUL in NPC cells.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. LncRNA OIP5 antisense RNA 1 (OIP5-AS1) has been found to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we further investigated the molecular basis of OIP5-AS1 in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. <b>Methods:</b> Oxidative low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) was used to treat human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The levels of OIP5-AS1, miR-135a-5p, and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot. Cell viability, migration, and apoptosis were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell, and flow cytometry, respectively. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Targeted interactions among OIP5-AS1, miR-135a-5p, and KLF5 were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. Animal studies were performed to assess the role of OIP5-AS1 in atherosclerosis progression <i>in vivo</i>. <b>Results:</b> Our data showed the significant upregulation of OIP5-AS1 in atherosclerosis serum and ox-LDL-stimulated HUVECs. The silencing of OIP5-AS1 protected against ox-LDL-triggered cytotoxicity in HUVECs and diminished lipids secretion in ApoE<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Moreover, OIP5-AS1 functioned as a molecular sponge of miR-135a-5p, and miR-135a-5p was a functional mediator of OIP5-AS1 in regulating ox-LDL-induced HUVEC injury. KLF5 was a direct target of miR-135a-5p, and the increased expression of miR-135a-5p alleviated ox-LDL-induced cytotoxicity by downregulating KLF5. Furthermore, OIP5-AS1 influenced KLF5 expression through sponging miR-135a-5p. <b>Conclusion:</b> The current work identified that the silencing of OIP5-AS1 protected against ox-LDL-triggered cytotoxicity in HUVECs at least in part by influencing KLF5 expression via acting as a miR-135a-5p sponge.
Project description:Several studies have shown an important role for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in breast cancer progression. The present study investigated the role of lncRNA Opa interacting protein 5-antisense RNA 1 (OIP5-AS1) in the progression of breast cancer. OIP5-AS1 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and in breast cancer cell lines, and OIP5-AS1 downregulation inhibited the malignant behavior of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. For in-depth exploration of the mechanism of OIP5-AS1 in breast cancer, we found that expression of microRNA-129-5p(miR-129-5p), which was found to bind sites in the sequence of OIP5-AS1, in breast cancer tissues was negatively correlated with OIP5-AS1. Also, luciferase assays indicated that OIP5-AS1 acted as a miR-129-5p sponge, resulting in upregulated expression of the sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) transcription factor. Our study showed that OIP5-AS1 plays a critical role in promoting breast cancer progression and that OIP5-AS1 downregulation targets SOX2 by miR-129-5p upregulation.
Project description:The function of the vast majority of mammalian long noncoding (lnc) RNAs remains unknown. Here, analysis of a highly abundant mammalian lncRNA, OIP5-AS1, known as cyrano in zebrafish, revealed that OIP5-AS1 reduces cell proliferation. In human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, the RNA-binding protein HuR, which enhances cell proliferation, associated with OIP5-AS1 and stabilized it. Tagging OIP5-AS1 with MS2 hairpins to identify associated microRNAs revealed that miR-424 interacted with OIP5-AS1 and competed with HuR for binding to OIP5-AS1. We further identified a 'sponge' function for OIP5-AS1, as high levels of OIP5-AS1 increased HuR-OIP5-AS1 complexes and prevented HuR interaction with target mRNAs, including those that encoded proliferative proteins, while conversely, lowering OIP5-AS1 increased the abundance of HuR complexes with target mRNAs. We propose that OIP5-AS1 serves as a sponge or a competing endogenous (ce)RNA for HuR, restricting its availability to HuR target mRNAs and thereby repressing HuR-elicited proliferative phenotypes.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women with the highest number of related deaths which is caused by distal metastasis. Recently, integrated analysis of gene expression profile suggested widespread gene dysregulation in various types of cancer. Research in the past decade has focused on long non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs), particularly in cell proliferation, tumor progression and metastasis. OPA?interacting protein 5 antisense transcript 1 (OIP5?AS1) is an evolutionarily conserved long non?coding RNA that has been linked to oncogenesis in multiple cancers. In breast cancer, dysregulation of OIP5?AS1 was reported but the precise role in cancer development and progression remains unclear. In the present study, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting OIP5?AS1, it was shown that knockdown of OIP5?AS1 was associated with alteration of EMT markers and suppressed migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Among the EMT?related transcription factors, ZEB1 and ZEB2 were significantly downregulated with OIP5?AS1 knockdown. Computational analysis and a dual?luciferase reporter system identified miR?340?5p was the target gene for OIP5?AS1. Further experiments verified the function of OIP5?AS1 in cell invasion was dependent on miR?340a?5p through regulating target gene ZEB2. In vivo study demonstrated that overexpressing OIP5?AS1 in breast cancer cells promoted lung metastasis in nude mice. The findings of the present study revealed the mechanism of OIP5?AS1 in breast cancer metastasis. Overall, our study may provide a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:Background: Resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains a problem in clinical treatment, and the mechanism has not been fully clarified. Autophagy can protect cancer cells under chemotherapeutic stimulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical in drug resistance of CML. The role of lncRNAs in autophagy and drug resistance of CML needs to be further explored. Methods: Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the autophagy activity in the drug-resistant CML cell line K562/G01 and its parental cell line K562. Then the sensitivity of K562/G01 cells to the first generation TKI imatinib (IM) after autophagy inhibition was determined by CCK-8 assays. The lncRNA OIP5-AS1 related to the drug resistance of CML cells was determined by Gene Expression Omnibus database analysis. Western blot and drug-sensitivity assays were used to detect changes in autophagy and sensitivity to the IM in resistant CML cells after OIP5-AS1 knockdown. The interactions of OIP5-AS1, miR-30e-5p, and ATG12 were explored by RNA immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter assays. Results: In this study, we found that autophagy was associated with drug resistance in CML cells. Moreover, the upregulation of OIP5-AS1 in K562/G01 cells was related to the enhancement of autophagy. Knockdown of OIP5-AS1 suppressed autophagy and enhanced the sensitivity of K562/G01 cells to IM. Furthermore, OIP5-AS1 regulated ATG12 by competitively binding miR-30e-5p, thereby affecting autophagy-related drug resistance. Conclusion: Our study reveals that OIP5-AS1 promotes the autophagy-related IM resistance in CML cells by regulating miR-30e-5p/ATG12 axis, providing new insights into the drug resistance mechanism of CML.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a highly angioproliferative disseminated tumor of endothelial cells commonly found in AIDS patients. We have recently shown that KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1) mediates KSHV-induced cell motility (PLoS Pathog. 2019 Jan 30;15(1):e1007578). However, the role of vIRF1 in KSHV-induced cellular transformation and angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we show that vIRF1 promotes angiogenesis by upregulating sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) using two in vivo angiogenesis models including the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and the matrigel plug angiogenesis assay in mice. Mechanistically, vIRF1 interacts with transcription factor Lef1 to promote SPAG9 transcription. vIRF1-induced SPAG9 promotes the interaction of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) with JNK1/2 to increase their phosphorylation, resulting in enhanced VEGFA expression, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration. Finally, genetic deletion of ORF-K9 from KSHV genome abolishes KSHV-induced cellular transformation and impairs angiogenesis. Our results reveal that vIRF1 transcriptionally activates SPAG9 expression to promote angiogenesis and tumorigenesis via activating JNK/VEGFA signaling. These novel findings define the mechanism of KSHV induction of the SPAG9/JNK/VEGFA pathway and establish the scientific basis for targeting this pathway for treating KSHV-associated cancers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Acute lung injury (ALI) is a pulmonary disorder that leads to acute respiration failure and thereby results in a high mortality worldwide. Increasing studies have indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a promoter in ALI, and we aimed to explore the underlying upstream mechanism of TLR4 in ALI.<h4>Methods</h4>We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an acute inflammatory response in vitro model and a murine mouse model. A wide range of experiments including reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, hematoxylin-eosin staining, RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase activity and caspase-3 activity detection assays were conducted to figure out the expression status, specific role and potential upstream mechanism of TLR4 in ALI.<h4>Result</h4>TLR4 expression was upregulated in ALI mice and LPS-treated primary bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, miR-26a-5p was confirmed to target TLR4 according to results of luciferase reporter assay. In addition, miR-26a-5p overexpression decreased the contents of proinflammatory factors and inhibited cell apoptosis, while upregulation of TLR4 reversed these effects of miR-26a-5p mimics, implying that miR-26a-5p alleviated ALI by regulating TLR4. Afterwards, OPA interacting protein 5 antisense RNA 1 (OIP5-AS1) was identified to bind with miR-26a-5p. Functionally, OIP5-AS1 upregulation promoted the inflammation and miR-26a-5p overexpression counteracted the influence of OIP5-AS1 upregulation on cell inflammatory response and apoptosis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>OIP5-AS1 promotes ALI by regulating the miR-26a-5p/TLR4 axis in ALI mice and LPS-treated cells, which indicates a promising insight into diagnostics and therapeutics in ALI.