Montelukast enhances cytocidal effects of carfilzomib in multiple myeloma by inhibiting mTOR pathway.
ABSTRACT: Montelukast is an anti-asthmatic medication, and has recently showed its inhibitory effects on the proliferation of cancers. The purpose of this study was to identify the cytotoxic effects of montelukast on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and the combination effects of montelukast and carfilzomib in the treatment of MM. Results revealed that montelukast induced a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in MM cells lines and significantly suppressed the colony formation of myeloma cells. Furthermore, montelukast enhanced the cytotoxicity of carfilzomib in MM cell lines. This anti-tumor effect was associated with decreased c-Myc via the inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, the combination of montelukast and carfilzomib induced apoptosis of myeloma cells effectively, even in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). It is more important to note that the co-treatment exhibited similar cytocidal effects in carfilzomib-resistant cell lines (U266R and 8226R). In addition, the combined effects were noted in two MM xenograft mice models and 7 cases of human CD138+ myeloma cells (4 newly diagnosed cases and 3 relapsed cases) with no cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 5 healthy donors. Our data suggested that montelukast enhanced the cytotoxicity of carfilzomib in both carfilzomib-sensitive and carfilzomib-resistant MM cell lines. These findings may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies and provide a promising therapeutic combination regimen for the treatment of refractory myeloma.
Project description:Despite the development of promising cancer therapeutic drugs, multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease. Bufalin is a bufanolide steroid compound of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su that was previously shown to exert growth suppression effects on myeloma cell lines. Previous studies conducted by our group demonstrated that bufalin activated the AKT/mTOR pathway in myeloma cells, which is considered an essential pathway to disease progression and is related to drug resistance in MM. In view of the significant role of AKT in MM, the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK2206 was selected in order to enhance the antitumor effects of bufalin in different MM cell lines (NCI-H929, U266, LP-1 and RPMI8226). The data indicated that MK2206 enhanced the cytotoxicity of bufalin in MM cells, via the suppression of cellular proliferation and the induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by cleavage of apoptosis-related proteins. This effect was further noted in the presence of exogenous interleukin-6 and/or following the co-culture of MM cells with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). This process was associated with the inhibition of the AKT/mTOR pathway. The combination of bufalin with MK2206 reduced the secretion of IL-6 in U266 cells. The combined treatment exhibited similar anti-MM effects in bortezomib-resistant cell lines (NCI-H929R, U266R). In addition to the in vitro cell line models, the synergistic effect was noted in primary MM cells and in MM xenografts of BALB-c and NOD-SCID mice. In conclusion, the data suggested that MK2206 significantly enhanced the cytocidal effects of bufalin in MM cells, regardless of the sensitivity to bortezomib, via the inhibition of the AKT/mTOR pathway. The study provided the basis of a promising treatment approach for MM.
Project description:Carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), a second generation proteasome inhibitor, is FDA approved for single-agent use among relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of carfilzomib, we sought to combine carfilzomib with other novel agents. TG02, a multi-kinase inhibitor, targets JAK2 and CDK9. The rationale for co-treatment with carfilzomib and TG02 is that both independently target Mcl-1 and most myeloma cells are dependent on this anti-apoptotic protein for survival. We observed at least additive effects using the combination treatment in MM cell lines and patient samples. To determine how the bone marrow environment affects the efficacy of the combination we conducted co-culture experiments with Hs-5 stromal cells. We also examined the mechanism of increased apoptosis by determining the affect on expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. We found that carfilzomib increases NOXA mRNA expression, as expected, and TG02 treatment caused a decrease in Mcl-1 protein but not mRNA levels. Consistent with this possibility, we find silencing CDK9 does not change carfilzomib sensitivity in the same manner as addition of TG02. Since changes in Mcl-1 protein occur in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor we hypothesize that regulation of Mcl-1 translation is the most likely mechanism. Taken together our data suggest that dual inhibition of Mcl-1 via decreased expression and the induction of its antagonist NOXA by the combination of carfilzomib and TG02 is active in myeloma and warrants further testing preclinically and in clinical trials. Moreover, regulation of Mcl-1 by TG02 is more complex than initially appreciated.
Project description:Proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib and ixazomib (approved by the US Food and Drug Administration [FDA]) induce remissions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but most patients eventually become resistant. MM and other hematologic malignancies express ubiquitous constitutive proteasomes and lymphoid tissue-specific immunoproteasomes; immunoproteasome expression is increased in resistant patients. Immunoproteasomes contain 3 distinct pairs of active sites, ?5i, ?1i, and ?2i, which are different from their constitutive ?5c, ?1c, and ?2c counterparts. Bortezomib and carfilzomib block ?5c and ?5i sites. We report here that pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ?5i-specific inhibitor ONX-0914 show cytotoxicity in MM cell lines similar to that of carfilzomib and bortezomib. In addition, increasing immunoproteasome expression by interferon-? increases sensitivity to ONX-0914 but not to carfilzomib. LU-102, an inhibitor of ?2 sites, dramatically sensitizes MM cell lines and primary cells to ONX-0914. ONX-0914 synergizes with all FDA-approved proteasome inhibitors in MM in vitro and in vivo. Thus, immunoproteasome inhibitors, currently in clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, should also be considered for the treatment of MM.
Project description:The molecular target(s) cooperating with proteasome inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) remain unknown. We therefore measured proliferation in MM cells transfected with 13 984 small interfering RNAs in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of bortezomib. We identified 37 genes, which when silenced, are not directly cytotoxic but do synergistically potentiate the growth inhibitory effects of bortezomib. To focus on bortezomib sensitizers, genes that also sensitized MM to melphalan were excluded. When suppressed, the strongest bortezomib sensitizers were the proteasome subunits PSMA5, PSMB2, PSMB3, and PSMB7 providing internal validation, but others included BAZ1B, CDK5, CDC42SE2, MDM4, NME7, RAB8B, TFE3, TNFAIP3, TNK1, TOP1, VAMP2, and YY1. The strongest hit CDK5 also featured prominently in pathway analysis of primary screen data. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is expressed at high levels in MM and neural tissues with relatively low expression in other organs. Viral shRNA knockdown of CDK5 consistently sensitized 5 genetically variable MM cell lines to proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib). Small-molecule CDK5 inhibitors were demonstrated to synergize with bortezomib to induce cytotoxicity of primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines. CDK5 regulation of proteasome subunit PSMB5 was identified as a probable route to sensitization.
Project description:Proteasome-inhibiting drugs (PI) are gaining importance in hematologic oncology. The proteasome carries three proteolytically active subunits (?1, ?2, ?5). All established PI (bortezomib and carfilzomib), as well as experimental drugs in the field (dalanzomib, oprozomib, and ixazomib), by design target the rate-limiting ?5 subunit. It is unknown whether ?2-selective proteasome inhibition can also be exploited toward anticancer treatment. Combining PI with the pan B-cell-directed Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib appears a natural option for future improved treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and B-cell lymphomas. However, bortezomib induces phosphorylation of I?B and activation of NF-?B in MM cells, while ibrutinib inhibits the I?B/NF-?B axis, suggesting antagonistic signaling. A ?2-selective proteasome inhibitor may lack such antagonistic signaling effects.We recently introduced LU-102, the first ?2-selective PI available for preclinical testing. We here compare bortezomib with carfilzomib and LU-102 in MM and MCL in vitro with regard to their effects on pI?B/NF-?B signaling and their cytotoxic activity in combination with ibrutinib.LU-102 reduced phosphorylation of I?B, in contrast to bortezomib and carfilzomib, and was a superior inhibitor of NF-?B activation in MM cells. This translated into highly synergistic cytotoxicity between LU-102 and ibrutinib, which was able to overcome BTZ resistance and CFZ resistance. By contrast, BTZ lacked consistent synergistic cytotoxicity with ibrutinib.Ibrutinib is highly synergistic with ?2-selective proteasome inhibition against MM and MCL in vitro. Novel ?2-selective proteasome inhibitors may be exploited to overcome bortezomib/carfilzomib resistance and boost the activity of BTK inhibitors against B-cell-derived malignancies.
Project description:HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) are oral drugs for HIV treatment. HIV-PI have antitumor activity via induction of ER-stress, inhibition of phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and the proteasome, suggesting antimyeloma activity. We characterize the effects of all approved HIV-PI on myeloma cells. HIV-PI were compared regarding cytotoxicity, proteasome activity, ER-stress induction and AKT phosphorylation using myeloma cells in vitro. Nelfinavir is the HIV-PI with highest cytotoxic activity against primary myeloma cells and with an IC50 near therapeutic drug blood levels (8-14??M), irrespective of bortezomib sensitivity. Only nelfinavir inhibited intracellular proteasome activity in situ at drug concentrations <40??M. Ritonavir, saquinavir and lopinavir inhibited p-AKT comparable to nelfinavir, and showed similar synergistic cytotoxicity with bortezomib against bortezomib-sensitive cells. Nelfinavir had superior synergistic activity with bortezomib/carfilzomib in particular against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells. It inhibited not only the proteasomal ?1/?5 active sites, similar to bortezomib/carfilzomib, but in addition the ?2 proteasome activity not targeted by bortezomib/carfilzomib. Additional inhibition of ?2 proteasome activity is known to sensitize cells for bortezomib and carfilzomib. Nelfinavir has unique proteasome inhibiting activity in particular on the bortezomib/carfilzomib-insensitive tryptic (?2) proteasome activity in intact myeloma cells, and is active against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells in vitro.
Project description:The novel small molecule PTC596 inhibits microtubule polymerization and its clinical development has been initiated for some solid cancers. We herein investigated the preclinical efficacy of PTC596 alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). PTC596 inhibited the proliferation of MM cell lines as well as primary MM samples in vitro, and this was confirmed with MM cell lines in vivo. PTC596 synergized with bortezomib or carfilzomib to inhibit the growth of MM cells in vitro. The combination treatment of PTC596 with bortezomib exerted synergistic effects in a xenograft model of human MM cell lines in immunodeficient mice and exhibited acceptable tolerability. Mechanistically, treatment with PTC596 induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase followed by apoptotic cell death, associated with the inhibition of microtubule polymerization. RNA sequence analysis also revealed that PTC596 and the combination with bortezomib affected the cell cycle and apoptosis in MM cells. Importantly, endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by bortezomib was enhanced by PTC596, providing an underlying mechanism of action of the combination therapy. Our results indicate that PTC596 alone and in combination with proteasome inhibition are potential novel therapeutic options to improve outcomes in patients with MM.
Project description:Cells degrade proteins either by proteasomes that clinically are targeted by for example bortezomib or carfilzomib, or by formation of autophagosomes and lysosomal degradation that can be inhibited by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Multiple myeloma is unique among cancers because proteasomal inhibition has good clinical effects. However, some multiple myeloma patients display intrinsic resistance to the treatment and most patients acquire resistance over time. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting both arms of protein degradation could be a way to improve treatment of multiple myeloma. Here we tested the combined effects of the lysosomal inhibitor HCQ and clinically relevant proteasome inhibitors on myeloma cell lines and primary cells. Carfilzomib and bortezomib both induced immunoglobulin-containing aggregates in myeloma cells. HCQ significantly potentiated the effect of carfilzomib in both cell lines and in primary myeloma cells. In contrast, HCQ had little or no effects on the toxicity of bortezomib. Furthermore, cells adapted to tolerate high levels of carfilzomib could be re-sensitized to the drug by co-treatment with HCQ. Thus, we show that inhibition of lysosomal degradation can overcome carfilzomib resistance, suggesting that the role of autophagy in myeloma cells is dependent on type of proteasome inhibitor. In conclusion, attempts should be made to combine HCQ with carfilzomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Project description:Carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, has significantly improved the survival rate of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, but its clinical application is still restricted by drug resistance and cardiotoxicity. Here, we identified a novel proteasome inhibitor, D395, and assessed its efficacy in treating MM as well as its cardiotoxicity at the preclinical level. The activities of purified and intracellular proteasomes were measured to determine the effect of D395 on the proteasome. CCK-8 and flow cytometry experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of D395 on cell growth and apoptosis. The effects of D395 and carfilzomib on serum enzyme activity, echocardiography features, cardiomyocyte morphology, and hERG channels were also compared. In our study, D395 was highly cytotoxic to MM cell lines and primary MM cells but not normal cells, and it was well tolerated in vivo. Similar to carfilzomib, D395 inhibited osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, D395 exhibited lower cardiotoxicity than carfilzomib in all experiments. In conclusion, D395 is a novel irreversible proteasome inhibitor that has remarkable anti-MM activity and mild cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. However, efficacy of selective and potent Akt inhibition has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we, therefore, examined the biologic impact of selective and potent Akt inhibition by a novel allosteric inhibitor TAS-117. TAS-117 induced significant growth inhibition, associated with downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), selectively in MM cell lines with high baseline p-Akt. Cytotoxicity of TAS-117 was also observed in patient MM cells, but not in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, TAS-117 induced significant cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of BM stromal cells, associated with inhibition of IL6 secretion. Oral administration of TAS-117 significantly inhibited human MM cell growth in murine xenograft models. TAS-117 triggered apoptosis and autophagy, as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response with minimal expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a fatal ER stress marker. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity, associated with increased CHOP and PARP cleavage and blockade of bortezomib-induced p-Akt, suggesting that TAS-117 augments bortezomib-induced ER stress and apoptotic signaling. Carfilzomib-induced cytotoxicity was similarly enhanced by TAS-117. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity in vivo, associated with prolonged host survival. Our results show that selective and potent Akt inhibition by TAS-117 triggers anti-MM activities in vitro and in vivo, as well as enhances cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition, providing the preclinical framework for clinical evaluation of selective Akt inhibitors, alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in MM.