Alpha ketoglutarate levels, regulated by p53 and OGDH, determine autophagy and cell fate/apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.
ABSTRACT: Activated p53 can promote apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. Differences in energy metabolism can influence cell fate in response to activated p53. Nutlin-3a is a preclinical drug and small molecule activator of p53. Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) levels were reduced in cells sensitive to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis and increased in cells resistant to this apoptosis. Add-back of a cell-permeable αKG analog (DMKG) rescued cells from apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a. OGDH is a component of the αKGDH complex that converts αKG to succinate. OGDH knockdown increased endogenous αKG levels and also rescued cells from Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. We previously showed reduced autophagy and ATG gene expression contributes to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. DMKG and OGDH knockdown restored autophagy and ATG gene expression in Nutlin-3a-treated cells. These studies indicate αKG levels, regulated by p53 and OGDH, determine autophagy and apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis.
Project description:MDM2 (mouse double minute 2) inhibitors that activate p53 and induce apoptosis in a non-genotoxic manner are in clinical development for treatment of leukemias. P53 can modulate other programmed cell death pathways including autophagy both transcriptionally and non-transcriptionally. We investigated autophagy induction in acute leukemia by Nutlin 3a, a first-in-class MDM2 inhibitor. Nutlin 3a induced autophagy in a p53 dependent manner and transcriptional activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) is critical, as this effect is abrogated in AMPK -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Nutlin 3a induced autophagy appears to be pro-apoptotic as pharmacological (bafilomycin) or genetic inhibition (BECLIN1 knockdown) of autophagy impairs apoptosis induced by Nutlin 3a.
Project description:Nutlin-3a is a MDM2 antagonist and preclinical drug that activates p53. Cells with MDM2 gene amplification are especially prone to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, though the basis for this is unclear. Glucose metabolism can inhibit apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) produces NADPH that can protect cells from potentially lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS). We compared apoptosis and glucose metabolism in cancer cells with and without MDM2 gene amplification treated with Nutlin-3a. Apoptosis in MDM2-amplified cells was associated with a reduction in glycolysis and the PPP, reduced NADPH, increased ROS, and depletion of the transcription factor SP1, which normally promotes PPP gene expression. In contrast, glycolysis and the PPP were maintained or increased in MDM2 non-amplified cells treated with Nutlin-3a. This was dependent on p53-mediated AKT activation and was associated with maintenance of SP1 and continued expression of PPP genes. Knockdown or inhibition of AKT, SP1, or the PPP sensitized MDM2-non-amplified cells to apoptosis. The data indicate that p53 promotes AKT and SP1-dependent activation of the PPP that protects cells from Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. These findings provide insight into how glucose metabolism reduces Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, and also provide a mechanism for the heightened sensitivity of MDM2-amplified cells to apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.
Project description:Naturally oncolytic reovirus preferentially kills cancer cells, making it a promising cancer therapeutic. Mutations in tumour suppressor p53 are prevalent in cancers, yet the role of p53 in reovirus oncolysis is relatively unexplored.Human cancer cell lines were exposed to Nutlin-3a, reovirus or a combination of the two and cells were processed for reovirus titration, western blot, real-time PCR and apoptosis assay using Annexin V and 7-AAD staining. Confocal microscopy was used to determine translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit.We show that despite similar reovirus replication in p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) cells, stabilisation of p53 by Nutlin-3a significantly enhanced reovirus-induced apoptosis and hence virus release and dissemination while having no direct effect on virus replication. Enhanced apoptosis by Nutlin-3a was not observed in p53(-/-) or p53 knockdown cells; however, increased expression of Bax and p21 are required. Moreover, elevated NF-?B activation in reovirus-infected cells following Nutlin-3a treatment was necessary for enhanced reovirus-induced apoptosis, as synergistic cytotoxicity was overcome by specific NF-?B inhibitors.Nutlin-3a treatment enhances reovirus-induced apoptosis and virus spread through p53-dependent NF-?B activation, and combination of reovirus and Nutlin-3a might represent an improved therapy against cancers harbouring wild-type p53.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Despite concerted efforts to improve current therapies and develop novel clinical approaches, patient survival remains poor. As such, increasing attention has focused on developing new therapeutic strategies that specifically target the apoptotic pathway in order to improve treatment responses. Recently, nutlins, small-molecule antagonists of MDM2, have been developed to inhibit p53-MDM2 interaction and activate p53 signaling in cancer cells. Glioma cell lines and primary cultured glioblastoma cells were treated with nutlin-3a. Nutlin-3a induced p53-dependent G1- and G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioma cell lines with normal TP53 status. In addition, nutlin-arrested glioma cells show morphological features of senescence and persistent induction of p21 protein. Furthermore, senescence induced by nutlin-3a might be depending on mTOR pathway activity. In wild-type TP53 primary cultured cells, exposure to nutlin-3a resulted in variable degrees of apoptosis as well as cellular features of senescence. Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis and senescence were firmly dependent on the presence of functional p53, as revealed by the fact that glioblastoma cells with knockdown p53 with specific siRNA, or cells with mutated or functionally impaired p53 pathway, were completely insensitive to the drug. Finally, we also found that nutlin-3a increased response of glioma cells to radiation therapy. The results provide a basis for the rational use of MDM2 antagonists as a novel treatment option for glioblastoma patients.
Project description:p53 Activity is controlled in large part by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds p53 and promotes its degradation. The MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3a stabilizes p53 by blocking its interaction with MDM2. Several studies have supported the potential use of Nutlin-3a in cancer therapy. Two different p53 wild-type cancer cell lines (U2OS and HCT116) treated with Nutlin-3a for 24 hours accumulated 2N and 4N DNA content, suggestive of G(1) and G(2) phase cell cycle arrest. This coincided with increased p53 and p21 expression, hypophosphorylation of pRb, and depletion of Cyclin B1, Cyclin A, and CDC2. Upon removal of Nutlin-3a, 4N cells entered S phase and re-replicated their DNA without an intervening mitotic division, a process known as endoreduplication. p53-p21 pathway activation was required for the depletion of Cyclin B1, Cyclin A, and CDC2 in Nutlin-3a-treated cells and for endoreduplication after Nutlin-3a removal. Stable tetraploid clones could be isolated from Nutlin-3a treated cells, and these tetraploid clones were more resistant to ionizing radiation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis than diploid counterparts. These data indicate that transient Nutlin-3a treatment of p53 wild-type cancer cells can promote endoreduplication and the generation of therapy-resistant tetraploid cells. These findings have important implications regarding the use of Nutlin-3a in cancer therapy
Project description:Nutlin-3a is a preclinical drug that stabilizes p53 by blocking the interaction between p53 and MDM2. In our previous study, Nutlin-3a promoted a tetraploid G(1) arrest in two p53 wild-type cell lines (HCT116 and U2OS), and both cell lines underwent endoreduplication after Nutlin-3a removal. Endoreduplication gave rise to stable tetraploid clones resistant to therapy-induced apoptosis. Prior knowledge of whether cells are susceptible to Nutlin-induced endoreduplication and therapy resistance could help direct Nutlin-3a-based therapies. In the present study, Nutlin-3a promoted a tetraploid G(1) arrest in multiple p53 wild-type cell lines. However, some cell lines underwent endoreduplication to relatively high extents after Nutlin-3a removal whereas other cell lines did not. The resistance to endoreduplication observed in some cell lines was associated with a prolonged 4N arrest after Nutlin-3a removal. Knockdown of either p53 or p21 immediately after Nutlin-3a removal could drive endoreduplication in otherwise resistant 4N cells. Finally, 4N-arrested cells retained persistent p21 expression; expressed senescence-associated beta-galactosidase; displayed an enlarged, flattened phenotype; and underwent a proliferation block that lasted at least 2 weeks after Nutlin-3a removal. These findings demonstrate that transient Nutlin-3a treatment can promote an apparently permanent proliferative block in 4N cells of certain cell lines associated with persistent p21 expression and resistance to endoreduplication.
Project description:Molecular aberrations of the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK and/or Murine double minute (MDM2)/p53 signaling pathways have been reported in 80% and 50% of primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples and confer poor outcome. In this study, antileukemic effects of combined MEK inhibition by AZD6244 and nongenotoxic p53 activation by MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3a were investigated. Simultaneous blockade of MEK and MDM2 signaling by AZD6244 and Nutlin-3a triggered synergistic proapoptotic responses in AML cell lines [combination index (CI) = 0.06 +/- 0.03 and 0.43 +/- 0.03 in OCI/AML3 and MOLM13 cells, respectively] and in primary AML cells (CI = 0.52 +/- 0.01). Mechanistically, the combination upregulated levels of BH3-only proteins Puma and Bim, in part via transcriptional upregulation of the FOXO3a transcription factor. Suppression of Puma and Bim by short interfering RNA rescued OCI/AML3 cells from AZD/Nutlin-induced apoptosis. These results strongly indicate the therapeutic potential of combined MEK/MDM2 blockade in AML and implicate Puma and Bim as major regulators of AML cell survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Induction of cellular senescence through activation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein is a new option for treating proliferative disorders. Nutlins prevent the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 (murine double minute 2), a negative p53 regulator, from interacting with p53. We hypothesized that cell senescence induced by Nutlin-3a exerted therapeutic effects in pulmonary hypertension (PH) by limiting the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Nutlin-3a treatment of cultured human PA-SMCs resulted in cell growth arrest with the induction of senescence but not apoptosis; increased phosphorylated p53 protein levels; and expression of p53 target genes including p21, Bax, BTG2, and MDM2. Daily intraperitoneal Nutlin-3a treatment for 3 weeks dose-dependently reduced PH, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal pulmonary artery muscularization in mice exposed to chronic hypoxia or SU5416/hypoxia. Nutlin-3a treatment also partially reversed PH in chronically hypoxic or transgenic mice overexpressing the serotonin-transporter in SMCs (SM22-5HTT+ mice). In these mouse models of PH, Nutlin-3a markedly increased senescent p21-stained PA-SMCs; lung p53, p21, and MDM2 protein levels; and p21, Bax, PUMA, BTG2, and MDM2 mRNA levels; but induced only minor changes in control mice without PH. Marked MDM2 immunostaining was seen in both mouse and human remodeled pulmonary vessels, supporting the use of Nutlins as a PH-targeted therapy. PH prevention or reversal by Nutlin-3a required lung p53 stabilization and increased p21 expression, as indicated by the absence of Nutlin-3a effects in hypoxia-exposed p53(-/-) and p21(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Nutlin-3a may hold promise as a prosenescence treatment targeting PA-SMCs in PH.
Project description:Nutlin-3, an MDM2 inhibitor, activates p53, resulting in several types of cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Although p53 is mutated or deleted in approximately 50% of all cancers, p53 is still functionally active in the other 50%. Consequently, nutlin-3 and similar drugs could be candidates for neoadjuvant therapy in cancers with a functional p53. Cellular senescence is also a phenotype induced by p53 activation and plays a critical role in protecting against tumor development. In this report, we found that nutlin-3a can induce senescence in normal human fibroblasts. Nutlin-3a activated and repressed a large number of p53-dependent genes, including those encoding microRNAs. mir-34a, mir-34b, and mir-34c, which have recently been shown to be downstream effectors of p53-mediated senescence, were up-regulated, and inhibitor of growth 2 (ING2) expression was suppressed by nutlin-3a treatment. Two candidates for a p53-DNA binding consensus sequence were found in the ING2 promoter regulatory region; thus, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays and confirmed p53 binding directly to those sites. In addition, the luciferase activity of a construct containing the ING2 regulatory region was repressed after p53 activation. Antisense knockdown of ING2 induces p53-independent senescence, whereas overexpression of ING2 induces p53-dependent senescence. Taken together, we conclude that nutlin-3a induces senescence through p53 activation in normal human fibroblasts, and p53-mediated mir34a, mir34b, and mir34c up-regulation and ING2 down-regulation may be involved in the senescence pathway.